References of "Lafleur, Jean-Michel"
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See detailTracing Transnational and intersectional inequalities in immigrants families’ access to social protection: The case of Andean families’ in Brussels
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege; Vivas Romero, Maria ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, June 29)

Immigrants and family members in the home and host urban spaces often experience inequalities in access to social protection (Faist, 2016, Amelina, 2017). Focusing on healthcare, we demonstrate that ... [more ▼]

Immigrants and family members in the home and host urban spaces often experience inequalities in access to social protection (Faist, 2016, Amelina, 2017). Focusing on healthcare, we demonstrate that immigrant families today respond to healthcare needs of family members here and there through four cross-border strategies. We show that Andean transnational family networks based in Brussels select and articulate these different strategies to assemble transnational health care arrangements. The arrangements we follow are based in the urban area of Brussels but are connected to other urban spaces in southern Europe and Latin America in which migrants have developed networks of informal and formal support. Using an intersectional approach, we argue that heterogeneity markers such as gender, race, class and levels of transnational engagement determine the choice between different types of arrangements (Mahler et al. 2015). We support our argument with multi-sited (Marcus, 1995) ethnographic data collected with 48 members of 10 Andean transnational family members during fieldwork in Belgium, Colombia and Peru. [less ▲]

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See detailRenewing the Social Protection Agenda in Europe
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege; Konstantinidou, Angeliki ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, April 25)

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See detailPourquoi l’immigration? 21 questions que se posent les Belges sur les migrations internationales au XXIe siècle
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege; Marfouk, Abdeslam

Book published by Academia-L’Harmattan (2017)

How many immigrants are there in Belgium? Do they take jobs away from natives? Are they integrated? Even though many Belgians have some answers to these questions, they often rely on stereotypes or ... [more ▼]

How many immigrants are there in Belgium? Do they take jobs away from natives? Are they integrated? Even though many Belgians have some answers to these questions, they often rely on stereotypes or inaccurate information. This book, on the contrary, uses scientific data to respond to those clichés and stereotypes and encourage, accordingly, constructive debates on the topic of immigration. [less ▲]

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See detailDeserving EU citizenship: The case of undocumented Italian migrants in Belgium
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege; Mescoli, Elsa ULiege

Conference (2017)

Stemmed from a research conducted in Belgium, this paper aims at exploring the notion of deservingness through the analysis of a specific case study. The increased removal of residence permits from ... [more ▼]

Stemmed from a research conducted in Belgium, this paper aims at exploring the notion of deservingness through the analysis of a specific case study. The increased removal of residence permits from European citizens claiming social security benefits shows that the right of freedom within EU is questioned. We consider in particular Italians migrants who moved to Belgium during the economic crisis that started in 2008. The study of this case lets us highlight that the restriction of the mobility of the poor in general shapes here in terms of “undeserving” the right to freedom of movement and determines further stratifications among migrants. Moreover, migrants finding themselves becoming illegal as result of contextual process, in spite of their non-deportability, need to provide “evidence of deservingness” to re-establish their residence rights. Strategies are developed to this aim within an emerging discourse of a “moral economy of deservingness” and they respond to the individuals’ precarious statuses. Through ethnographic examples, we will analyse these dynamics and propose a conceptualization of citizenship whose actualization is conditioned by further socio-economic issues. [less ▲]

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See detailTransnational Health Insurances as Social Remittances: The Case of Congolese Immigrants in Belgium
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege; Lizin, Olivier

in Magdalena, Nowicka; Vojin, Šerbedžija (Eds.) Migration and Social Remittances in a Global Europe (2017)

For many years, the migration and development literature has looked at the impact of financial remittances on immigrant relatives’ access to health care. More recent work on social remittances also ... [more ▼]

