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See detailLes peuplements à bouleau en forêt wallonne: reflet de la sylviculture du 20ème siècle
Dubois, Héloïse ULg; Latte, Nicolas ULg; Claessens, Hugues ULg

in FORÊT.NATURE (2017), 142

Le bouleau est présent sous des formes diverses dans nos forêts. La place qu’il occupe en forêt wallonne est souvent le reflet d’une méconnaissance et du peu d’estime que lui portaient les sylviculteurs ... [more ▼]

Le bouleau est présent sous des formes diverses dans nos forêts. La place qu’il occupe en forêt wallonne est souvent le reflet d’une méconnaissance et du peu d’estime que lui portaient les sylviculteurs. Par une typologie des peuplements, l’article fait le tri parmi les contextes où se trouve le bouleau et discute de leurs potentialités sylvicoles dans un contexte changeant qui pourrait faire la part belle à cette essence vigoureuse et aux atouts variés. [less ▲]

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See detailComment le changement climatique influence-t-il la croissance du hêtre (Fagus sylvatica L.) le long du gradient bioclimatique de la Belgique ? Une approche dendroécologique.
Latte, Nicolas ULg

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Health anomalies (e.g., worsening crown conditions) on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) observed throughout Europe since the 1990s have raised growing concerns among foresters, particularly about the future ... [more ▼]

Health anomalies (e.g., worsening crown conditions) on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) observed throughout Europe since the 1990s have raised growing concerns among foresters, particularly about the future behavior of the species in the face of climate change. This PhD research examined the relationship between beech and its environment in the context of global changes using dendroecology, combination of dendrochronology and forest ecology. The radial growth was used to evaluate the effects of global changes, particularly climate change, on beech development and vitality over time along a bioclimatic gradient in Belgium. Various analyses were carried out using dendrochronological tools (pointer years, mean sensitivity, growth-climate correlation, etc.) and modeling approaches (linear and non-linear mixed models, partial least squares regression, etc.) considering several scales: tree, stand and region. Results show that climate predominantly influenced beech growth since the mid-20th century and did so rather uniformly across Belgium. Beech mean sensitivity increased mainly in response to the higher frequency and intensity of summer heat waves and spring droughts. Isolated but pronounced annual growth reductions induced a gradual diminution of mean growth. The increasing influence of climate progressively concealed the effect of local site growing conditions inducing strong between-sites synchronization along the bioclimatic gradient. Increasing mean sensitivity and decreasing mean growth were more pronounced in lowlands than in uplands, and for a given site, older trees are more affected than younger ones. Although mean sensitivity increases and mean growth decreases naturally with age, the climate change effect was much more important than the age effect. Furthermore, within a tree, along the main stem, climate sensitivity slightly decreased from breast height to crown base and strongly increased from crown base to tree top. These results were interpreted based on ecophysiological knowledge of beech. The influences of silviculture, soil compaction and nitrogen deposition (as part of atmospheric pollution) as well as the consequences of the past and future climate change on beech were discussed. Comparisons with other studies in Europe highlighted that beech is affected on a large part of its natural distribution range (except in high altitude and high latitude). Contrary to what one might think, beech is not only affected in the southern limit (Mediterranean). Although growing conditions are more favorable in Belgium, beech has also more to lose. Beech has coped with global change up to now. Although its climate sensitivity increased and its mean growth decreased, diebacks observed these last years in Belgium were scarce and generally scattered. However, considering the upcoming climate change, the phytosanitary risk will undeniable increased. Forest policy should now integrate that risk and prepare managers to anticipate and prevent it. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution récente des surface forestières et de la régénération des coupes rases en Wallonie
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Perin, Jérôme ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg

in FORÊT.NATURE (2016), 141

Une gestion réfléchie de la ressource forestière à l’échelle d’une région, telle que la Wallonie, nécessite de connaitre son état et de prédire son devenir. Pour y parvenir, nous proposons une méthode ... [more ▼]

