References of "Lallemend, François"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEphrin-A5/EphA4 signalling controls specific afferent targeting to cochlear hair cells.
Defourny, Jean; Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Lallemend, Francois et al

in Nature Communications (2013), 4

Hearing requires an optimal afferent innervation of sensory hair cells by spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea. Here we report that complementary expression of ephrin-A5 in hair cells and EphA4 receptor ... [more ▼]

Hearing requires an optimal afferent innervation of sensory hair cells by spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea. Here we report that complementary expression of ephrin-A5 in hair cells and EphA4 receptor among spiral ganglion neuron populations controls the targeting of type I and type II afferent fibres to inner and outer hair cells, respectively. In the absence of ephrin-A5 or EphA4 forward signalling, a subset of type I projections aberrantly overshoot the inner hair cell layer and invade the outer hair cell area. Lack of type I afferent synapses impairs neurotransmission from inner hair cells to the auditory nerve. By contrast, radial shift of type I projections coincides with a gain of presynaptic ribbons that could enhance the afferent signalling from outer hair cells. Ephexin-1, cofilin and myosin light chain kinase act downstream of EphA4 to induce type I spiral ganglion neuron growth cone collapse. Our findings constitute the first identification of an Eph/ephrin-mediated mutual repulsion mechanism responsible for specific sorting of auditory projections in the cochlea. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (14 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStructure and development of cochlear afferent innervation in mammals.
Defourny, Jean ULg; Lallemend, Francois; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg

in American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology (2011), 301(4), 750-61

In mammals, sensorineural deafness results from damage to the auditory receptors of the inner ear, the nerve pathways to the brain or the cortical area that receives sound information. In this review, we ... [more ▼]

In mammals, sensorineural deafness results from damage to the auditory receptors of the inner ear, the nerve pathways to the brain or the cortical area that receives sound information. In this review, we first focused on the cellular and molecular events taking part to spiral ganglion axon growth, extension to the organ of Corti, and refinement. In the second half, we considered the functional maturation of synaptic contacts between sensory hair cells and their afferent projections. A better understanding of all these processes could open insights into novel therapeutic strategies aimed to re-establish primary connections from sound transducers to the ascending auditory nerve pathways. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNew insights into peripherin expression in cochlear neurons
Lallemend, François; Vandenbosch, Renaud ULg; Hadjab, S. et al

in Neuroscience (2007), 150(1), 212-222

Peripherin is an intermediate filament protein that is expressed in peripheral and enteric neurons. In the cochlear nervous system, peripherin expression has been extensively used as a differentiation ... [more ▼]

Peripherin is an intermediate filament protein that is expressed in peripheral and enteric neurons. In the cochlear nervous system, peripherin expression has been extensively used as a differentiation marker by preferentially labeling the type II neuronal population at adulthood, but yet without knowing its function. Since the expression of peripherin has been associated in time with the process of axonal extension and during regeneration of nerve fibers in other systems, it was of interest to determine whether peripherin expression in cochlear neurons was a static phenotypic trait or rather prone to modifications following nerve injury. In the present study, we first compared the expression pattern of peripherin and beta III-tubulin from late embryonic stages to the adult in rat cochlea. The staining for both proteins was seen before birth within all cochlear neurons. By birth, and for 2 or 3 days, peripherin expression was gradually restricted to the type II neuronal population and their projections. In contrast, from postnatal day (P) 10 onwards, while the expression of beta III-tubulin was still found in projections of all cochlear neurons, only the type I population had beta III-tubulin immunoreactivity in their cell bodies. We next investigated the expression of peripherin in axotomized cochlear neurons using an organotypic explant model. Peripherin expression was surprisingly re-expressed in a vast majority of neurons after axotomy. In parallel, the expression and localization of beta III-tubulin and peripherin in dissociated cultures of cochlear neurons were studied. Both proteins were distributed along the entire neuronal length but exhibited complementary distribution, especially within the projections. Moreover, peripherin immunoreactivity was still abundant in the growth cone, whereas that of beta III-tubulin was decreasing at this compartment. Our findings are consistent with a model in which peripherin plays an important structural role in cochlear neurons and their projections during both development and regenerative processes and which is compatible with the assumption that frequently developmentally regulated factors are reactivated during neuronal regeneration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailActivation of protein kinase CbetaI constitutes a new neurotrophic pathway for deafferented spiral ganglion neurons
Lallemend, François; Hadjab, Saida; Hans, Grégory ULg et al

