References of "Larrouy, Pauline"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLayman versus Professional Musician: Who Makes the Better Judge?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Magis, David ULg; Grabenhorst, Matthias et al

in PLoS ONE (2015)

The increasing number of casting shows and talent contests in the media over the past years suggests a public interest in rating the quality of vocal performances. In many of these formats, laymen ... [more ▼]

The increasing number of casting shows and talent contests in the media over the past years suggests a public interest in rating the quality of vocal performances. In many of these formats, laymen alongside music experts act as judges. Whereas experts' judgments are considered objective and reliable when it comes to evaluating singing voice, little is known about laymen’s ability to evaluate peers. On the one hand, layman listeners–who by definition did not have any formal training or regular musical practice–are known to have internalized the musical rules on which singing accuracy is based. On the other hand, lay- man listeners’ judgment of their own vocal skills is highly inaccurate. Also, when compared with that of music experts, their level of competence in pitch perception has proven limited. The present study investigates laypersons' ability to objectively evaluate melodies per- formed by untrained singers. For this purpose, laymen listeners were asked to judge sung melodies. The results were compared with those of music experts who had performed the same task in a previous study. Interestingly, the findings show a high objectivity and reliabil- ity in layman listeners. Whereas both the laymen's and experts' definition of pitch accuracy overlap, differences regarding the musical criteria employed in the rating task were evident. The findings suggest that the effect of expertise is circumscribed and limited and supports the view that laypersons make trustworthy judges when evaluating the pitch accuracy of untrained singers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of Music and Language Expertise on the Implicit Learning of Musical and Linguistic Structures?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; DeChristen, Eleonore; Kolinsky, Régine

Poster (2015, August)

1. Background The cognitive consequences of music and language expertise are rarely compared. Recently, we observed different profiles in music and language experts in implicit learning of linguistic ... [more ▼]

1. Background The cognitive consequences of music and language expertise are rarely compared. Recently, we observed different profiles in music and language experts in implicit learning of linguistic structures of sung material (Larrouy-Maestri, Leybaert, & Kolinsky, 2013), with music experts performing better. Yet, as the language experts were speech therapists, this could reflect their formal, late language training. 2. Aims We aimed at comparing informal vs. formal language training and at examining the effect of dual expertise (in music and language) on the implicit statistical learning of musical and linguistic structures. We therefore used the sung material of Larrouy-Maestri et al. (2013) and tested the ability of music and/or language experts as well as of dual experts to implicitly learn the linguistic and/or musical structure of this material. 3. Method 14 music experts, 14 bi- or multi-linguals and 8 dual experts (bi- or multi-linguals also experts in music) were asked to listen attentively to 7.30 min of a continuous stream made out of 6 trisyllabic nonsense “words” sung on 6 three-tone melodies. Each “word” (defined by transitional probabilities) carried its specific melody, as melodic and linguistic transitional probabilities were congruent. A two-alternative forced-choice required choosing between “words” and “partwords”, either spoken (in the linguistic test) or instrumental (in the music test) was used to test participants’ learning of the linguistic or melodic structure. 4. Results Expertise modulated performance in the linguistic test when including the speech-therapists of our previous study (F(3, 49) = 5.92, p = .002, η2 = 0.28), who performed the worst. In the musical test, there was no significant group effect (p = .25), but one-sample t-tests showed that only the dual experts performed above chance, with 62.5% correct (p < .01). 5. Conclusions Whereas informal language training and music expertise lead to similar abilities to implicitly learn linguistic - but not musical - structure, this was not the case of formal language expertise. The combination of music and informal language expertise led to a particular profile, i.e., to the ability to learn simultaneously the musical and linguistic structures of sung material. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHow do “scoops” influence the perception of singing accuracy?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Pfordresher, Peter

Conference (2015, August)

When we listen to a singer, a large amount of time-varying information is available on which evaluations of accuracy may be based. Most analyses of singing accuracy focus on relatively steady portions of ... [more ▼]