Une gestion réfléchie de la ressource forestière à l’échelle d’une région, telle que la Wallonie, nécessite de connaitre son état et de prédire son devenir. Pour y parvenir, nous proposons une méthode relativement simple, combinant trois sources de données : l’inventaire forestier régional, la photo-interprétation d’orthoimages et une enquête de terrain, ayant comme finalité de décrire finement l’évolution des surfaces forestières, les peuplements mis à blanc et la régénération des coupes rases. [less ▲]

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See detailNational Forest Inventories - Assessment of Wood Availability and Use: Belgium (Wallonia)
Alderweireld, Matthieu; Rondeux, Jacques; Latte, Nicolas ULg et al

in Vidal, Claude; Alberdi, Iciar A.; Mateo, Laura Hernández (Eds.) et al National Forest Inventories - Assessment of Wood Availability and Use (2016)

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See detailLe bouleau, une essence qui s'impose. Description de la ressource dans son aire de distribution
Dubois, Héloïse ULg; Latte, Nicolas ULg; Lecomte, Hugues et al

in FORÊT.NATURE (2016), 140

L'essentiel de la ressource en bouleau (verruqueux et pubescent) se situe en Russie et en Scandinavie (15 milliards de m³) et cette ressource augmente graduellement depuis plusieurs années. Il y est ... [more ▼]

L'essentiel de la ressource en bouleau (verruqueux et pubescent) se situe en Russie et en Scandinavie (15 milliards de m³) et cette ressource augmente graduellement depuis plusieurs années. Il y est fortement valorisé en sciage, déroulage et trituration. En Europe de l'Ouest, cette croissance s'observe aussi, même si seulement 1 % de la ressource s'y concentre (dû notamment à la plus grande diversité d'essences commerciales présentes). En Wallonie, les évolutions du contexte socio-économique et environnemental jouent en faveur d'une augmentation de la présence du bouleau (parcelles non reboisées, entretien insuffisant, mélanges spontanés...). Le bouleau représente souvent une belle opportunité pour les mélanges, une excellente essence d'accompagnement et une diversification de la production. Mais, sans une sylviculture adaptée, les grumes sont généralement de faible dimension et présentent de nombreux défauts. C'est le cas de l'essentiel de la ressource actuelle en Wallonie. Aujourd'hui, les besoins sont de mieux le connaître, notamment les opportunités de valorisation, et d'aboutir à des recommandations sylvicoles. Il ne s'agit donc pas de vouloir faire du bouleau à tout prix mais plutôt de tirer profit d'une étape transitoire de la succession forestière. [less ▲]

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See detailMajor Changes in Growth Rate and Growth Variability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Related to Soil Alteration and Climate Change in Belgium
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Perin, Jérôme ULg; Kint, Vincent et al

in Forests (2016), 7(174),

Global change—particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition—has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth ... [more ▼]

Global change—particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition—has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth (Fagus sylvatica L.) were investigated for the past 80 years in Belgium, using non-linear mixed effects models on ring-width chronologies of 149 mature and dominant beech trees (87–186 years old). The effects of the developmental stage (i.e., increasing tree size) were filtered out in order to focus on time-dependent growth changes. Beech radial growth was divided into a low-frequency signal (=growth rate), mainly influenced by forest management and atmospheric deposition, and into a high-frequency variability (≈mean sensitivity), mainly influenced by climate change. Between 1930 and 2008, major long-term and time-dependent changes were highlighted. The beech growth rate has decreased by about 38% since the 1950–1960s, and growth variability has increased by about 45% since the 1970–1980s. Our results indicate that (1) before the 1980s, beech growth rate was not predominantly impacted by climate change but rather by soil alteration (i.e., soil compaction and/or nitrogen deposition); and (2) since the 1980s, climate change induced more frequent and intense yearly growth reductions that amplified the growth rate decrease. The highlighted changes were similar in the two ecoregions of Belgium, although more pronounced in the lowlands than in the uplands. [less ▲]