For many years, the migration and development literature has looked at the impact of financial remittances on immigrant relatives’ access to health care. More recent work on social remittances also examined the circulation of ideas and practices through migration and its impact on behavior and consumption patterns in the home country. Surprisingly, however, migration scholars have neglected the interactions between remittances and local health systems in countries of origin. This is all the more surprising considering the abundant literature on health and development that has documented numerous non-governmental initiatives to improve access to care in the Global South in recent years. Among those initiatives, community-based health insurances (CBHI) have attracted significant attention. CBHI are voluntary risk-pooling schemes run by not-for-profit organizations; they collect fees among users at the local level and organize access to care with providers. While the growing literature on CBHI is shedding light on the potential of civil society organizations to replace or compensate for weak public health systems, it forgets that —in many parts of the world— access to the necessary capital to join those schemes is still very dependent on emigration of some family members. In other words, for many families worldwide, strategies to access health care have become transnational. In this chapter we look at a specific form of CHBI that we call ‘transnational health insurance’ (THI). These insurance schemes are set up by immigrants in cooperation with a multitude of actors including, on the one hand, health insurance companies and development aid agencies in destination countries and, on the other hand, health care providers in countries of origin. THIs offer health coverage to a selected number of non-migrant relatives in the home country based on a premium paid directly by immigrants to the insurance company in their country of residence. Analyzing the creation and implementation of one THI in the Belgian-Congolese postcolonial context allow us in the last part the paper to discuss the concept of hybridity in the study of remittances as well as identify the drivers of immigrant transnational engagement in the area of health. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytical Challenges in the Study of South-North Intra-EU Mobility
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege; Stanek, Mikolaj

Conference (2016, November 29)

This presentation discusses the challenges met in measuring the flows of Southern European EU migrants who moved to North Western Europe during the financial and economic crisis that started in 2008. The ... [more ▼]

This presentation discusses the challenges met in measuring the flows of Southern European EU migrants who moved to North Western Europe during the financial and economic crisis that started in 2008. The presentation shows that EU wide and national databases have strenghts and weaknesses and that further improvement in statistical data collection process could help the understanding of complex migratory patterns. More details is available on this research by downloading the free e-bbok at the following address: http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319397610 [less ▲]

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See detailLes Nouveaux Liégeois. Migrations et Transformations Urbaines
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege; Stangherlin, Gregor

in Dérivations (2016), (3), 194-203

Dans cet article, nous proposons de discuter la migration contemporaine sur le territoire de la Ville de Liège. Cette discussion repose pour l’essentiel sur une analyse des données statistiques ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous proposons de discuter la migration contemporaine sur le territoire de la Ville de Liège. Cette discussion repose pour l’essentiel sur une analyse des données statistiques disponibles et une revue de la littérature scientifique produite sur les migrations à Liège ces dernières années. Nous commençons donc par une description des grandes évolutions démographiques sur le territoire de la ville depuis 1991 pour insister ensuite sur les effets de la migration dans cinq quartiers de la ville. Cette première partie souligne le rôle essentiel que joue la migration dans la croissance démographique observée ces dix dernières années à Liège. Ensuite, nous examinons la présence étrangère sur le territoire de la ville selon les 5 dimensions fréquemment citées dans les débats sur l’intégration des populations étrangères : emploi, logement, éducation, socio-culturelle et politique. [less ▲]

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See detailCreating undocumented EU migrants through welfare: The case of Belgium
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege; Mescoli, Elsa ULiege

Conference (2016, September)

In the dual context of increased Central and Eastern European migration and of the global financial and economic crisis, several Northern European Member States have implemented (or debated) reforms of ... [more ▼]

In the dual context of increased Central and Eastern European migration and of the global financial and economic crisis, several Northern European Member States have implemented (or debated) reforms of their welfare regimes to restrict access to migrants coming from other EU Member States. As the debates on the so-called “welfare tourism” are intensifying in different parts of the EU, we can observe a growing trend among Member States to use welfare policies as instruments to limit the mobility of certain EU migrants. This stance is best illustrated with Prime Minister Cameron’s demand for four-year ban on EU migrants claiming in-work benefits. In Belgium, too, EU citizens have been particularly affected by this adverse context as the Migration Office (Office des Etrangers) has intensified controls against EU residents receiving welfare benefits. With this policy, authorities have been using a restrictive interpretation of the European Directive 2004/38 that allows Member States to remove residence permits from EU citizens who represent an “unreasonable burden on state finances”. As a consequence, the number of EU citizens expelled from Belgium on a yearly basis has jumped from 343 to 2,042 between 2010 and 2014. In this paper, we propose to focus on those EU citizens who see their freedom of circulation in the EU restricted after claiming social protection in their country of residence. Relying on fieldwork conducted with Italian and Romanian migrants who experienced the removal of their residence permit, we discuss the different resilience strategies of those EU citizens faced with the legal obligation to leave: such strategies include returning to the homeland, refusing to leave, mobilizing the support of migrant organizations, introducing individual appeals, and seeking to regularize their administrative status. In particular, we shall focus on the experience of EU migrants who have decided to stay in Belgium and experience the status of an undocumented EU migrant. This peculiarity of this status is visible in three respects: 1) expulsion is not enforced by local authorities, 2) migrants continue to be able to circulate between their homeland and the country where they no longer have a residence permit, and 3) they have a possibility to regularize their status if they can demonstrate to municipal authorities that they no longer represent “a burden” on Belgium’s public finances. Overall, confronting our data to the rich literature on undocumented third country nationals, we discuss the limits of EU citizenship as experienced by those who are denied the right to free movement. This paper relies primarily on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork (in progress) conducted with Italian and Romanian migrants in Brussels and with individuals of the same nationality who decided to leave Belgium and return to their home country after the removal of their residence permit. Additional fieldwork includes semi-directed interviews with civil society organizations, trade unions, and consular authorities. The data collection process started in May 2014 and is expected to be finished in May 2016. [less ▲]

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See detailWelfare and the creation of Undocumented EU migrants in Belgium
Mescoli, Elsa ULiege; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege

Conference (2016, June)

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See detailLes migrants comme acteurs de développement: Réalité, illusions, instrumentalisation
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege

Learning material (2016)

Les migrations de travail relèvent de stratégies de survie par diversification des ressources d’une famille, d’une communauté. Aujourd’hui, elles s’inscrivent plus que jamais dans une dynamique ... [more ▼]

Les migrations de travail relèvent de stratégies de survie par diversification des ressources d’une famille, d’une communauté. Aujourd’hui, elles s’inscrivent plus que jamais dans une dynamique transnationale qui fait des migrants des agents de changement et de développement tant dans le pays de départ que dans le pays d’accueil. Instrumentaliser les apports financiers des migrants apparaît comme une opportunité pour les politiques de développement des États des deux bords. Une approche qui charrie ses contradictions, voire des effets pervers. [less ▲]

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See detailPermance de l'Utilitarisme
Martiniello, Marco ULiege; Bousetta, Hassan ULiege; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege

in Politique : Revue de Débats (2016)

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See detailEnjeux de la représentation et de la participation politique des émigrés dans leur pays d’origine : Vers une citoyenneté politique externe ?
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege

in Social Science Information Studies (2016), 55(4), 446-460

Following years of disinterest or hostility, many sending states are now trying to create or strengthen linkages with citizens residing abroad. To this end, states are adopting new policies and creating ... [more ▼]

Following years of disinterest or hostility, many sending states are now trying to create or strengthen linkages with citizens residing abroad. To this end, states are adopting new policies and creating new institutions dedicated to emigrants. In the past three decades, a majority of states worldwide has adopted external voting legislation that enables citizens abroad to vote (and in certain cases be represented) in the home country without having to return. In this article, I question the emergence of such policies and discuss their impact on immigrant political participation in their country of residence. [less ▲]

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See detailMigration policy reforms in the context of economic and political crises: the case of Belgium
Gsir, Sonia ULiege; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege; Stanek, Mikolaj

in Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies (2016)

A body of literature has examined the role of ‘crises’ on policymaking. Yet, we observe that endogenous or exogenous events called ‘crisis-events’ are often randomly chosen as sweeping explanations for ... [more ▼]

A body of literature has examined the role of ‘crises’ on policymaking. Yet, we observe that endogenous or exogenous events called ‘crisis-events’ are often randomly chosen as sweeping explanations for reforms in migration and integration policy. Thus, we attempt to find answers for the question of how the latest financial and economic crisis affected policy-making in the area of migration and integration. We apply a combination of interestbased and ideas-based theories to the case of Belgium in order to question the role of crises in policy reforms in the field of migration and integration. Multiple political and economic crises have affected the country since 2007. Examining these crises and immigration politics we argue that electoral competition both between and within the Francophone and Flemish party systems continues to be the main driver of migration and integration policy reform. Yet, we also discover a cumulative effect of economic and political crises: while the intention of restricting immigration has remained largely unchanged over the years, the policy instruments employed to reach this objective have changed with the political and economic crises. [less ▲]

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See detailPermanence de l'utilitarisme - évolution des politiques d'immigration et d'intégration en Belgique-
Bousetta, Hassan ULiege; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege; Martiniello, Marco ULiege

in Politique : Revue de Débats (2016), 94(mars-avril2016), 28-31

Depuis 1974, la Belgique ne dispose plus d’une politique d’immigration proactive basée sur l’admission et le recrutement de travailleurs étrangers. Est-ce à dire que la Belgique n’a pas de politique ... [more ▼]

Depuis 1974, la Belgique ne dispose plus d’une politique d’immigration proactive basée sur l’admission et le recrutement de travailleurs étrangers. Est-ce à dire que la Belgique n’a pas de politique d’immigration comme on l’entend parfois ? Pas si vite... [less ▲]

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See detailThe external voting right of Bolivians abroad: What role for emigrants in regime transformation in their homeland?
Hinojosa Gordonava, Alfonso; Domenech, Eduardo; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege

in Emmerich, Gustavo; Alarcon Olguin, Victor (Eds.) Sufragio Transnacional y Extraterritorial Experiencias Comparadas (2016)

In this chapter, we propose to analyze the development of the external voting issue in the Bolivian political context between 2003 and 2009. Examining the evolution of relations between the Bolivian ... [more ▼]

In this chapter, we propose to analyze the development of the external voting issue in the Bolivian political context between 2003 and 2009. Examining the evolution of relations between the Bolivian Government and its diaspora (particularly a er the coming to power of Evo Morales Ayma in 2006), we will demonstrate how the topic has progressively become central within Bolivian politics and how emigrants have played an active part in their own enfranchisement. In particular, we will see how “the process of change” instigated by the Morales government has found an extension among citizens abroad. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit de vote à distance: Emergence d'un objet de recherche et apport au champ de la sociologie électorale
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege

Conference (2015, October 01)

Dans cet article, nous présentons tout d’abord l’émergence du droit de vote à distance comme objet de recherche dans le champ la théorie politique et des études migratoires. Ces travaux caractérisés par ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous présentons tout d’abord l’émergence du droit de vote à distance comme objet de recherche dans le champ la théorie politique et des études migratoires. Ces travaux caractérisés par leur dimension exploratoire, nous permettent toutefois de définir le droit de vote à distance et d’identifier les caractéristiques essentielles qui le différencie aujourd’hui des pratiques antérieures. Nous présentons ensuite les travaux sur la diffusion de la norme qui depuis moins d’une décennie ont constitué le principal angle d’entrée de la science politique sur le droit de vote à distance. Dans la troisième et dernière partie de l’article, nous défendons enfin l’intérêt d’une approche transnationale des questions électorales dans les études électorales. Cette approche, comme nous le défendons, permet d’éclairer non seulement le comportement des expatriés mais plus largement la transformation des pratiques électorales ici et là-bas. [less ▲]

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See detailCitizens abroad and Regional Elections: A diffusionist Perspective
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege; Arrighi, Jean-Thomas

Conference (2015, September 06)