When we listen to a singer, a large amount of time-varying information is available on which evaluations of accuracy may be based. Most analyses of singing accuracy focus on relatively steady portions of sung notes, eliminating “scoops” of pitch that often occur at note beginnings and endings. However, it is likely that these scoops contribute to judgments of accuracy. We report results of three experiments designed to address the relative contribution of these scoops in contrast to a steady central portion of sung notes. Participants rated the pitch accuracy of 4-tone melodies where the 3rd tone was manipulated with respect to its center region (either correct, 50 cents sharp, or 50 cents flat) as well as the presence of a scoop at the start and/or the end of the tone, varying with respect to direction. We were particularly interested in contrasting scoops that maintained ‘continuity’ between tones (e.g., scooping up for an ascending interval) versus those that highlighted distinctions (the opposite). Further analyses evaluated whether reactions to scoops indicate a tendency to perceive the average pitch across the entire tone, or to treat scoops versus the tone’s center as separate features. Results suggest that listeners respond to scoops in a way that goes beyond role in forming the average pitch across a tone. Listeners respond differently to scoops at the beginning versus the end, showing more sensitivity to ending scoops. Furthermore, listeners do not necessarily prefer scoops that preserve continuity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that continuous time-varying pitch information is an important indicator of perceived singing accuracy, and should be considered more fully when assessing singing ability. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailSinging accuracy, listeners’ tolerance, and pitch analysis
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Devaney, Johanna

Conference (2015, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEstimated Subglottic Pressure Evaluation, Evolution in 152 Dysphonic Patients
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Finck, Camille ULg; Larrouy, Pauline ULg

Conference (2015, April 08)

Background: Estimated subglottic pressure (ESGP) is part of the aerodynamic measurements included in the vocal profile. It is an indication of vocal effort. Speyer reports an improvement of the ESGP score ... [more ▼]

Background: Estimated subglottic pressure (ESGP) is part of the aerodynamic measurements included in the vocal profile. It is an indication of vocal effort. Speyer reports an improvement of the ESGP score after voice treatment. Nevertheless, few studies used ESGP to evaluate voice efficiency treatment. Objectives: The purpose is to examine the ESGP twice, at the first (T1) and the last consultation (T2) . We observe the ESGP values according to voice pathology. We also examine the relationships between ESGP, SPL(Sound pressure level) and DSI (Discorder severity index) . Method: The study includes 130 patients (M:31/W:99), which suffer from 4 different pathologies as immobility (N: 54), oedema (N:23), nodules (N:24) and polyp (N:29). Each patient’s file consists of VLS, acoustic, aerodynamic and perceptual measures. The ESGP was collected through the Phonatory Aerodynamic System Model 6600 (KayPentax). Patients produced 3 sequences of / ipipi / at low (IL), conversational (IC) and high (IH) intensity. Patients were grouped according to the ENT’s diagnosis. We compare our values to those of Zraick et al (2012) which studied ESGP on a healthy group. Results: At T2, for the all patients, at minimum and conversational intensity the ESGP scores decrease singificantly, even if those scores were higher than for the healthy group. We observe a negative correlation between ESGP and SPL at low and conversational intensity. At T1, the higher is the ESGP score, the lower is the SPL score. At T2, the higher is the ESGP score, the higher is the SPL score. At T1, a negative correlation is observed between ESGP and DSI for 2 groups of patients (immobility and polyp) only at minimum intensity. The higher is the ESGP, the lower is SPL. At T2, only for the group immobility, the negative correlation persists. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of considering the ESGP as a parameter of efficiency. High ESGP is mainly connected with patients who suffer from pathology. The patient who suffer from immobility seems to present a specific profile which could help the clinician to better understand their vocal behavior. Recommendation: This study highlights the pertinence of considering the ESGP as a parameter of vocal treatment efficiency. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvaluation of pitch accuracy in solfeggio examinations: What about non-musical variables?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg

Poster (2015, March 24)

Background and aims In experimental settings, 81% of the variance of judges’ rating of pitch accuracy is explained by musical variables (precision of pitch intervals and respect of tonality) (Larrouy ... [more ▼]

