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See detailA comparison between visual estimates and image analysis measurements to determine Septoria leaf blotch severity in winter wheat
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Mackels, Christophe et al

in Plant Pathology (2015)

Methods to estimate disease severity vary in accuracy, reliability, ease of use and cost. Severity of Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria graminicola) was estimated by four raters and by ... [more ▼]

Methods to estimate disease severity vary in accuracy, reliability, ease of use and cost. Severity of Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria graminicola) was estimated by four raters and by image analysis (assumed actual values) on individual leaves of winter wheat in order to explore accuracy and reliability of estimates, and to ascertain whether there were any general characteristics of error. Specifically, (i) we determined the accuracy and reliability of visual assessments of SLB over the full range of severity from 0 to 100%, and we investigated (ii) whether certain 10% ranges in actual disease severity between 0 and 100% were more prone to estimation error compared with others, and (iii) whether leaf position affected accuracy within those ranges. Lin's concordance correlation analysis of all severities (0 to 100%) demonstrated that all raters had estimates close to the actual values (agreement: ρc = 0.92-0.99). However, agreement between actual SLB severities and estimates by raters was less good when compared over short 10% subdivisions within the 0-100% range (ρc = -0.12 to 0.99). Despite common rater imprecision at estimating low and high SLB severities, individual raters differed considerably in their accuracy over the short 10% subdivisions. There was no effect of leaf position on accuracy or precision of severity estimate on separate leaves (L1-L3). Pursuing efforts in understanding error in disease estimation should aid in improving the accuracy of assessments, making visual estimates of disease severity more useful for research and applied purposes. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomics of a decision-support system for managing the main fungal diseases of winter wheat in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Beyer, Marco et al

in Field Crops Research (2015), 172(2), 32-41

We evaluated the cost effectiveness of a decision-support system (DSS) developed for assessing in real time the risk of progression of the main fungal diseases (i.e., Septoria leaf blotch, powdery mildew ... [more ▼]

We evaluated the cost effectiveness of a decision-support system (DSS) developed for assessing in real time the risk of progression of the main fungal diseases (i.e., Septoria leaf blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rusts and Fusarium head blight) of winter wheat in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (GDL). The study was conducted in replicated field experiments located in four agricultural locations (representative of the main agro-ecological regions of the country) over a 10-year period (2003-2012). Three fungicide spray strategies were compared: a single DSS-based system and two commonly used spray practices in the GDL, a double- (2T)- and a triple- spray (3T) spray treatment; there was also a non-treated control. In years with a high disease pressure, the DSS-based recommendation resulted in protection of the three upper leaves comparable to that achieved with the 2T and 3T treatments, with significant grain yield increases (P > 0.05) compared to the control (a 4 to 42% increase, depending on the site and year). Overall, the financial gain in treated plots compared with the control ranged from 3 to 16% at the study sites. Furthermore, in seasons when dry weather conditions precluded epidemic development, no the DSS-basedDSS recommended no fungicide spray was recommended, reducing use of fungicide, and thus saving the cost of the product. The gain in yield for the 2T and 3T plots (compared with control) did not necessarily result in a financial gain during the duration of the experiment. This study demonstrates the potential advantages and profitability of using a DSS -based approach for disease management. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of raters and disease assessment methods for estimating disease severity for purposes of hypothesis testing.
Bock, Clive; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis et al

in Phytopathology (2014), 104(11), 26

Assessment of disease severity is most often made visually, and estimates can be inaccurate. Nearest percent estimates (NPEs) of Septoria leaf blotch on leaves of winter wheat by four raters (R1-R4 ... [more ▼]

Assessment of disease severity is most often made visually, and estimates can be inaccurate. Nearest percent estimates (NPEs) of Septoria leaf blotch on leaves of winter wheat by four raters (R1-R4) assessing non-treated (NT) and fungicide-treated (FT) plots were compared to true values using Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) on two dates in 2006 and 2007. Estimates were converted to Horsfall-Barratt (HB) mid-points and again compared for accuracy and precision. Estimates of severity from FT and NT plots were analyzed to ascertain effects of rater using both the NPE and HB values. Regardless of method, all raters showed a range of agreement with true values on FT and NT plots (ρc = 0 to 1). Use of the HB scale most often reduced agreement (84.4% of the time), and did not improve rater-associated bias of treatment mean severity estimates. Consequently, estimates of mean severity differed significantly among raters and from true values (F=126 to 1260, P=0.002 to<0.0001). However, a comparison of treatment effects showed that the true values and R1 to R4 all demonstrated significant effects of fungicide (F=101 to 1952, P=0.002 to <0.00001). Ranking of raters differed on one occasion when HB values were used. These results demonstrate the effect of the HB scale, and the need for accurate disease assessment to minimize over or underestimates compared to true severity so as to minimize the potential for type II errors. [less ▲]

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See detailDisease severity assessment in epidemiological studies: accuracy and reliability of visual estimates of Septoria leaf blotch (SLB) in winter wheat.
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Mackels, Christophe et al

in Phytopathology (2014), 104(11), 37

The accuracy and reliability of visual assessments of SLB severity by raters (i.e. one plant pathologist with extensive experience and three other raters trained prior to field observations using standard ... [more ▼]

The accuracy and reliability of visual assessments of SLB severity by raters (i.e. one plant pathologist with extensive experience and three other raters trained prior to field observations using standard area diagrams and DISTRAIN) was determined by comparison with assumed actual values obtained by digital image analysis. Initially analyses were performed using SLB severity over the full 0-100% range; then, to explore error over short ranges of the 0-100% scale, the scale was divided into sequential 10%-increments based on the actual values. Lin’s concordance correlation (LCC) analysis demonstrated that all raters were accurate when compared over the whole severity range (LCC coefficient (ρc)= 0.92-0.99). However, agreement between actual and visual SLB severities was less good when compared over the short intervals of the 10×10% classes (ρc= -0.12-0.99), demonstrating that agreement will vary depending on the actual disease range over which it is compared. Inter-rater reliability between each pair of raters over the full 0-100% range (correlation analysis r= 0.970-0.992, P<0.0001), and inter-class correlation coefficient (ρ≥ 0.927) were very high. This study provides new insight into using a full range of actual disease severity vs limited ranges to ensure a realistic measure of rater accuracy and reliability, in addition to contributing to the ongoing debate on the use of visual disease estimates based on the 0-100% ratio scale for epidemiological research. [less ▲]

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See detailBrown rust disease control in winter wheat: II. Exploring the optimization of fungicide sprays through a decision support system
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; kOUADIO, Louis; Giraud, Frédéric et al

in Environmental Science & Pollution Research (2014), 21(4), 4809-4818

A decision support system (DSS) involving an approach for predicting wheat leaf rust (WLR) infection and progress based on night weather variables (i.e., air temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall ... [more ▼]

A decision support system (DSS) involving an approach for predicting wheat leaf rust (WLR) infection and progress based on night weather variables (i.e., air temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall) and a mechanistic model for leaf emergence and development simulation (i.e., PROCULTURE) was tested in order to schedule fungicide time spray for controlling leaf rust progress in wheat fields. Experiments including a single fungicide treatment based upon the DSS along with double and triple treatment were carried out over the 2007–2009 cropping seasons in four representative Luxembourgish wheat field locations. The study showed that the WLR occurrences and severities differed according to the site, cultivar, and year. We also found out that the single fungicide treatment based on the DSS allowed a good protection of the three upper leaves of susceptible cultivars in fields with predominant WLR occurrences. The harvested grain yield was not significantly different from that of the double and triple fungicide-treated plots (P < 0.05). Such results could serve as basis or be coupled to cost-effective and environmentally friendly crop management systems in operational context. [less ▲]

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See detailProfitability of using warning system for foliar disease of wheat in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg.
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Beyer, Marco et al

Poster (2013, August 10)

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See detailFactors affecting Tan Spot on winter wheat in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Beyer, Marco et al

in Journal of Plant Pathology [=JPP] (2013), s1

Tan spot caused by Drechslera tritici-repentis was identified for the first time in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (GDL) in 1999 on the basis of morphological characters. In order to optimize disease ... [more ▼]

Tan spot caused by Drechslera tritici-repentis was identified for the first time in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (GDL) in 1999 on the basis of morphological characters. In order to optimize disease control measures in this country, tillage methods, cultivar resistance, and fungicides effects were investigated during 1999-2009 in four sites. Over this period, only three years (i.e. 1999, 2000, and 2009) with epidemic outbreak were recorded. Field experiments showed a significant difference in disease severity between sites (P < 0.001), cultivars (P < 0.0001) and years (P < 0.001). In years with epidemic outbreak, the interaction of cultivars with non-inversion tillage, intensive winter wheat production, and favorable weather conditions caused an early outbreak of the disease and a significant severity at growth stage 83 (early dough). Non-inversion tillage was found to be a major factor increasing the tan spot severity compared to conventional tillage. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that the disease severity was related to the cultivar’s susceptibility. For cultivars with similar phenology, the severity differed between the cultivar with the highest and the one with ne lowest susceptibility by a factor of two to four. The study also showed that no fungicide (mix of triazoles and strobilurins) effect was observed in the epidemic years, except in 2000. [less ▲]

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See detailProfitability of using warning system for foliar disease of wheat in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Beyer, Marco et al

in Phytopathology (2013), 103

Although small grain cereals (i.e. winter wheat) are routinely protected with two or three foliar treatments in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (GDL), environmental concerns and changes in the cost-benefit ... [more ▼]

Although small grain cereals (i.e. winter wheat) are routinely protected with two or three foliar treatments in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (GDL), environmental concerns and changes in the cost-benefit ratio are likely to increase the demand for more accurate identification of spraying needs. A Vol. 103 (Supplement 2), No. 6, 2013 S2.39 warning system assessing in real time the risk of progression of fungal diseases on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was tested in the GDL over the 2009-2012 period in four-replicated field experiments located in three representative villages of the different agro-climatological zones. The fungicide treatments recommended by the warning system during this period have ensured economic profitability equivalent to or even better than double and triple treatments. In 2010 and 2011, weather conditions impeded fungal infections of wheat and no warning was issued, reducing fungicide use. The study also highlighted that multiple fungicide applications were not better than a single application. In 2009 and 2012, although the weather conditions were very favourable for fungal wheat diseases, the single recommended fungicide application resulted in an additional yield of 30% compared to untreated plots. This study shows the importance of the positioning of fungicide treatment in such a warning system and in strategies aiming at reducing the spread fungicide molecules in the environment. [less ▲]

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See detailOperational warning for Septoria leaf blotch and leaf rust in winter wheat: Importance of fungicide dosage, formulation, and spray time
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Beyer, Marco et al

in Phytopathology (2013), 103

Field experiments were conducted in 2010 to investigate the effect of fungicide commercial formulation, timing and dosages on the severity of these two diseases in winter wheat in Luxembourg. Different ... [more ▼]

Field experiments were conducted in 2010 to investigate the effect of fungicide commercial formulation, timing and dosages on the severity of these two diseases in winter wheat in Luxembourg. Different types of fungicides and fungicide combinations containing active ingredients such as triazoles and strobilurins were used in field trials including susceptible cultivars to Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Septoria tritici) and wheat leaf rust (WLR, caused by Puccinia triticina). The three formulations of fungicides tested were: (i) a mix of triazole and amine (Prothioconazole 250 g/l + Spiroxamine 500 g/l) associated with chlorothalonil 500 g/l, (ii) sole strobilurin (Azoxystrobine 250 g/l), and (iii) a mix of strobilurin and triazole (Epoxiconazole 125 g/l; Azoxystrobine 250 g/l). The optimum time of fungicide spray was assessed through the mechanistic model PROCULTURE and a stochastic model based on night favourable weather conditions conducive to WLR development. The results showed that for plots treated with fungicide formulation containing either a triazole or a strobilurin, the grain yield earned was not significantly different from the untreated plots (P > 0.05). Whereas single fungicide treatment involving a mixture of triazole and strobilurin at the optimum time gave an earning (on average 7 dt ha-1) compare to the control and a yield similar to that obtained with the double or triple fungicide treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of a Well-distributed Frequency of Measurements in the Senescence Monitoring of Winter Wheat and Yield Estimates
Kouadio, Louis; Djaby, Bakary ULg; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg et al

in Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology (2012), 2

Theoretical frequencies of green area index (GAI) measurements were assessed in order to bring out the optimum frequencies for the monitoring of the senescence of winter wheat as well as the relationships ... [more ▼]

Theoretical frequencies of green area index (GAI) measurements were assessed in order to bring out the optimum frequencies for the monitoring of the senescence of winter wheat as well as the relationships between metrics which could be derived and the final grain yield. Several profiles of GAI decreasing curves were elaborated based on field measurements. Two functions, usually employed in green leaf area decreasing curves fitting (i.e., modified Gompertz and logistic functions) were then used to characterize the senescence phase and to calculate their metrics. These analyses showed that the two curve fitting functions satisfactorily described the senescence phase on frequencies of four to six GAI measurements, well distributed throughout a period of 30-35 days. The regression-based modeling showed that those involving metrics from logistic function (i.e., maximum value of GAI, green area duration and senescent rate) were more suitable than that of the modified Gompertz function for wheat yield estimates. Such results could be useful for studies at larger scales (involving remote sensing airplane or satellite data) and focused on the senescence in terms of optimum number of measurements and frequencies for developing models for yield estimates. [less ▲]

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See detailTypology of the Main Fungal Diseases Affecting Winter Wheat in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Delfosse, Philippe et al

in Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology (2012), 2

Over the 2003-2009 period, field campaigns were carried out in order to identify the main fungal diseases of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Four fungal diseases ... [more ▼]

Over the 2003-2009 period, field campaigns were carried out in order to identify the main fungal diseases of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Four fungal diseases (septoria leaf blotch (SLB), wheat leaf rust (WLR), wheat powdery mildew (WPM) and fusarium head blight (FHB)) were observed and a regional-based typology was established according to their severity and prevalence. In the Gutland (South), SLB severity was strong (about 51% on average) and higher than the severity (about 16%) prevailing in the Oesling (North). Similar typology was observed with the WLR: high severity in the Gutland (66% and 57% for the years 2003 and 2007, respectively) and low severity (< 1%) in the Oesling. The FHB was also present in the Eastern part of the Gutland, with a prevalence and severity significantly higher (P = 0.049 and P = 0.012, respectively, Tukey’s test) compared with their values in the Oesling. On the other hand, the WPM severity was high in the Oesling (15% to 40%) while less than 1% in the Gutland. Such a study is important for the spatial mapping of wheat fungal diseases risk based on agroclimatic parameters and for defining optimal frequencies and dates of chemical treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailTan Spot on winter wheat in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg: Diagnostics and Evolution
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis; Beyer, Marco et al

Poster (2012, October)

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See detailRegional-based typology of the main fungal diseases affecting winter wheat.
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Delfosse, Philippe et al

Poster (2011, August 06)

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See detailNew method for establishing a network of operational warning of Septoria leaf blotch disease in winter wheat
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Defosse, Philippe et al

Poster (2011, August 06)

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See detailService operations report SENEGAL 2007
Delrue, Josefien; Barbieri, Massimo; Tychon, Bernard ULg et al

Report (2008)

GMFS (Global Monitoring for Food Security) is a GMES Service Element (GSE) project, part of the ESA contribution to the EU / ESA GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) Programme. GMFS aims ... [more ▼]

GMFS (Global Monitoring for Food Security) is a GMES Service Element (GSE) project, part of the ESA contribution to the EU / ESA GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) Programme. GMFS aims to establish an earth observation based operational service for crop monitoring to support food security decision makers and EU policy objectives. The aim of this document, as expressed in the statement of work is to: - Evaluate the operations planned versus the services agreed - Review the external infrastructure - Review issues and experiences with relation to adopted standards The aim of the document is to give a complete report of all activities executed by the service partners to deliver agricultural monitoring services to the Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE) in Senegal for the 2007 growing season. [less ▲]

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