in Journal of Cell Science (2005), 118(19), 4511-4525

In mammals, degeneration of peripheral auditory neurons constitutes one of the main causes of sensorineural hearing loss. Unfortunately, to date, pharmacological interventions aimed at counteracting this ... [more ▼]

In mammals, degeneration of peripheral auditory neurons constitutes one of the main causes of sensorineural hearing loss. Unfortunately, to date, pharmacological interventions aimed at counteracting this condition have not presented complete effectiveness in protecting the integrity of cochlear neural elements. In this context, the protein kinase C (PKC) family of enzymes are important signalling molecules that play a role in preventing neurodegeneration after nervous system injury. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that the PKC signalling pathway is directly neurotrophic to axotomised spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). We found that PKC beta I was strictly expressed by postnatal and adult SGNs both in situ and in vitro. In cultures of SGNs, we observed that activators of PKC, such as phorbol esters and bryostatin 1, induced neuronal survival and neurite regrowth in a manner dependent on the activation of PKC beta I. The neuroprotective effects of PKC activators were suppressed by pre-treatment with LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) and with U0126 (a MEK inhibitor), indicating that PKC activators promote the survival and neurite outgrowth of SGNs by both PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK-dependent mechanisms. In addition, whereas combining the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) was shown to provide only an additive effect on SGN survival, the interaction between PKC and neurotrophin signalling gave rise to a synergistic increase in SGN survival. Taken together, the data indicate that PKC beta I activation represents a key factor for the protection of the integrity of neural elements in the cochlea. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPeripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligand cytotoxicity unrelated to PBR expression
Hans, Grégory ULg; Wislet, Sabine ULg; Lallemend, François et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2005), 69(5), 819-830

Some synthetic ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), an 18 kDa protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane, are cytotoxic for several tumor cell lines and arise as promising ... [more ▼]

Some synthetic ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), an 18 kDa protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane, are cytotoxic for several tumor cell lines and arise as promising chemotherapeutic candidates. However, conflicting results were reported regarding the actual effect of these drugs on cellular survival ranging from protection to toxicity. Moreover, the concentrations needed to observe such a toxicity were usually high, far above the affinity range for their receptor, hence questioning its specificity. In the present study, we have shown that micromolar concentrations of FGIN-1-27 And Ro 5-4864, two chemically unrelated PBR ligands are toxic for both PBR-expressing SK-N-BE neuroblastoma cells and PBR-deficient Jurkat lymphoma cells. We have thereby demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of these drugs is unrelated to their PBR-binding activity. Moreover, Ro 54864-induced cell death differed strikingly between both cell types, being apoptotic in Jurkat cells while necrotic in SK-N-BE cells. Again, this did not seem to be related to PBR expression since Ro 5-4864-induced death of PBR-transfected Jurkat cells remained apoptotic. Taken together, our results show that PBR is unlikely to mediate all the effects of these PBR ligands. They however confirm that some of these ligands are very effective cytotoxic drugs towards various cancer cells, even for reputed chemoresistant tumors such as neuroblastoma, and, surprisingly, also for PBR-lacking tumor cells. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailbeta-carbolines induce apoptosis in cultured cerebellar granule neurons via the mitochondrial pathway
Hans, Grégory ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Lallemend, François et al

in Neuropharmacology (2005), 48(1), 105-117

N-Butyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (betaCCB) is, together with 2-methyl-norharmanium and 2,9-dimethylnorharmanium ions, an endogenously occurring beta-carboline. Due to their structural similarities ... [more ▼]