Background and aims In experimental settings, 81% of the variance of judges’ rating of pitch accuracy is explained by musical variables (precision of pitch intervals and respect of tonality) (Larrouy-Maestri, Lévêque, Schön, Giovanni, & Morsonne, 2013). In ecological settings, non-musical variables influence judgments of music performances (i.e., McPherson & Thompson, 1998; Platz & Kopiez, 2012). This study aims to better understand the evaluation of pitch accuracy in the context of formative and summative solfeggio examinations at tertiary music level, for which live performances are evaluated. Method Twenty-one participants of conservatory were asked to learn simple melodies during solfeggio classes. They were evaluated two times (formative and summative examinations) by 3 judges. Each performance was also objectively analyzed regarding pitch accuracy (number of contour errors, precision of pitch intervals and respect of the tonal centre) with a computer-assisted method (Larrouy-Maestri & Morsomme, 2014). Results The 3 judges provided strongly and significantly correlated ratings. The musical criteria objectively analyzed explained 56% of the variance of the jury’s rating when the examination purpose was formative (p < .001) and 31% of the variance when the purpose was summative (p = .009). Interestingly, the predictive musical criteria differed depending on the examination’s purpose. In addition, the variance explained by our statistical model increased (from 56% to 67% and from 31% to 46%) when taking into account non-musical variables such as the gender of the music students. Conclusions Besides the educational perspectives, the proposed method appears interesting for examining the influence of non-musical variables on the pitch accuracy assessment in ecological contexts. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOn drawing a line through the spectrogram: how do we understand deficits of vocal pitch imitation?
Pfordresher, Peter; Larrouy, Pauline ULg

in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2015), 9

In recent years there has been a remarkable increase in research focusing on deficits of pitch production in singing. A critical concern has been the identification of “poor pitch singers,” which we refer ... [more ▼]

In recent years there has been a remarkable increase in research focusing on deficits of pitch production in singing. A critical concern has been the identification of “poor pitch singers,” which we refer to more generally as individuals having a “vocal pitch imitation deficit.” The present paper includes a critical assessment of the assumption that vocal pitch imitation abilities can be treated as a dichotomy. Though this practice may be useful for data analysis and may be necessary within educational practice, we argue that this approach is complicated by a series of problems. Moreover, we argue that a more informative (and less problematic) approach comes from analyzing vocal pitch imitation abilities on a continuum, referred to as effect magnitude regression, and offer examples concerning how researchers may analyze data using this approach. We also argue that the understanding of this deficit may be better served by focusing on the effects of experimental manipulations on different individuals, rather than attempt to treat values of individual measures, and isolated tasks, as absolute measures of ability. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailStress and singing accuracy: What is the relationship?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg

Conference (2014, October 31)

Singing in public can be stressful and stress affects the control of the fundamental frequency, i.e. a critical element to control in order to sing in tune. It seems thus clear that singing in public will ... [more ▼]

Singing in public can be stressful and stress affects the control of the fundamental frequency, i.e. a critical element to control in order to sing in tune. It seems thus clear that singing in public will have an influence on vocal accuracy. In addition, the quality of a musical performance can be lessened or enhanced if the performer experiences stressful conditions. In order to clarify the effects of stress on singing accuracy and to explore solutions to favor the positive consequences of stress, we ran an experiment in collaboration with the Royal Conservatory of Liège. Thirty-one music students were asked to learn a simple melody. There were then recorded in a stressful condition (i.e., a music examination) and a non-stressful condition. Two groups were defined according to the challenge level of the music examination (first and second music levels). Measurements were made by self-reported state anxiety (CSAI-2R questionnaire) and by observing heart rate activity (electrocardiogram) during each performance. In addition, the vocal accuracy of the sung performances (in terms of respect of melodic contour, precision of intervals and respect of the tonality) was objectively analyzed. As expected, state anxiety and heart rate were significantly higher on the day of the music examination than in the non-stressful condition for all the music students. However, the effect of stress was positive for the first-year students but negative for the second-year students, for whom the music examination was particularly challenging. In addition, highly significant correlations were found between the intensity of cognitive symptoms and the vocal accuracy criteria. This study highlights the contrasting effects of stress on singing voice accuracy. The results encourage searchers to take into account the stress level of the performer when evaluating singing accuracy. In addition, it seems pertinent to work on the perception of somatic and cognitive symptoms in higher music institutions and to try to diminish the stress level of students, in order to favor the positive consequences of stress on the quality of musical performances. Thanks to this method, we are actually focusing on studies designed to better understand the effects of stress on speaking voice. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailEffet de l'expertise musicale sur la perception de la justesse vocale
Gosselin, Laura; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Larrouy, Pauline ULg

