References of "Lafleur, Jean-Michel"
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See detailCreating undocumented EU migrants through welfare: The case of Belgium
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2016, September)

In the dual context of increased Central and Eastern European migration and of the global financial and economic crisis, several Northern European Member States have implemented (or debated) reforms of ... [more ▼]

In the dual context of increased Central and Eastern European migration and of the global financial and economic crisis, several Northern European Member States have implemented (or debated) reforms of their welfare regimes to restrict access to migrants coming from other EU Member States. As the debates on the so-called “welfare tourism” are intensifying in different parts of the EU, we can observe a growing trend among Member States to use welfare policies as instruments to limit the mobility of certain EU migrants. This stance is best illustrated with Prime Minister Cameron’s demand for four-year ban on EU migrants claiming in-work benefits. In Belgium, too, EU citizens have been particularly affected by this adverse context as the Migration Office (Office des Etrangers) has intensified controls against EU residents receiving welfare benefits. With this policy, authorities have been using a restrictive interpretation of the European Directive 2004/38 that allows Member States to remove residence permits from EU citizens who represent an “unreasonable burden on state finances”. As a consequence, the number of EU citizens expelled from Belgium on a yearly basis has jumped from 343 to 2,042 between 2010 and 2014. In this paper, we propose to focus on those EU citizens who see their freedom of circulation in the EU restricted after claiming social protection in their country of residence. Relying on fieldwork conducted with Italian and Romanian migrants who experienced the removal of their residence permit, we discuss the different resilience strategies of those EU citizens faced with the legal obligation to leave: such strategies include returning to the homeland, refusing to leave, mobilizing the support of migrant organizations, introducing individual appeals, and seeking to regularize their administrative status. In particular, we shall focus on the experience of EU migrants who have decided to stay in Belgium and experience the status of an undocumented EU migrant. This peculiarity of this status is visible in three respects: 1) expulsion is not enforced by local authorities, 2) migrants continue to be able to circulate between their homeland and the country where they no longer have a residence permit, and 3) they have a possibility to regularize their status if they can demonstrate to municipal authorities that they no longer represent “a burden” on Belgium’s public finances. Overall, confronting our data to the rich literature on undocumented third country nationals, we discuss the limits of EU citizenship as experienced by those who are denied the right to free movement. This paper relies primarily on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork (in progress) conducted with Italian and Romanian migrants in Brussels and with individuals of the same nationality who decided to leave Belgium and return to their home country after the removal of their residence permit. Additional fieldwork includes semi-directed interviews with civil society organizations, trade unions, and consular authorities. The data collection process started in May 2014 and is expected to be finished in May 2016. [less ▲]

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See detailWelfare and the creation of Undocumented EU migrants in Belgium
Mescoli, Elsa ULg; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

Conference (2016, June)

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See detailMigration policy reforms in the context of economic and political crises: the case of Belgium
Gsir, Sonia ULg; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Stanek, Mikolaj

in Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies (2016)

A body of literature has examined the role of ‘crises’ on policymaking. Yet, we observe that endogenous or exogenous events called ‘crisis-events’ are often randomly chosen as sweeping explanations for ... [more ▼]

A body of literature has examined the role of ‘crises’ on policymaking. Yet, we observe that endogenous or exogenous events called ‘crisis-events’ are often randomly chosen as sweeping explanations for reforms in migration and integration policy. Thus, we attempt to find answers for the question of how the latest financial and economic crisis affected policy-making in the area of migration and integration. We apply a combination of interestbased and ideas-based theories to the case of Belgium in order to question the role of crises in policy reforms in the field of migration and integration. Multiple political and economic crises have affected the country since 2007. Examining these crises and immigration politics we argue that electoral competition both between and within the Francophone and Flemish party systems continues to be the main driver of migration and integration policy reform. Yet, we also discover a cumulative effect of economic and political crises: while the intention of restricting immigration has remained largely unchanged over the years, the policy instruments employed to reach this objective have changed with the political and economic crises. [less ▲]

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See detailPermanence de l'utilitarisme - évolution des politiques d'immigration et d'intégration en Belgique-
Bousetta, Hassan ULg; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Politique : Revue de Débats (2016), 94(mars-avril2016), 28-31

Depuis 1974, la Belgique ne dispose plus d’une politique d’immigration proactive basée sur l’admission et le recrutement de travailleurs étrangers. Est-ce à dire que la Belgique n’a pas de politique ... [more ▼]