N-Butyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (betaCCB) is, together with 2-methyl-norharmanium and 2,9-dimethylnorharmanium ions, an endogenously occurring beta-carboline. Due to their structural similarities with the synthetic neurotoxin 1-methy14-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), harman and norharman compounds have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. While also structurally related, betaCCB has received much less interest in that respect although we had previously demonstrated that it induces the apoptotic cell death of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Herein, we have investigated the molecular events leading to CGN apoptosis upon betaCCB treatment. We first demonstrated that betaCCB-induced apoptosis occurs in neurons only, most likely as a consequence of a specific neuronal uptake as shown using binding/uptake experiments. Then we observed that, in betaCCB-treated CGNs, caspases 9, 3 and 8 were successively activated, suegesing an activation of the mitochondrial pathway. Consistently, betaCCB also induced the release from the mitochondrial intermembrane space of two pro-apoptotic factors. i.e. cytochrome c and apotptosis inducing factor (AIF). Interestingly, no mitochondrial membrane depolarisation was associated with this release. suggesting a mitochondrial permeability transition pore-independent mechanism. The absence of any neuroprotective effect provided by two mPTP inhibitors. i.e. cyclosporine A and bongkrekic acid. further supported this hypothesis. Together. these results show that betaCCB is specifically taken up by neuronal cells where it triggers a specific permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane and a subsequent apoptotic cell death. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (14 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMolecular pathways involved in apoptotic cell death in the injured cochlea: Cues to novel therapeutic strategies
Lallemend, François; Lefèbvre, Philippe ULg; Hans, Grégory ULg et al

in Current Pharmaceutical Design (2005), 11(17), 2257-2275

Most hearing loss results from lesions of the sensory cells and/or neurons of the auditory portion of the inner ear. To date, only the cochlear implantation offers long-term hearing-aid benefit, but still ... [more ▼]

Most hearing loss results from lesions of the sensory cells and/or neurons of the auditory portion of the inner ear. To date, only the cochlear implantation offers long-term hearing-aid benefit, but still with limited performance and expensive cost. While the underlying causes of deafness are not clear, the death or hair cells and/or neurons and the loss of neuronal contacts are key pathological features. Pinpointing molecular events that control cell death in the cochlea is critical for the development of new strategies to prevent and treat deafness, whether in combination or not with cochlear implant therapy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCaspases, the enemy within, and their role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of inner ear sensory cells
Van De Water, T. R.; Lallemend, François; Eshraghi, A. A. et al

in Otology & Neurotology (2004), 25(4), 627-632

This review covers the general roles of members of the cysteine protease family of caspases in the process of apoptosis (programmed cell death) looking at their participation in both the "extrinsic" cell ... [more ▼]

This review covers the general roles of members of the cysteine protease family of caspases in the process of apoptosis (programmed cell death) looking at their participation in both the "extrinsic" cell death receptor and the "intrinsic" mitochondrial cell death pathways. It defines the difference between initiator and effector caspases and shows the progression of caspase activations that ends up in the apoptotic cell death and elimination of a damaged cell. The review then presents what is currently know about the participation of caspases in the programmed cell death of inner ear sensory cells during the process of normal development and maturation of the inner ear and their importance in this process as illustrated by the results of caspase-3 gene knockout experiments. The participation of specific caspases and the sequence of their activation in the elimination (apoptosis) of damaged sensory cells from adult inner ears after an injury that generates oxidative stress are reviewed. Both the possibility and the potential efficacy of caspase inhibition with a broad-spectrum pancaspase inhibitor as an interventional therapy to treat and rescue oxidative stress-damaged inner ear sensory cells from apoptosis are presented and discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStriatal PSA-NCAM(+) precursor cells from the newborn rat express functional glycine receptors
Nguyen, Laurent ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Breuskin, Ingrid ULg et al

in Neuroreport (2004), 15(4), 583-587

Immunocytochemical analysis showed that ionotropic glycine receptors are expressed in neurogenic progenitors purified from the newborn rat striatum and expressing the polysialylated form of the neural ... [more ▼]