In this paper we shift the focus away from the state to the regional demos with the aim to introduce the notion of scale in the study of external voting. It is divided into three parts. Following a ... [more ▼]

In this paper we shift the focus away from the state to the regional demos with the aim to introduce the notion of scale in the study of external voting. It is divided into three parts. Following a preliminary discussion on the external franchise from a sub-state perspective, we proceed with a comparative overview of the rules of acquisition and loss of the franchise in regional elections and show that the extension of the franchise to ‘regional expatriates’ is a relatively exceptional practice. We then identify factors that in our view are key to understand the absence of a vertical diffusion of the external franchise to lower levels of government, in sharp contrast with its rapid horizontal diffusion at the state level. The second part examines the debates surrounding the inclusion and exclusion of the franchise in three cases of protracted nationalist mobilization that translated into far reaching territorial autonomy: Catalonia, Scotland and Flanders. The third and final section contrasts the similarities and differences that can be found between our three cases and reflects upon the lessons that can be drawn from them. [less ▲]

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See detailDiaspora Contributions to Democratic Processes at Home: The External Vote of Andean Migrants
Bermudez Torres, Anastasia ULiege; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege

Conference (2015, June 22)

This paper focuses on the external vote and wider transnational political participation of Andean migrants from Colombia and Bolivia. Its main aim is to discuss the contributions of these diasporas to ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the external vote and wider transnational political participation of Andean migrants from Colombia and Bolivia. Its main aim is to discuss the contributions of these diasporas to democratic and wider political processes in the home countries. The two cases considered offer a good opportunity to do so, since in the last few decades they have put forward new mechanisms for the political inclusion of their nationals abroad, but in different historical, socioeconomic and political contexts. Key amongst these initiatives has been the extension of voting rights to nationals abroad. One of the objectives is thus to compare the different reasons and mechanisms used by states to implement external voting policies, as well as migrant participation in elections. Migrants from the three countries have participated to a lesser or greater degree in the development of such policies and the practice of voting from abroad. A comparison of their participation rates in each case and the reasons for voting or not might allow us to find out more about the success or failure of such processes. Equally, different governments, parties and other state and political institutions in the home countries have related differently to the diasporas, often based on the supposed political allegiances or ideological inclinations of these groups. Based on all this, the two national communities abroad studied have played different roles in key recent political processes in their home countries, such as the emergence of an ethno- nationalist-left government in Bolivia, and efforts for greater democracy and the end of the armed conflict in Colombia. This paper is based on quantitative and qualitative data, as well as secondary information, obtained by the authors through different research projects carried out over the last few years with migrants from the two countries studied. The text looks next at the theoretical framework for the research, before analysing in detail the two cases considered. The last develops a comparative discussion and presents concluding perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailAccess to Electoral Rights Bolivia
Zegada, Maria Teresa; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2015)

The issue of passive and active electoral rights in Bolivia has gone through various phases that are examined in details in this article. Universal suffrage in Bolivia occurred around the same time as in ... [more ▼]

The issue of passive and active electoral rights in Bolivia has gone through various phases that are examined in details in this article. Universal suffrage in Bolivia occurred around the same time as in most states in that region: in the middle of the 20th century. The next wave of reforms occurred during the 1980s when dictatorships were removed from power. At that time, processes of democratization intensified in Bolivia and other parts of Latin America, eventually leading to the progressive strengthening of democratic institutions. It is really during the 1990s and early 2000s that the most important democratic transformations occurred. Major institutional reforms were passed during this period in particular to increase the participation of women and indigenous peoples in public affairs. The inclusion of the principles of gender equality and interculturality in the new constitution of 2009 is one of the clearest sign of this new approach. Similarly, another sector of the Bolivian population that had been traditionally prevented from exercising political rights. that is, Bolivians residing abroad have been closely attended to by the Evo Morales government since 2006. After the first external voting experience in 2009, the system was once again reformed to enable greater participation from abroad in the 2014 presidential election. These elements confirm that the extension of political rights in Bolivia is a process that has gone trough major changes over the past two decades but remains a work in process. [less ▲]

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