Depuis 1974, la Belgique ne dispose plus d’une politique d’immigration proactive basée sur l’admission et le recrutement de travailleurs étrangers. Est-ce à dire que la Belgique n’a pas de politique d’immigration comme on l’entend parfois ? Pas si vite... [less ▲]

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See detailThe external voting right of Bolivians abroad: What role for emigrants in regime transformation in their homeland?
Hinojosa Gordonava, Alfonso; Domenech, Eduardo; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

in Emmerich, Gustavo; Alarcon Olguin, Victor (Eds.) Sufragio Transnacional y Extraterritorial Experiencias Comparadas (2016)

In this chapter, we propose to analyze the development of the external voting issue in the Bolivian political context between 2003 and 2009. Examining the evolution of relations between the Bolivian ... [more ▼]

In this chapter, we propose to analyze the development of the external voting issue in the Bolivian political context between 2003 and 2009. Examining the evolution of relations between the Bolivian Government and its diaspora (particularly a er the coming to power of Evo Morales Ayma in 2006), we will demonstrate how the topic has progressively become central within Bolivian politics and how emigrants have played an active part in their own enfranchisement. In particular, we will see how “the process of change” instigated by the Morales government has found an extension among citizens abroad. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit de vote à distance: Emergence d'un objet de recherche et apport au champ de la sociologie électorale
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

Conference (2015, October 01)

Dans cet article, nous présentons tout d’abord l’émergence du droit de vote à distance comme objet de recherche dans le champ la théorie politique et des études migratoires. Ces travaux caractérisés par ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous présentons tout d’abord l’émergence du droit de vote à distance comme objet de recherche dans le champ la théorie politique et des études migratoires. Ces travaux caractérisés par leur dimension exploratoire, nous permettent toutefois de définir le droit de vote à distance et d’identifier les caractéristiques essentielles qui le différencie aujourd’hui des pratiques antérieures. Nous présentons ensuite les travaux sur la diffusion de la norme qui depuis moins d’une décennie ont constitué le principal angle d’entrée de la science politique sur le droit de vote à distance. Dans la troisième et dernière partie de l’article, nous défendons enfin l’intérêt d’une approche transnationale des questions électorales dans les études électorales. Cette approche, comme nous le défendons, permet d’éclairer non seulement le comportement des expatriés mais plus largement la transformation des pratiques électorales ici et là-bas. [less ▲]

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See detailCitizens abroad and Regional Elections: A diffusionist Perspective
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Arrighi, Jean-Thomas

Conference (2015, September 06)

In this paper we shift the focus away from the state to the regional demos with the aim to introduce the notion of scale in the study of external voting. It is divided into three parts. Following a ... [more ▼]

In this paper we shift the focus away from the state to the regional demos with the aim to introduce the notion of scale in the study of external voting. It is divided into three parts. Following a preliminary discussion on the external franchise from a sub-state perspective, we proceed with a comparative overview of the rules of acquisition and loss of the franchise in regional elections and show that the extension of the franchise to ‘regional expatriates’ is a relatively exceptional practice. We then identify factors that in our view are key to understand the absence of a vertical diffusion of the external franchise to lower levels of government, in sharp contrast with its rapid horizontal diffusion at the state level. The second part examines the debates surrounding the inclusion and exclusion of the franchise in three cases of protracted nationalist mobilization that translated into far reaching territorial autonomy: Catalonia, Scotland and Flanders. The third and final section contrasts the similarities and differences that can be found between our three cases and reflects upon the lessons that can be drawn from them. [less ▲]

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See detailDiaspora Contributions to Democratic Processes at Home: The External Vote of Andean Migrants
Bermudez Torres, Anastasia ULg; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

Conference (2015, June 22)

This paper focuses on the external vote and wider transnational political participation of Andean migrants from Colombia and Bolivia. Its main aim is to discuss the contributions of these diasporas to ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the external vote and wider transnational political participation of Andean migrants from Colombia and Bolivia. Its main aim is to discuss the contributions of these diasporas to democratic and wider political processes in the home countries. The two cases considered offer a good opportunity to do so, since in the last few decades they have put forward new mechanisms for the political inclusion of their nationals abroad, but in different historical, socioeconomic and political contexts. Key amongst these initiatives has been the extension of voting rights to nationals abroad. One of the objectives is thus to compare the different reasons and mechanisms used by states to implement external voting policies, as well as migrant participation in elections. Migrants from the three countries have participated to a lesser or greater degree in the development of such policies and the practice of voting from abroad. A comparison of their participation rates in each case and the reasons for voting or not might allow us to find out more about the success or failure of such processes. Equally, different governments, parties and other state and political institutions in the home countries have related differently to the diasporas, often based on the supposed political allegiances or ideological inclinations of these groups. Based on all this, the two national communities abroad studied have played different roles in key recent political processes in their home countries, such as the emergence of an ethno- nationalist-left government in Bolivia, and efforts for greater democracy and the end of the armed conflict in Colombia. This paper is based on quantitative and qualitative data, as well as secondary information, obtained by the authors through different research projects carried out over the last few years with migrants from the two countries studied. The text looks next at the theoretical framework for the research, before analysing in detail the two cases considered. The last develops a comparative discussion and presents concluding perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailAccess to Electoral Rights Bolivia
Zegada, Maria Teresa; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