Immunocytochemical analysis showed that ionotropic glycine receptors are expressed in neurogenic progenitors purified from the newborn rat striatum and expressing the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule, both in vitro and in situ. To ascertain whether glycine receptors were functional in vitro, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrated that glycine triggers inward strychnine-sensitive currents in the majority of these cells. Moreover, we found that glycine receptors expressed by these neurogenic progenitors display intermediate electrophysiological characteristics between those of glycine receptors expressed by neural stem cells and by mature interneurons from the rat striatum. Altogether, the present data show that functional strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors are expressed in neurogenic progenitors purified from the newborn rat striatum. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSubstance P protects spiral ganglion neurons from apoptosis via PKC-Ca2+-MAPK/ERK pathways
Lallemend, François; Lefèbvre, Philippe ULg; Hans, Grégory ULg et al

in Journal of Neurochemistry (2003), 87(2), 508-521

In the current study, we have investigated the ability of substance P (SP) to protect 3-day-old (P3) rat spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) from trophic factor deprivation (TFD)-induced cell death. The ... [more ▼]

In the current study, we have investigated the ability of substance P (SP) to protect 3-day-old (P3) rat spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) from trophic factor deprivation (TFD)-induced cell death. The presence of SP high affinity neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1) transcripts was detected in the spiral ganglion and the NK1 protein localized to SGNs both ex vivo and in vitro. Treatment with SP increased cytoplasmic Ca2+ in SGNs, further arguing for the presence of functional NK1 on these neurons. Both SP and the agonist [Sar(9), Met(O-2)(11)]-SP significantly decreased SGN cell death induced by TFD, with no effect on neurite outgrowth. The survival promoting effect of SP was blocked by the NK1 antagonist, WIN51708. Both pan-caspase inhibitor BOC-D-FMK and SP treatments markedly reduced activation of caspases and DNA fragmentation in trophic factor deprived-neurons. The neuroprotective action of SP was antagonised by specific inhibitors of second messengers, including 1.2-bis-(O-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM) to chelate cytosolic Ca2+, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I, Go6976 and LY333531 and the MAPK/ERK inhibitor U0126. In contrast, nifedipine, a specific inhibitor of L-type Ca2+ channel, and LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, had no effect on SP trophic support of SGNs. Moreover, activation of endogenous PKC by 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also reduced the loss of trophic factor-deprived SGNs. Thus, NK1 expressed by SGNs transmit a survival-promoting regulatory signal during TFD-induced SGN cell death via pathways involving PKC activation, Ca2+ signalling and MAPK/ERK activation, which can be accounted for by an inhibition of caspase activation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMechanisms of cell death in the injured auditory system: Otoprotective strategies
Lefèbvre, Philippe ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Lallemend, François et al

in Audiology & Neuro-otology (2002), 7(3, May-Jun), 165-170

Oxidative stress insults such as neurotrophin withdrawal, sound trauma, hypoxia/ischemia, ototoxic antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce apoptosis of both auditory hair cells ... [more ▼]

Oxidative stress insults such as neurotrophin withdrawal, sound trauma, hypoxia/ischemia, ototoxic antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce apoptosis of both auditory hair cells and neurons. In this paper, we review some components of the apoptotic pathways leading to the death of hair cells and auditory induced by growth factor withdrawal or cisplatin intoxication: (1) reactive oxygen species and free radicals are formed as by-products of several metabolic pathways and these molecules can themselves cause cell damage by reacting with cellular proteins; (2) activation of caspases, and (3) activation of calpain. These mechanisms have several different points at which inhibitors could be targeted to protect cells from programmed cell death, including the prevention of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and the activation of caspases and calpains. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg)