References of "Le Fevre, O"
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See detailThe XMM-LSS survey: the Class 1 cluster sample over the initial 5 deg(2) and its cosmological modelling
Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Adami, C. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2007), 382(3), 1289-1308

We present a sample of 29 galaxy clusters from the XMM-LSS survey over an area of some 5 deg(2) out to a redshift of z = 1.05. The sample clusters, which represent about half of the X-ray clusters ... [more ▼]

We present a sample of 29 galaxy clusters from the XMM-LSS survey over an area of some 5 deg(2) out to a redshift of z = 1.05. The sample clusters, which represent about half of the X-ray clusters identified in the region, follow well-defined X-ray selection criteria and are all spectroscopically confirmed. For all clusters, we provide X-ray luminosities and temperatures as well as masses, obtained from dedicated spatial and spectral fitting. The cluster distribution peaks around z = 0.3 and T = 1.5 keV, half of the objects being groups with a temperature below 2 keV. Our L-X-T(z) relation points towards self-similar evolution, but does not exclude other physically plausible models. Assuming that cluster scaling laws follow self-similar evolution, our number density estimates up to z = 1 are compatible with the predictions of the concordance cosmology and with the findings of previous ROSAT surveys. Our well-monitored selection function allowed us to demonstrate that the inclusion of selection effects is essential for the correct determination of the evolution of the L-X-T relation, which may explain the contradictory results from previous studies. Extensive simulations show that extending the survey area to 10 deg(2) has the potential to exclude the non-evolution hypothesis, but those constraints on more refined intracluster medium models will probably be limited by the large intrinsic dispersion of the L-X-T relation, whatever be the sample size. We further demonstrate that increasing the dispersion in the scaling laws increases the number of detectable clusters, hence generating further degeneracy [in addition to sigma(8), Omega(m), L-X-T(z)] in the cosmological interpretation of the cluster number counts. We provide useful empirical formulae for the cluster mass-flux and mass-count rate relations as well as a comparison between the XMM-LSS mass sensitivity and that of forthcoming Sunyaev-Zel'dovich surveys. [less ▲]

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See detailThe XMM-Large scale structure catalogue: X-ray sources and associated optical data. Version I
Pierre, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Pacaud, F. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2007), 382(1), 279-290

Following the presentation of the XMM-Large Scale Structure (XMM-LSS) survey X-ray source detection package by Pacaud et al., we provide the source lists for the first surveyed 5.5 deg(2). The catalogues ... [more ▼]

Following the presentation of the XMM-Large Scale Structure (XMM-LSS) survey X-ray source detection package by Pacaud et al., we provide the source lists for the first surveyed 5.5 deg(2). The catalogues pertain to the [0.5-2] and [2-10] keV bands and contain in total 3385 pointlike or extended sources above a detection likelihood of 15 in either band. The agreement with deep log N-log S is excellent. The main parameters considered are position, count rate, source extent with associated likelihood values. A set of additional quantities such as astrometric corrections and fluxes are further calculated while errors on the position and count rate are deduced from simulations. We describe the construction of the band-merged catalogue allowing rapid subsample selection and easy cross-correlation with external multiwavelength catalogues. A small optical Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey multiband subset of objects are associated with each source along with an X-ray/optical overlay. We make the full X-ray images available in FITS format. The data are available at the Centre de Donnees de Strasbourg and, in a more extended form, at the Milan XMM-LSS survey data base. [less ▲]

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See detailXMM-LSS survey: AGN classifications (Garcet+, 2007)
Garcet, O.; Gandhi, P.; Gosset, Eric ULg et al

Textual, factual or bibliographical database (2007)

We have used the most up-to-date X-ray catalog (Pierre et al., 2007, Cat. J/MNRAS/382/279) to define a sample of 612 X-ray selected point-like sources which have both a log-likelihood of detection >20 ... [more ▼]

We have used the most up-to-date X-ray catalog (Pierre et al., 2007, Cat. J/MNRAS/382/279) to define a sample of 612 X-ray selected point-like sources which have both a log-likelihood of detection >20 (this roughly corresponds to >3{sigma}) in the [2-10]keV band (see Pacaud et al., 2006MNRAS.372..578P, for full details), and a total number of counts >80 in the [0.5-10]keV band. (1 data file). [less ▲]

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See detailXMM-LSS catalogue. Version I. (Pierre+, 2007)
Pierre, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Pacaud, F. et al

Textual, factual or bibliographical database (2007)

We provide the source list for the first 5.5 surveyed square degrees of the XMM-LSS, with a total of 3385 point-like or extended sources above a detection likelihood of 15 in either 0.5-2 or 2-10keV bands ... [more ▼]

We provide the source list for the first 5.5 surveyed square degrees of the XMM-LSS, with a total of 3385 point-like or extended sources above a detection likelihood of 15 in either 0.5-2 or 2-10keV bands. The table at CDS contains the main parameters, while further parameters and data products (X-ray images and optical thumbnails) are available in the Milan XMM-LSS database site. (1 data file). [less ▲]

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See detail3{sigma} hard sample of XMDS survey (Tajer+, 2007)
Tajer, M.; Polletta, M.; Chiappetti, L. et al

Textual, factual or bibliographical database (2007)

Our goal is to probe the populations of obscured and unobscured AGN investigating their optical-IR and X-ray properties as a function of X-ray flux, luminosity and redshift within a hard X-ray selected ... [more ▼]

Our goal is to probe the populations of obscured and unobscured AGN investigating their optical-IR and X-ray properties as a function of X-ray flux, luminosity and redshift within a hard X-ray selected sample with wide multiwavelength coverage. We selected a sample of 136 X-ray sources detected at a significance of >=3{sigma} in the 2-10keV band (F[SUB]2-10[/SUB]>~10[SUP]-14[/SUP]erg/cm[SUP]2[/SUP]/s) in a ~1deg[SUP]2[/SUP] area in the XMM Medium Deep Survey (XMDS, Cat. ). The XMDS area is covered with optical photometry from the VVDS and CFHTLS surveys and infrared Spitzer data from the SWIRE survey. Based on the X-ray luminosity and X-ray to optical ratio, 132 sources are likely AGN, of which 122 have unambiguous optical - IR identification. The observed optical and IR spectral energy distributions of all identified sources are fitted with AGN/galaxy templates in order to classify them and compute photometric redshifts. X-ray spectral analysis is performed individually for sources with a sufficient number of counts and using a stacking technique for subsamples of sources at different flux levels. Hardness ratios are used to estimate X-ray absorption in individual weak sources. (1 data file). [less ▲]

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See detailStructure detection in the D1 CFHTLS deep field using accurate photometric redshifts: a benchmark
Mazure, A.; Adami, C.; Pierre, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2007), 467(1), 49-62

Aims. We investigate structures in the D1 CFHTLS deep field to test the method that will be applied to generate homogeneous samples of clusters and groups of galaxies in order to constrain the cosmology ... [more ▼]

Aims. We investigate structures in the D1 CFHTLS deep field to test the method that will be applied to generate homogeneous samples of clusters and groups of galaxies in order to constrain the cosmology and detailed physics of groups and clusters. Methods. An adaptive kernel technique was applied to galaxy catalogues. This technique needs none of the usual a-priori assumptions ( luminosity function, density profile, colour of galaxies) made with other methods. Its main drawback ( decrease in efficiency with increasing background) is overcome by the use of narrow slices in photometric redshift space. There are two main concerns in structure detection. One is false detection and the second, the evaluation of the selection function in particular if one wants complete samples. We deal with the first concern using random distributions. For the second, comparison with detailed simulations is foreseen but we used a pragmatic approach by comparing our results to GalICS simulations to check that our detection number is not totally at odds with cosmological simulations. We used the XMM-LSS survey and secured VVDS redshifts up to z similar to 1 to check individual detections. Results. We show that our detection method is basically able to recover 100% of the C1 XMM-LSS X-ray detections ( in the regions in common) in the correct redshift range plus several other candidates. Moreover, when spectroscopic data are available, we confirm our detections, even those without X-ray data. [less ▲]

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See detailObscured and unobscured AGN populations in a hard-X-ray selected sample of the XMDS survey
Tajer, M.; Polletta, M.; Chiappetti, L. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2007), 467(1), 73-91

Aims. Our goal is to probe the populations of obscured and unobscured AGN investigating their optical-IR and X-ray properties as a function of X-ray flux, luminosity and redshift within a hard X-ray ... [more ▼]

Aims. Our goal is to probe the populations of obscured and unobscured AGN investigating their optical-IR and X-ray properties as a function of X-ray flux, luminosity and redshift within a hard X-ray selected sample with wide multiwavelength coverage. Methods. We selected a sample of 136 X-ray sources detected at a significance of >= 3 sigma in the 2-10 keV band (F2-10 greater than or similar to 10(-1)4 erg cm(-2) s(-1)) in a similar to 1 deg(2) area in the XMM Medium Deep Survey (XMDS). The XMDS area is covered with optical photometry from the VVDS and CFHTLS surveys and infrared Spitzer data from the SWIRE survey. Based on the X-ray luminosity and X-ray to optical ratio, 132 sources are likely AGN, of which 122 have unambiguous optical - IR identification. The observed optical and IR spectral energy distributions of all identified sources are fitted with AGN/galaxy templates in order to classify them and compute photometric redshifts. X-ray spectral analysis is performed individually for sources with a sufficient number of counts and using a stacking technique for subsamples of sources at different flux levels. Hardness ratios are used to estimate X-ray absorption in individual weak sources. Results. 70% of the AGN are fitted by a type 2 AGN or a star forming galaxy template. We group them together in a single class of "optically obscured" AGN. These have "red" optical colors and in about 60% of cases show significant X-ray absorption (N-H > 10(22) cm(-2)). Sources with SEDs typical of type 1 AGN have "blue" optical colors and exhibit X-ray absorption in about 30% of cases. The stacked X-ray spectrum of obscured AGN is flatter than that of type 1 AGN and has an average spectral slope of Gamma = 1.6. The subsample of objects fitted by a star forming galaxy template has an even harder stacked spectrum, with Gamma similar to 1.2-1.3. The obscured fraction is larger at lower fluxes, lower redshifts and lower luminosities. X-ray absorption is less common than "optical" obscuration and its incidence is nearly constant with redshift and luminosity. This implies that at high luminosities X-ray absorption is not necessarily related to optical obscuration. The estimated surface densities of obscured, unobscured AGN and type 2 QSOs are respectively 138, 59 and 35 deg(-2) at F > 10-14 erg cm(-2) s(-1). [less ▲]

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See detailSpectral Energy Distributions of Hard X-Ray Selected Active Galactic Nuclei in the XMM-Newton Medium Deep Survey
Polletta, M.; Tajer, M.; Maraschi, L. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2007), 663

We present the SEDs of a hard X-ray selected sample containing 136 sources with F[SUB]2-10keV[/SUB]>10[SUP]-14[/SUP] erg cm[SUP]-2[/SUP] s[SUP]-1[/SUP] 132 are AGNs. The sources are detected in a 1 deg ... [more ▼]

We present the SEDs of a hard X-ray selected sample containing 136 sources with F[SUB]2-10keV[/SUB]>10[SUP]-14[/SUP] erg cm[SUP]-2[/SUP] s[SUP]-1[/SUP] 132 are AGNs. The sources are detected in a 1 deg[SUP]2[/SUP] area of the XMM-Newton Medium Deep Survey where optical data from the VVDS and CFHTLS and infrared data from the SWIRE survey are available. Based on a SED fitting technique we derive photometric redshifts with sigma(1+z)=0.11 and 6% of outliers and identify AGN signatures in 83% of the objects. This fraction is higher than derived when a spectroscopic classification is available. The remaining 17[SUP]+9[/SUP][SUB]-6[/SUB]% of AGNs show star-forming galaxy SEDs (SF class). The sources with AGN signatures are divided in two classes, AGN1 (33[SUP]+6[/SUP][SUB]-1[/SUB]%) and AGN2 (50[SUP]+6[/SUP][SUB]-11[/SUB]%). The AGN1 and AGN2 classes include sources whose SEDs are fitted by type 1 and type 2 AGN templates, respectively. On average, AGN1s show soft X-ray spectra, consistent with being unabsorbed, while AGN2s and SFs show hard X-ray spectra, consistent with being absorbed. The analysis of the average SEDs as a function of X-ray luminosity shows a reddening of the infrared SEDs, consistent with a decreasing contribution from the host galaxy at higher luminosities. The AGNs in the SF classes are likely obscured in the mid-infrared, as suggested by their low L[SUB]3-20mum[/SUB]/L[SUP]corr[/SUP][SUB]0.5-10keV[/SUB] ratios. We confirm the previously found correlation for AGNs between the radio luminosity and the X-ray and the mid-infrared luminosities. The X-ray-radio correlation can be used to identify heavily absorbed AGNs. However, the estimated radio fluxes for the missing AGN population responsible for the bulk of the background at E>10 keV are too faint to be detected even in the deepest current radio surveys. [less ▲]

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See detailThe XMM large scale structure survey: optical vs. X-ray classifications of active galactic nuclei and the unified scheme
Garcet, Olivier ULg; Gandhi, P.; Gosset, Eric ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2007), 474

Aims.Our goal is to characterize AGN populations by comparing their X-ray and optical classifications within the framework of the standard orientation-based unified scheme. Methods: We present a sample of ... [more ▼]

Aims.Our goal is to characterize AGN populations by comparing their X-ray and optical classifications within the framework of the standard orientation-based unified scheme. Methods: We present a sample of 99 spectroscopically identified (R <= 22 mag) X-ray selected point sources in the XMM-LSS survey which are significantly detected (>=3sigma) in the [ 2-10] keV band with fluxes between 8 × 10[SUP]-15[/SUP] and 8 × 10[SUP]-14[/SUP] erg s[SUP]-1[/SUP] cm[SUP]-2[/SUP], and which have more than 80 counts. We have compared their X-ray and optical classifications. To this end, we performed an X-ray spectral analysis for all of these 99 X-ray sources in order to assess whether they are intrinsically absorbed or not. The X-ray classification is based on the measured intrinsic column density. The optical classification is based on the measured FWHM of the permitted emission lines, the absence of broad lines being due to obscuration within the framework of the standard AGN unified scheme. Results: Introducing the fourfold point correlation coefficient r, we find a mild correlation between the X-ray and the optical classifications (r = 0.28), as up to 32 X-ray sources out of 99 have differing X-ray and optical classifications: on one hand, 10% of the type 1 sources (7/32) present broad emission lines in their optical spectra and strong absorption (N{H}[SUP]int[/SUP] >= 10[SUP]22[/SUP] cm[SUP]-2[/SUP]) in the X-rays. These objects are highly luminous AGN lying at high redshift and thus dilution effects by the host galaxy light are totally ruled out, their discrepant nature being an intrinsic property instead. Their X-ray luminosities and redshifts distributions are consistent with those of the unabsorbed X-ray sources with broad emission lines (L{2-10} 4 × 10[SUP]44[/SUP] erg s[SUP]-1[/SUP]; z 1.9). On the other hand, 25/32 are moderate luminosity (L{2-10} <= 5 × 10[SUP]43[/SUP] erg s[SUP]-1[/SUP]) AGN, which are both unabsorbed in the X-rays and only present narrow emission lines in their optical spectra. Based on their line ratios in the optical, the majority of them have an optical spectrum which is more representative of the host galaxy rather than of a reddened AGN. We finally infer that dilution of the AGN by the host galaxy seems to account for their nature. 5/25 have been defined as Seyfert 2 based on their optical spectra. In conclusion, most of these 32 discrepant cases can be accounted for by the standard AGN unified scheme, as its predictions are not met for only 12% of the 99 X-ray sources. Table 4 and Figs. [see full text]-[see full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org [less ▲]

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See detailThe XMM Large-Scale Structure survey: a well-controlled X-ray cluster sample over the D1 CFHTLS area
Pierre, M.; Pacaud, F.; Duc, P. A. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2006), 372(2), 591-608

We present the XMM Large-Scale Structure Survey (XMM-LSS) cluster catalogue corresponding to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey D1 area. The list contains 13 spectroscopically confirmed, X ... [more ▼]

We present the XMM Large-Scale Structure Survey (XMM-LSS) cluster catalogue corresponding to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey D1 area. The list contains 13 spectroscopically confirmed, X-ray selected galaxy clusters over 0.8 deg(2) to a redshift of unity and so constitutes the highest density sample of clusters to date. Cluster X-ray bolometric luminosities range from 0.03 to 5 x 10(44) erg s(-1). In this study, we describe our catalogue construction procedure: from the detection of X-ray cluster candidates to the compilation of a spectroscopically confirmed cluster sample with an explicit selection function. The procedure further provides basic X-ray products such as cluster temperature, flux and luminosity. We detected slightly more clusters with (0.5-2.0 keV) X-ray fluxes of > 2 x 10(-14) erg s(-1) cm(-2) than we expected based on expectations from deep ROSAT surveys. We also present the luminosity-temperature relation for our nine brightest objects possessing a reliable temperature determination. The slope is in good agreement with the local relation, yet compatible with a luminosity enhancement for the 0.15 < z < 0.35 objects having 1 < T < 2 keV, a population that the XMM-LSS is identifying systematically for the first time. The present study permits the compilation of cluster samples from XMM images whose selection biases are understood. This allows, in addition to studies of large-scale structure, the systematic investigation of cluster scaling law evolution, especially for low mass X-ray groups which constitute the bulk of our observed cluster population. All cluster ancillary data (images, profiles, spectra) are made available in electronic form via the XMM-LSS cluster data base. [less ▲]

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See detailThe XMM-LSS survey - The XMDS/VVDS 4 sigma catalogue
Chiappetti, L.; Tajer, M.; Trinchieri, G. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2005), 439(1), 413-425

We present a first catalogue of X-ray sources resulting from the central area of the XMM-LSS (Large Scale Structure survey). We describe the reduction procedures and the database tools we developed and ... [more ▼]

We present a first catalogue of X-ray sources resulting from the central area of the XMM-LSS (Large Scale Structure survey). We describe the reduction procedures and the database tools we developed and used to derive a well defined catalogue of X-ray sources. The present catalogue is limited to a sub-sample of 286 sources detected at 4 sigma in the 1 deg(2) area covered by the photometric VVDS (VIRMOS VLT Deep Survey), which allows us to provide optical and radio identifications. We also discuss the X-ray properties of a larger X-ray sample of 536 sources detected at > 4 sigma in the full 3 deg(2) area of the XMM Medium Deep Survey (XMDS) independently of the optical identification. We also derive the log N - log S relationship for a sample of more than one thousand sources that we discuss in the context of other surveys at similar fluxes. [less ▲]

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See detailXMDS/VVDS 4{sigma} catalogue (Chiappetti+, 2005)
Chiappetti, L.; Tajer, M.; Trinchieri, G. et al

Textual, factual or bibliographical database (2005)

We present a catalogue of 286 X-ray sources with their optical identification taken from the XMDS survey (using the XMM-Newton EPIC instrument). This first version is limited to sources detected at 4 ... [more ▼]

We present a catalogue of 286 X-ray sources with their optical identification taken from the XMDS survey (using the XMM-Newton EPIC instrument). This first version is limited to sources detected at 4{sigma} at least in one energy band, AND falling in the area covered by the optical VVDS survey. (1 data file). [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary Results from the XMM Medium Deep Survey
Maraschi, L.; Tajer, M.; Trinchieri, G. et al

in Mújica, Raúl; Maiolino, Roberto (Eds.) Multiwavelength AGN Surveys, Proceedings of the Guillermo Haro Conference (2004, January 01)

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See detailThe XMM Large Scale Structure Survey and its multi-lambda follow-up
Pierre, M.; Alloin, D.; Altieri, B. et al

Article for general public (2001)

We present a unique European project which aims at mapping the matter distribution in the distant universe from hundreds of megaparsecs to galaxy scales. This comprehensive scientific approach constitutes ... [more ▼]

We present a unique European project which aims at mapping the matter distribution in the distant universe from hundreds of megaparsecs to galaxy scales. This comprehensive scientific approach constitutes a new step in the synergy between space- and ground-based observatory resources and therefore a building block of the forthcoming Virtual Observatory. [less ▲]

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See detailESO key programme, gravitational lensing: quasars and radio galaxies; a status report
Surdej, Jean ULg; Angonin, M. C.; Arnaud, J. et al

in Distribution of Matter in the Universe (1992, December 01)

The scientific background and objectives of our ESO Key Programme are first recalled. A brief account of our research activities (observing runs at ESO and elsewhere, meetings, etc.) is then given ... [more ▼]

The scientific background and objectives of our ESO Key Programme are first recalled. A brief account of our research activities (observing runs at ESO and elsewhere, meetings, etc.) is then given. Preliminary scientific results are presented concerning 1) our observational database for highly luminous quasars and distant powerful radiogalaxies; 2) speckle observations of highly luminous quasars; 3) the photometric monitoring and 4) detailed studies of several known gravitational lenses; 5) optical observations of 3C and 4C radio galaxies and 6) of the well known Einstein ring MG 1131+0456. [less ▲]

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See detailMG1131 + 0456 - Discovery of the optical Einstein ring with the NTT
Hammer, F.; Angonin, M. C.; Le Fevre, O. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1991), 250

Deep optical imaging and spectroscopy have been obtained for the well known radio Einstein ring MG1131 + 0456 with the ESO/NTT. The direct CCD frames show a red emission excess at the exact location of ... [more ▼]

Deep optical imaging and spectroscopy have been obtained for the well known radio Einstein ring MG1131 + 0456 with the ESO/NTT. The direct CCD frames show a red emission excess at the exact location of the radio ring. Subsequent subtraction of the lensing galaxy, assumed to be an elliptical galaxy, results in the detection of an optical ring which is strikingly similar to the radio ring. Gravitational lensing models, including source reconstruction, predicts that the source is likely a radio-galaxy for which both the optical and extended radio emissions are sufficiently distorted by the foreground lensing galaxy as to produce a nearly complete ring. The present spectroscopy and broad band photometry suggest that the lensing galaxy has a spectral energy distribution typical of a nonevolved elliptical, tentatively at z of 0.85. The radio-galaxy associated with the radio-ring is likely to be an elliptical at larger redshift, tentatively of 1.13. [less ▲]

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See detailProfiles of a Key Programme: Gravitational Lensing
Surdej, Jean ULg; Arnaud, J.; Borgeest, U. et al

in The Messenger (1989), 55

Prior to Professor van der Laan's enquiry, in the March 1988 issue of the Messenger, on the general interest among astronomers from the European community to possibly participate in Key Programmes (KPs ... [more ▼]

Prior to Professor van der Laan's enquiry, in the March 1988 issue of the Messenger, on the general interest among astronomers from the European community to possibly participate in Key Programmes (KPs) at the European 80uthern Observatory, at least three distinct groups (including more than half of the above authors) were already involved in the study of "gravitational lensing" effects (see box on pages 10-11). Observations were being performed with the help of various telescopes on La 8illa as weil as at other observatories (VLA, CFHT, Palomar, Kitt Peak, etc.). [less ▲]

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