The issue of passive and active electoral rights in Bolivia has gone through various phases that are examined in details in this article. Universal suffrage in Bolivia occurred around the same time as in ... [more ▼]

The issue of passive and active electoral rights in Bolivia has gone through various phases that are examined in details in this article. Universal suffrage in Bolivia occurred around the same time as in most states in that region: in the middle of the 20th century. The next wave of reforms occurred during the 1980s when dictatorships were removed from power. At that time, processes of democratization intensified in Bolivia and other parts of Latin America, eventually leading to the progressive strengthening of democratic institutions. It is really during the 1990s and early 2000s that the most important democratic transformations occurred. Major institutional reforms were passed during this period in particular to increase the participation of women and indigenous peoples in public affairs. The inclusion of the principles of gender equality and interculturality in the new constitution of 2009 is one of the clearest sign of this new approach. Similarly, another sector of the Bolivian population that had been traditionally prevented from exercising political rights. that is, Bolivians residing abroad have been closely attended to by the Evo Morales government since 2006. After the first external voting experience in 2009, the system was once again reformed to enable greater participation from abroad in the 2014 presidential election. These elements confirm that the extension of political rights in Bolivia is a process that has gone trough major changes over the past two decades but remains a work in process. [less ▲]

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See detailTransnational Health Insurance Schemes: A New Avenue for Congolese Immigrants in Belgium to Care for Their Relatives’ Health from Abroad?
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Lizin, Olivier

E-print/Working paper (2015)

What can immigrants do for non-migrant relatives in their home country who need healthcare they cannot afford? To answer this question, we first examine four existing methods that can be found in the ... [more ▼]

What can immigrants do for non-migrant relatives in their home country who need healthcare they cannot afford? To answer this question, we first examine four existing methods that can be found in the existing literature: mobility, remittances, workers’ health insurance and diasporic health insurance. In the second part of the paper, we discuss an innovative strategy called “transnational health insurance” (THI). These insurance schemes are set up by immigrants in cooperation with a multitude of actors including health insurance companies in destination countries and healthcare providers in countries origin. THIs offer health coverage to non-migrant relatives in the home country based on a premium paid directly by immigrants to the insurance company in their country of residence. Analyzing the creation and implementation of Belgian-Congolese THIs, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these schemes in responding to the needs of both immigrants and their non-migrant relatives. The article concludes with a discussion on the specificities of THIs as hybrid forms of remittances. [less ▲]

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See detailUne brève histoire migratoire de la Belgique
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Martiniello, Marco ULg; Rea, Andrea

in Simon, Gildas (Ed.) Dictionnaire des migrations internationales (2015)

Historically, Belgium has refused to see itself has both an emigration and an immigration country. This entry in the dictionary discusses the main steps of Belgium's migration history as well as the ... [more ▼]

Historically, Belgium has refused to see itself has both an emigration and an immigration country. This entry in the dictionary discusses the main steps of Belgium's migration history as well as the consequences of this long-lasting denial. [less ▲]

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See detailIntra-European Mobility: Patterns of Immigration Flows and Policies
Barbulescu, Roxana; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Stanek, Mikolaj

in Europa, Publications (Ed.) Western Europe 2016 (2015)

For decades, immigration has been at the core of the political and social debate in Europe. In the post-crisis environment, recent events have inflamed the migration agenda further, as freedom of movement ... [more ▼]

For decades, immigration has been at the core of the political and social debate in Europe. In the post-crisis environment, recent events have inflamed the migration agenda further, as freedom of movement is an essential decision-making point in the planned referendum on European Union (EU) membership in the United Kingdom, and the humanitarian crisis in the Mediterranean is testing the limits of the EU and of its member states to manage migration in a humane and fair way. Large- scale immigration has long challenged the Westphalian tradition of nation-state sovereignty in Europe (Joppke, 1998). However, these tensions have only increased over the last decade, following conflicts in Europe’s neighbourhood, the fall of the ‘Iron Curtain’ and the eastern enlargement of the EU, or the 2008 global economic and financial crisis. If until recently the most controversial aspect of immigration has been migrants and asylum-seekers from outside the EU and an invisibility of European migration and European migrants, in the last few years we observe that the very principle of migration from the other member states is challenged in a systematic manner for the first time since its proclamation in the Treaty of Rome (establishing the European Economic Community in 1958). The rebellion against the status quo on freedom of movement of people in the EU is led by Western European states. They are the almost exclusive receivers of EU migration, either from the other Western European states, or from the new member states in Central and Western Europe. This essay traces the transformation of EU migration over the last decade, following the most recent enlargements and the south–north migration which has re-emerged since the financial crisis, and examines the causes of an unprecedented contestation of free movement rights. [less ▲]

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See detailThe political choices of emigrants voting in home country elections: A socio-political analysis of the electoral behaviour of Bolivian external voters
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Sanchez-Dominguez, Maria

in Migration Studies (2015), 3(2), 155-181

What variables influence the electoral behaviour of citizens voting in home country elections from abroad? Despite the growing interest of migration scholars for the topic of external voting, this ... [more ▼]

What variables influence the electoral behaviour of citizens voting in home country elections from abroad? Despite the growing interest of migration scholars for the topic of external voting, this question remains largely unanswered. Basing ourselves on the existing political science literature on electoral behaviour and on the migration literature on immigrants’ participation in host country politics, we isolate different hypotheses that explain emigrants’ preferences in home country politics. We then build four models of voters based on these hypotheses: the social group voter, the ideological voter, the interest-driven voter, and the transnational voter. In the second part of the paper, we verify the validity of these models using the results of a survey carried out with Bolivian emigrants who took part in the 2009 Bolivian presidential election from abroad. Overall, this article identifies the drivers of immigrant transnational political participation and contributes to current debates on social remittances. [less ▲]

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See detailTransnational Politics as Cultural Circulation: Toward a Conceptual Understanding of Migrant Political Participation on the Move
Boccagni, Paolo; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Levitt, Peggy

in Mobilities (2015)

This article contributes to the burgeoning literature on transnational politics by bringing tools used by scholars of cultural diffusion and circulation into these debates. We build on research on social ... [more ▼]

This article contributes to the burgeoning literature on transnational politics by bringing tools used by scholars of cultural diffusion and circulation into these debates. We build on research on social remittances and their potential to yield broader and deeper effects or to ‘scale up’ and ‘scale out.’ Based on a variety of empirical examples, we propose that processes such as circulation, portability, and contact, viewed through a transnational optic, help to nuance recent research on political transnationalism and its empirical indicators – including, most notably, external voting. [less ▲]

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See detailThe enfranchisement of citizens abroad: variations and explanations
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

in Democratization (2015)

Today, a large majority of states allow at least some of their emigrants to take part in home country elections from abroad. This article first looks at the diffusion of external voting laws and shows ... [more ▼]

Today, a large majority of states allow at least some of their emigrants to take part in home country elections from abroad. This article first looks at the diffusion of external voting laws and shows that over the past 25 years they have become widely-adopted and are no longer limited to specific professional categories of citizens. Second, the article explains the international diffusion of external voting by discussing the “norm- internationalization hypothesis” and the “electoral-competition hypothesis.” Third, the article attempts to demonstrate that these hypotheses cannot explain why, in a democratic context, states continue to implement a series of hurdles that deter emigrants from using their newly gained rights. Looking at recent developments in Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa, it concludes that the diffusion and variations of external voting laws result from transnational negotiation processes in a context of democratic transformation among various actors whose interests are strongly affected by the inclusion or exclusion of these new voters. [less ▲]

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See detailTransnacionalismo y circulación migratoria: dos visiones para repensar el vínculo entre migración y desarrollo
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Yépez del Castillo, Isabel

in Herrera, Gioconda (Ed.) El vínculo entre migración y desarrollo a debate Miradas desde Ecuadory América Latina (2014)

En la primera parte de este capítulo, definimos precisamente ambos conceptos de migracion transnacional e migracion circular, e identificamos en detalle el contexto en el cual nacieron. Luego ... [more ▼]