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See detailGrowth partitioning within beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) varies in response to summer heat waves and related droughts
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Lebourgeois, François; Claessens, Hugues ULg

in Trees (2016), 30(1), 189-201

To characterize growth partitioning within the tree and its responses to climate, we studied 8 dominant beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) of a pure, even-aged 98-year-old stand in Belgium. We sampled 10 ... [more ▼]

To characterize growth partitioning within the tree and its responses to climate, we studied 8 dominant beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) of a pure, even-aged 98-year-old stand in Belgium. We sampled 10 disks along the stem from breast height to treetop and examined the inter-annual patterns of, and discrepancies between, ring-area and volume increments by performing detailed stem analysis and dendroecological investigations. Although the common inter-annual variation among all increment series was high, we observed increasing growth variability and climate sensitivity with height, leading to notable bole-crown discrepancies. Both the common inter-annual variation and bole-crown discrepancies were mainly driven by summer heat waves and related droughts of the previous year, and spring droughts of the current year. Despite these discrepancies, the radial growth at breast height can be considered a good estimate of the tree volume increment but not for the purpose of focusing on climatic effects of isolated years. Extreme climatic conditions increase the risk of inaccurate estimations. The results of the present study are discussed in relation to tree ecophysiology hypotheses. [less ▲]

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See detailDendroécologie du hêtre en forêt de Soignes : Les cernes des arbres nous renseignent sur les changements récents et futurs
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Kint, Vincent; Drouet, Thomas et al

in FORÊT.NATURE (2015), 137(Octobre-Novembre-Décembre), 24-37

La dendroécologie combine la dendrochronologie et l’écologie forestière. Elle a permis d’analyser les cernes des hêtres de la forêt de Soignes et de comparer les tendances dans le contexte plus large des ... [more ▼]

La dendroécologie combine la dendrochronologie et l’écologie forestière. Elle a permis d’analyser les cernes des hêtres de la forêt de Soignes et de comparer les tendances dans le contexte plus large des hêtraies de Belgique. Depuis la fin des années ‘70, le hêtre devient de plus en plus sensible au climat, surtout en Soignes. L’augmentation de la fréquence et de l’intensité des sécheresses printanières et des canicules ont affecté négativement la croissance annuelle des hêtres. Les prévisions climatiques pour le 21e siècle présage une rapide aggravation. Les risques encourus par l’essence aboutissent à de nouvelles réflexions sur la gestion de la hêtraie de Soignes. Pour les peuplements existants : une sylviculture dynamique avec des éclaircies fortes et fréquentes afin de limiter la concurrence pour les ressources et favoriser la croissance individuelle des arbres. Pour la régénération des vieilles hêtraies : les remplacer par d’autres essences plus tolérantes ou favoriser le mélange et confiner le hêtre aux surfaces limitées des stations les plus fraîches. Un risque mesuré pourrait être pris en regard du rôle patrimonial des hêtraies cathédrales en Soignes. Toutefois, ce faciès peut être obtenu avec d’autres essences. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel procedure to measure shrinkage-free tree-rings from very large wood samples combining photogrammetry, high-resolution image processing, and GIS tools
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Beeckman, Hans; Bauwens, Sébastien ULg et al

in Dendrochronologia (2015), 34

We present a new procedure for wood sampling and tree-ring measurement that can be used for dendrochronological investigation on very large trees, specifically adapted for tropical rainforest species ... [more ▼]

We present a new procedure for wood sampling and tree-ring measurement that can be used for dendrochronological investigation on very large trees, specifically adapted for tropical rainforest species. This procedure takes advantage of the technological developments in computing, image processing, and geographic information systems (GIS) to overcome the technical limitations of the currently used methods. Two types of wood samples can be used (stem disks and/or bars) depending on tree diameter, and the difficulty of ring delineation and crossdating. Bars are an effective compromise between cores and disks. We developed an application combining several programs (Excel, R, ArcGIS, and MapWinGIS) in the Windows operating system for semi-automatic measurement of tree-rings from high-resolution images of the sanded cross-section. Using an innovative method to reverse the wood shrinkage resulting from the drying process, tree-ring measurement can be performed on shrinkage-free images, thus referring to the actual growth of the tree. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased tree-growth synchronization of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in response to climate change in northwestern Europe
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Lebourgeois, François; Claessens, Hugues ULg

in Dendrochronologia (2015), 33

To better understand how the radial growth of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) high forests has responded to climate change, we selected 12 sites (137 trees) with optimal growing conditions along a W − E ... [more ▼]

To better understand how the radial growth of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) high forests has responded to climate change, we selected 12 sites (137 trees) with optimal growing conditions along a W − E altitudinal gradient (67–590 m) in Belgium. We evaluated temporal changes in growth response to climate by using pointer year analysis, moving mean sensitivities (1860–2011), and moving bootstrapped correlation coefficients (1952–2011). The strongest driving climatic variables were identified by using the partial least squares method. The common patterns of growth trends, pointer years, and mean sensitivities among sites provided evidences for the impact of environmental changes operating at a regional scale. The results of growth–climate analysis indicated that these changes were strongly influenced by the climatic conditions of the previous year. The climate sensitivity of beech increased progressively in response to more frequent and intense heat waves and warming-related droughts, especially during recent decades, leading to remarkable inter-site synchronization. The changes were much more pronounced for sites located in lowlands (<300 m). The differences in growth responses along the altitudinal gradient and the consequences of warming for beech growth and physiology are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence du changement climatique sur l'accroissement du hêtre en Wallonie
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Claessens, Hugues ULg

Conference (2014, January 28)

Depuis quelques décennies, des signes d’affaiblissement de plus en plus marqués ont été observés sur le hêtre (Fagus sylvatica L.) un peu partout en Europe. L’inquiétude grandissante des gestionnaires ... [more ▼]

Depuis quelques décennies, des signes d’affaiblissement de plus en plus marqués ont été observés sur le hêtre (Fagus sylvatica L.) un peu partout en Europe. L’inquiétude grandissante des gestionnaires forestiers s’inscrit dans la problématique complexe du changement climatique. Une étude dendroécologique a donc été réalisée afin de mieux comprendre la relation entre l’accroissement du hêtre et son environnement. Des mesures de cernes ont été effectuées sur des échantillons de bois issus de 158 hêtres sélectionnés dans douze hêtraies (de 84 à 206 ans) situées le long du gradient climatique de Wallonie (de 67 à 590 m d’altitude). L’analyse de l’évolution temporelle de l’accroissement et de sa relation avec le climat a abouti à 3 résultats majeurs : (1) l’accroissement du hêtre a augmenté à partir des années 30 puis à diminuer de manière soutenue à partir des années 1980, (2) la sensibilité climatique des hêtraies a aussi fortement augmenté et cette augmentation est plus forte pour les peuplements de base altitude, et (3) les températures plus élevées en été et en début d’automne ont un impact négatif de plus en plus prononcé sur l’accroissement. Le réchauffement global rend les arbres de plus en plus dépendants de l’eau disponible (précipitation et sol). Les sécheresses et canicules plus fréquentes et intenses semblent progressivement affaiblir les arbres que puissent de plus en plus dans leur réserve. L’étude comprend une discussion complète intégrant l’interprétation écophysiologique des résultats mis en évidence. [less ▲]

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See detailDendrochronological analysis of large tropical trees: a new approach combining photogrammetry, image processing and GIS tools
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Bauwens, Sébastien ULg; Bonnet, Stéphanie ULg et al

Conference (2014, January 17)

Tree-ring analysis of tropical trees is especially time-consuming for the largest trees. Because of large dimensions and irregular shapes, the tree-ring measurements are generally achieved (semi-)manually ... [more ▼]

Tree-ring analysis of tropical trees is especially time-consuming for the largest trees. Because of large dimensions and irregular shapes, the tree-ring measurements are generally achieved (semi-)manually directly from wood samples. The aim of this study is to present a new approach of tree-ring measurements combining photogrammetry, image processing and GIS tools that is appropriate for very large wood samples. Disks are sawed from felled trees above buttress. Small diameters holes are drilled to the disk surface to be later used as control points. Images are taken with an off-the-shelf camera and assembled with PhotoScan in order to produce an orthoimage of the green disk surface. After drying, disks are sanded (grain 80-400) and scanned with a flatbed scanner (A3 size) at high resolution (1200-2400 dpi). The scans are then mosaicked together with Autopano into one single image. Based on the control points of the green orthoimage, the ‘dry’ image is georeferenced and rectified. Using a GIS environment, tree-rings are delimited and ring widths and/or areas measured. Disks are entirely digitalized into high resolution images (0.02-0.04mm per pixel) offering a wide range of analysis possibilities. The image-based procedure reduces cost of disk handling and transportation, facilitates data processing and transfer and, is adaptable to any type of wood samples. [less ▲]

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See detailDendroecology and Dendroclimatology of a Tasmanian Bog Forest
Balanzategui, Daniel; Copenheaver, Carolyn; Frank, David et al

Poster (2014, January 14)

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See detailInfluence du changement climatique sur l'accroissement du hêtre en Wallonie
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Claessens, Hugues ULg

in Forêt Wallonne (2014), (129), 46-47

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See detailDescription of a new procedure to estimate the carbon stocks of all forest pools and impact assessment of methodological choices on the estimates
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg et al

in European Journal of Forest Research (2013), 132

Forest ecosystems play a major role in atmospheric carbon sequestration and emission. Comparable organic carbon stock estimates at temporal and spatial scales for all forest pools are needed for ... [more ▼]

Forest ecosystems play a major role in atmospheric carbon sequestration and emission. Comparable organic carbon stock estimates at temporal and spatial scales for all forest pools are needed for scientific investigations and political purposes. Therefore, we developed a new carbon stock (CS) estimation procedure that combines forest inventory and soil and litter geodatabases at a regional scale (southern Belgium). This procedure can be implemented in other regions and countries on condition that available external carbon soil and litter data can be linked to forest inventory plots. The presented procedure includes a specific CS estimation method for each of the following forest pools and subpools (in brackets): living biomass (aboveground and belowground), deadwood (dead trees and snags, coarse woody debris and stumps), litter, and soil. The total CS of the forest was estimated at 86 Tg (185 Mg ha-1). Soil up to 0.2 m depth, living biomass, litter, and deadwood CSs account, respectively, for 48, 47, 4, and 1 % of the total CS. The analysis of the CS variation within the pools across ecoregions and forest types revealed in particular that: (1) the living biomass CS of broadleaved forests exceeds that of coniferous forests, (2) the soil and litter CSs of coniferous forest exceed those of broadleaved forests, and (3) beech stands come at the top in carbon stocking capacity. Because our estimates differ sometimes significantly from the previous studies, we compared different methods and their impacts on the estimates. We demonstrated that estimates may vary highly, from -16 to ?12 %, depending on the selected methods. Methodological choices are thus essential especially for estimating CO2 fluxes by the stock change approach. The sources of error and the accuracy of the estimates were discussed extensively. [less ▲]

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See detailLa dendroécologie : un outil pour affiner nos connaissances sur l'autécologie des essences forestières
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Debruxelles, Jérôme ULg; Sohier, Catherine ULg et al

in Forêt Wallonne (2012), (116),

La dendrochronologie est une discipline de plus en plus utilisée dans la recherche forestière pour évaluer l'impact du climat sur la croissance des arbres. Elle permet de lire l'histoire des arbres dans ... [more ▼]

La dendrochronologie est une discipline de plus en plus utilisée dans la recherche forestière pour évaluer l'impact du climat sur la croissance des arbres. Elle permet de lire l'histoire des arbres dans les cernes de leur bois où sont enregistrés les événements du passé. Si l'on accepte le principe "d'uniformité", la manière dont les arbres ont réagi face à ces événements nous renseigne sur leur comportement futur face aux mêmes genres d'aléas. L'article présente synthétiquement le concept et les techniques de la dendroécologie, c'est-à-dire la dendrochronologie au service de l'autécologie des essences forestières, et les illustre avec quelques exemples de résultats. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing deadwood using harmonized National Forest Inventory data
Rondeux, Jacques ULg; Bertini, Roberta; Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie et al

in Forest Science (2012), 58(3), 269-283

Deadwood plays an important role in forest ecological processes and is fundamental for the maintenance of biological diversity. Further, it is a forest carbon pool whose assessment must be reported for ... [more ▼]

Deadwood plays an important role in forest ecological processes and is fundamental for the maintenance of biological diversity. Further, it is a forest carbon pool whose assessment must be reported for international agreements dealing with protection and forest management sustainability. Despite wide agreement on deadwood monitoring by national forest inventories (NFIs), much work is still necessary to clarify definitions so that estimates can be directly compared or aggregated for international reporting. There is an urgent need for an international consensus on definitions and agreement on harmonization methods. The study addresses two main objectives : to analyze the feasibility of harmonization procedures for deadwood estimates and to evaluate the impact of the harmonization process based on different definitions on final deadwood estimates. Results are reported for an experimental harmonization test using NFI deadwood data from 9,208 sample plots measured in nine European countries and the United States. Harmonization methods were investigated for volume by spatial position (lying or standing), decay classes, and woody species accompanied by accuracy assessments. Estimates of mean plot volume based on harmonized definitions with minimum length/height of 1 m and minimum diameter thresholds of 10, 12, and 20 cm were on average 3, 8, and 30% smaller, respectively, than estimates based on national definitions. Volumedifferences were less when estimated for various deadwood categories. An accuracy assessment demonstrated that, on average, the harmonization procedures did not substantially alter deadwood observations (root mean square error 23.17%). [less ▲]

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See detailLe chêne en forêt ardennaise, un atout à préserver
Alderweireld, Matthieu ULg; Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Latte, Nicolas ULg et al

in Forêt Wallonne (2010), 109(6), 10-24

Dans la forêt ardennaise, les chênes sont en nette diminution. Plusieurs facteurs sont responsables de cette diminution, voici quelques exemples : régénération plus difficile que le hêtre, abroutissement ... [more ▼]

Dans la forêt ardennaise, les chênes sont en nette diminution. Plusieurs facteurs sont responsables de cette diminution, voici quelques exemples : régénération plus difficile que le hêtre, abroutissement par le gibier, mauvaise réputation de la qualité du chêne ardennais dû aux anciens traitements, conditions de marché du bois défavorable aux essences à grandes révolution. Pourtant, ces dernières années, on prend conscience de leur importance. Les apports du chêne dans la hêtraie ardennaise sont nombreux, notamment dans le contexte du changement climatique : le chêne favorise le développement d’un cortège d’organismes diversifiés, favorise la décomposition de la litière et la fertilité des sols, permet l’exploitation des stations impropres au hêtre, favorise la stabilité des peuplements et permet la production de bois de qualité. Favoriser la régénération du chêne requiert une sylviculture interventionniste, les éléments principaux sont l’apport de lumière et la protection contre le gibier. Même s’il est possible de donner des pistes pour favoriser le chêne, de nombreuses questions se posent encore. Dans le contexte de l’Accord-cadre de recherche et vulgarisation forestières, l’ULg (GxABT) et l’UCL ont mis en place des dispositifs qui devraient bientôt permettre de mettre au point des scénarios sylvicoles. [less ▲]

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See detailNational Forest Inventories Pathways for Common Reporting: Belgium (Walloon Region)
Rondeux, Jacques ULg; Sanchez, Christine; Latte, Nicolas ULg

in Tomppo, Erkki; Gschwantner, Thomas; Lawrence, Mark (Eds.) et al National Forest Inventories. Pathways for Common Reporting (2010)

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