Poster (2014, October 17)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvaluation de la pression sous glottique estimée (PSGE) en fonction de la pathologie vocale: étude sur 418 patients.
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Chareix, Hélène; Finck, Camille ULg et al

Conference (2014, October 13)

Objectif: Notre but est d'analyser la pression sous-glottique estimée (PSGE) en fonction de la pathologie vocale, du genre et du niveau de pression sonore. Nous observons également les corrélations entre ... [more ▼]

Objectif: Notre but est d'analyser la pression sous-glottique estimée (PSGE) en fonction de la pathologie vocale, du genre et du niveau de pression sonore. Nous observons également les corrélations entre la PSGE, le Voice Handicap Index (VHI) et le Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). Méthode: 418 patients (118 H, 300 F) ont réalisé un bilan vocal (VLS, mesures acoustiques, aérodynamiques, VHI). La PSGE est collectée à l’aide du Phonatory Aerodynamic System Model 6600 (KayPentax). Les patients ont produit 3 séries de /ipipi/ à 3 niveaux de pressions sonores (conversationnel, faible et fort). Résultats: A intensité forte, les hommes ont un niveau de PSGE supérieur à celui des femmes. A intensité faible, le groupe « atrophie » montre des scores plus faibles que le groupe « nodules » et à intensité forte plus faibles que le groupe « polype ». A intensité conversationnelle, le groupe « examen normal » montre des scores plus faibles que les groupes « nodules », « polypes » et « œdème de Reinke ». A intensité faible, la même différence est observée avec en plus les groupes « kystes » et « cicatrices ». Nous observons une corrélation positive entre la PSGE et le VHI à intensité faible et négative à intensité forte. A intensité conversationnelle et faible, nous observons une corrélation négative entre le DSI et la PSGE. Quel que soit le niveau d’intensité, nous n’observons pas de corrélation pour le groupe « kyste ». Conclusion: Cette étude met en évidence l’intérêt de la PSGE. Une PSGE élevée est principalement observée chez les patients avec lésion sur le plan glottique. La corrélation entre PSGE et niveau de pression sonore varie en fonction de la pathologie. La mesure de PSGE peut aider le clinicien à mieux comprendre le comportement vocal du patient en lien avec sa pathologie. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPitch fluctuations in accurate and inaccurate singers: are they the same?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Pfordresher, Peter Q

Conference (2014, June 28)

The research presented here attempts to explore the fine-control of pitch during singing among accurate occasional singers and individuals whose singing reflects a Vocal Pitch Imitation Deficit (VPID ... [more ▼]

The research presented here attempts to explore the fine-control of pitch during singing among accurate occasional singers and individuals whose singing reflects a Vocal Pitch Imitation Deficit (VPID). Most past research addresses individual differences at the level of entire sung notes or melodies. By contrast, in the present research we addressed whether VPID singers differ from accurate singers with respect to the way to reach, maintain, and stop a sung tone. In order to describe the “scoops” at the beginning and ends of tone, as well as other forms of instability, we adapted the model of Large et al. (2002), originally designed to model entrainment of timing during synchronization. This model was applied to 1461 notes performed by 12 VPID and 17 accurate singers from the database of Pfordresher and Mantell (2014). Finally, the parameter values across the VPID and accurate singers were compared. The results showed that the model fits tones performed by accurate and VPID singers similarly well. As expected, the median pitch across the entire sung note deviated from the target to imitate for VPID singers; at the same time, the proportion of these deviations that were overshoots (“sharp”) versus undershoots (“flat”) were the same for VPID and accurate singers (2/3rd under and 1/3rd above). Thus accurate and VPID singers differ in the magnitude but not the type of overall deviation they exhibit. Whereas no difference occurred between the singers regarding the direction of the scoop (up or down) at the start and the end of the tone, the amplitude of the scoops was significantly different between VPID and accurate singers. The present study highlights the difficulty of VPID singers to reach and stop a sung tone, which supports the hypothesis of a fine motor control deficit in this population. Furthermore, the pitch fluctuations described by the model would have to be investigated in research on pitch accuracy perception. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (5 ULg)
Full Text
See detailWorkshop on Pitch Analysis for Singing
Larrouy, Pauline ULg

Conference (2014, June 28)

Two methods are actually used in order to determine if a vocal performance is “in tune” or “out of tune”, to better understand the causes of poor-pitch singing or to evaluate the quality/progression of a ... [more ▼]

Two methods are actually used in order to determine if a vocal performance is “in tune” or “out of tune”, to better understand the causes of poor-pitch singing or to evaluate the quality/progression of a singer. The "subjective" method makes use of judges whereas the "objective" method uses computer tools to perform pitch analysis and to estimate the accuracy of sung performances. While the first method allows a rapid assessment, it lacks precision, which explains that the “objective” method seems currently preferred. However, several computer tools are available and each laboratory has its preference. In addition, the analytical procedure will depend on the purpose and data of the study. This workshop aims to provide an overview of the tools available and to discuss the advantages and limitations of existing methods. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (3 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEstimated Subglottic Pressure Evaluation According to Vocal Pathology. Study on 418 Patients
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Chareix, Hélène; FINCK, Camille ULg et al

Conference (2014, May 31)

Estimated subglottic pressure (ESGP) is part of the aerodynamic measurements included in the vocal profile. It is an indication of vocal effort and can guide the therapist in his clinical approach. We aim ... [more ▼]

Estimated subglottic pressure (ESGP) is part of the aerodynamic measurements included in the vocal profile. It is an indication of vocal effort and can guide the therapist in his clinical approach. We aim to examine the clinical interest of the ESGP by observing its values according to voice pathology, age, gender and sound pressure level. We also examine the relationships between PSGE, DSI and VHI. Method:The study includes 418 patients (M:118/W:300). Each patient’s file consists of VLS, acoustic, aerodynamic and perceptual measures. The ESGP was collected through the Phonatory Aerodynamic System Model 6600 (KayPentax). Patients produced 3 sequences of / ipipi / at low (IL), conversational (IC) and high (IH) intensity. Patients were grouped according to the ENT’s diagnosis. Results: Patients without vocal lesions (MTD) had a significantly lower ESGP compared to patients with nodules, polyps, inflammation, edema (IL, IC), cysts (IC) or scar (IC). Patients with vocal fold atrophy had a lower ESGP than those suffering from nodules and polyps at conversational and high intensity, but were not differentiated at low intensity. Amongst patients without lesions (MTD), a positive correlation appeared between ESGP and intensity; which was not the case for patients with lesions. At high intensity, men had a significantly higher ESGP than women. At low intensity, we noted a positive correlation between the VHI scores and ESGP levels. At low and conversational intensity, we observed a negative correlation between DSI and ESGP scores. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of considering ESGP in the vocal profile. As expected, patients with vocal pathology produce high ESGP. However, the correlations between intensity and ESGP vary depending on the patient's pathology. In addition, ESPG values allow the clinician to distinguish MTD and healthy patients and thus could help the therapist in his clinical approach. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailToward a Characterization of Western Operatic Singing Voices
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Magis, David ULg; Nowak, Marion et al

Poster (2014, May 29)

Objective: One can easily recognize the musical style of a singer by listening to his/her sung performance. Several acoustical parameters of the Western operatic singing technique have been studied ... [more ▼]

Objective: One can easily recognize the musical style of a singer by listening to his/her sung performance. Several acoustical parameters of the Western operatic singing technique have been studied. However, the number of parameters could be extended and the effect of melody on these parameters remains unclear. By observing the effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice, this study aims at further characterizing the Western operatic singing technique. Methods: Fifty professional singers performed two contrasting melodies (popular song and romantic melody) with two vocal techniques (with and without operatic singing technique). The common quality parameters (energy distribution, vibrato rate and extent), perturbation parameters (standard deviation of the fundamental frequency, signal-to-noise ratio, jitter and shimmer) and musical features (fundamental frequency of the starting note, average tempo, and sound pressure level) of the 200 sung performances were analyzed. Results: The results show that the choice of melody had a limited impact on the acoustical and musical parameters observed, whereas a particular vocal profile appeared depending on the vocal technique employed. By examining these parameters in a theoretical model, this study highlights the relevance of vibrato rate, sound level, energy distribution, fundamental frequency of the starting note and tempo in describing the Western operatic singing technique. Conclusions: This study confirms that vocal technique affects most of the parameters examined and that the effect of melody is limited. In addition, the observation of quality and musical parameters contributes to a better understanding of the operatic singing technique. Conversely, the perturbation parameters don’t seem to take part in the characterization of operatic singing voices. Although the suggested theoretical model needs to be further developed in future research, it already generates implications for research and teaching. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInfluence of melodic context on the perception of vocal pitch accuracy
Beeken, Manon; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Larrouy, Pauline ULg

Poster (2014, May 27)

In order to categorize sung performances as “in tune” or “out of tune”, one can measure the deviation between the performance and the musical notation. Depending on the study, a deviation of a semitone ... [more ▼]

In order to categorize sung performances as “in tune” or “out of tune”, one can measure the deviation between the performance and the musical notation. Depending on the study, a deviation of a semitone (100 cents) or a quartertone (50 cents) is considered as “out of tune”. However, these values are arbitrary and the current study aims to define perceptual thresholds of pitch accuracy in a melodic context. For this purpose, melodic sequences were manipulated, from “in tune” (deviation of 0 cent) to “out of tune” (10 to 80 cents, in 10 cents steps). In a 2x2x2 design we systematically varied the conditions of: melodies (ascending/descending target-interval), type of errors (interval or tonality deviation), and direction of the deviation (enlargement or compression). The sequences were presented to 30 non-musicians using the method of limits procedure, in a test/retest paradigm. For each condition, they were asked to specify whether the presented singing performances were “in tune” or “out of tune”. The results showed that participants were consistent in their evaluation between the test and the retest. The pitch accuracy threshold (M = 29 cents, ES = .75) was not influenced by the melody, the type of errors, and the direction of the deviation. This study highlights the ability of non-musicians to perceive small pitch deviations (less than a quartertone) in a melodic context. This finding elucidates on the concept of pitch accuracy and therefore yields the opportunity to revise objective tools for the evaluation of singer pitch accuracy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (4 ULg)
Full Text
See detailPerception of melodic accuracy in occasional singers: role of pitch fluctuations?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Pfordresher, Peter Q

Conference (2014, April 26)

When listening to operatic singers performances, our perception of vocal pitch accuracy is influenced by several acoustical parameters such as the fluctuation of the fundamental frequency (i.e vibrato ... [more ▼]

When listening to operatic singers performances, our perception of vocal pitch accuracy is influenced by several acoustical parameters such as the fluctuation of the fundamental frequency (i.e vibrato). In the case of occasional singers, produced pitch is likewise not constant, but the fluctuations in such cases tend not to involve vibrato but to instead involve “scoops” at the beginning and ends of tone, as well as other forms of instability. However, little is known about the fluctuations that characterize occasional singers (including poor-pitch singers) and to what degree these fluctuations influence perception of pitch accuracy. We report results of ongoing research designed to address these issues. First, we describe a descriptive model used to identify perturbations of F0 in occasional singers that differ between accurate and poor-pitch singers. Next, we report results of recent experiments that explore the influence of the pitch fluctuations described by the model on the perception of pitch accuracy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailDefinition of vocal pitch accuracy in a melodic context
Larrouy, Pauline ULg

Scientific conference (2014, March 28)

If we easily categorize sung performances as “in tune” or “out of tune”, it is not so evident to explicitly describe on which criteria our evaluation is based. This presentation reports recent work on ... [more ▼]

If we easily categorize sung performances as “in tune” or “out of tune”, it is not so evident to explicitly describe on which criteria our evaluation is based. This presentation reports recent work on pitch accuracy perception in a melodic context. The results allow to refine the notion of pitch accuracy and therefore to design objective tools for the evaluation of singer quality. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailHow do we perceive vocal pitch accuracy during singing?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Pfordresher, Peter Q

Conference (2014, March 03)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailEvaluation of pitch accuracy: from occasional to operatic singers
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Nowak, Marion; Roig-Sanchis, Virginie et al

Conference (2014, January 15)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSinging ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch
Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Peretz, Isabelle

in Attention, Perception & Psychophysics (2014), 76(8), 2522-2530

The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and ... [more ▼]

The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant’s own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody (“Happy Birthday”) to assess the relationship between single pitch matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not instrumental pitch matching. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the ultimate causes of poor singing ability, and demonstrate that single pitch matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (6 ULg)