En la primera parte de este capítulo, definimos precisamente ambos conceptos de migracion transnacional e migracion circular, e identificamos en detalle el contexto en el cual nacieron. Luego, distinguimos los conceptos de transnacionalismo y circulación migratoria en dos etapas. Primero vemos que, al contrario de la circulación migratoria, una actividad transnacional no se define necesariamente por su movimiento físico. Segundo, vemos el énfasis de la perspectiva de la circulación en la regularidad y repetición de los movimientos circulatorios a lo largo del tiempo. A continuación discutimos los dos conceptos a través de sus percepciones sobre tres elementos: sus definiciones del migrante; la manera en que establecen el vínculo los migrantes con el Estado-Nación; y los territorios. Para concluir este artículo, proponemos varias pistas de reflexión que nos indican cómo un diálogo mayor entre estas dos escuelas alimenta el debate global sobre migración y desarrollo. [less ▲]

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See detailEl impacto de las migraciones cochabambinas en el marco de las transformaciones globales de las migraciones
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Ledo, Carmen; Yepez, Isabel

in Solé, Carlota; Parella, Sonia; Cavalcanti, Leonardo (Eds.) Migración boliviana y prácticas transnacionales (2014)

¿Donde se ubica Bolivia en los cambios migratorios de la era global caracterizados por sus vínculos transnacionales? Para responder esta pregunta, se investiga el caso de los emigrantes procedentes de la ... [more ▼]

¿Donde se ubica Bolivia en los cambios migratorios de la era global caracterizados por sus vínculos transnacionales? Para responder esta pregunta, se investiga el caso de los emigrantes procedentes de la ciudad de Cochabamba. En esta ciudad, en marzo del 2009 el CEPLAG-CIUF, realizamos una encuesta de gran amplitud con el propósito de entender las diversas facetas de las migraciones cochabambinas contemporáneas y determinar cómo estas se relacionan con las tendencias globales que acabamos de destacar . Los resultados de dicha encuesta son la base de este artículo. En vista de los requerimientos estadísticos y analíticos del estudio, para realizar la encuesta se visitaron alrededor de 40 mil predios y se encuestaron 15 400 mil hogares. Un tercio de los hogares encuestados declaró tener al menos un familiar en el extranjero. Estos hogares se denominan en este artículo “hogares transmigrantes”. [less ▲]

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See detailLondon or New York? Mobility Options of Young Belgians in Times of Crises
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

Conference (2013, September 26)

Since the beginning of the financial and economic crisis, Belgium has experienced a new influx of Southern European immigration while continuing to receive large numbers EU citizens proceeding from ... [more ▼]

Since the beginning of the financial and economic crisis, Belgium has experienced a new influx of Southern European immigration while continuing to receive large numbers EU citizens proceeding from Central and Eastern European Member States. This reality is however hiding the fact that, simultaneously, a large number of Belgian citizens continue to leave the country every year. Belgian emigration has indeed tripled between 1970 and 2011 and nowadays about 35.000 citizens leave the country every year. Despite the increase in the number of Belgian pensioners retiring abroad, the modal age of departure remains low (26 years old). In this paper, I propose to examine two related questions on the emigration of young Belgians. First, what are the motivations of young Belgians to leave their home country today even though Belgium seems to be resisting better than most Member States to the economic crisis? Second, what drives Belgian emigrants to specific cities abroad? [less ▲]

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See detailThe Enfranchisement of Citizens Abroad in a Comparative Perspective
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

Scientific conference (2013, September 19)

In this article, I start by looking at the historical origin of external voting in an attempt to define the practice as a set of administrative procedures. However, looking at its speedy global ... [more ▼]

In this article, I start by looking at the historical origin of external voting in an attempt to define the practice as a set of administrative procedures. However, looking at its speedy global development, I argue that external voting is taking a different meaning for both sending and receiving societies in the era of globalization. Drawing on different examples from Europe, Latin America and Africa, and comparing the early development of external voting legislations with contemporary processes that lead to the enfranchisement of citizens abroad, I argue that the enfranchisement of citizens abroad is now part of a larger state strategy of developing external citizenship in order to capture what some scholars call the “diaspora resource”. For receiving states, I show through two case studies that the development of foreign electoral campaigns on their territory still triggers classic Westphalian fears of dual loyalties of immigrants. Nonetheless, I show that under specific circumstances, external voting can also be perceived by receiving states an opportunity to capture the votes of citizens enfranchised in both the sending and receiving societies. [less ▲]

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See detailAccess to Electoral Rights Belgium
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

Report (2013)

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