Comprehensive clinical and molecular analysis of 12 families with type 1 recessive cutis laxa.
; ; et al
in Human Mutation (2013), 34(1), 111-21
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type I (ARCL type I) is characterized by generalized cutis laxa with pulmonary emphysema and/or vascular complications. Rarely, mutations can be identified in FBLN4 or FBLN5 ... [more ▼]
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type I (ARCL type I) is characterized by generalized cutis laxa with pulmonary emphysema and/or vascular complications. Rarely, mutations can be identified in FBLN4 or FBLN5. Recently, LTBP4 mutations have been implicated in a similar phenotype. Studying FBLN4, FBLN5, and LTBP4 in 12 families with ARCL type I, we found bi-allelic FBLN5 mutations in two probands, whereas nine probands harbored biallelic mutations in LTBP4. FBLN5 and LTBP4 mutations cause a very similar phenotype associated with severe pulmonary emphysema, in the absence of vascular tortuosity or aneurysms. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract involvement seems to be more severe in patients with LTBP4 mutations. Functional studies showed that most premature termination mutations in LTBP4 result in severely reduced mRNA and protein levels. This correlated with increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) activity. However, one mutation, c.4127dupC, escaped nonsense-mediated decay. The corresponding mutant protein (p.Arg1377Alafs(*) 27) showed reduced colocalization with fibronectin, leading to an abnormal morphology of microfibrils in fibroblast cultures, while retaining normal TGFbeta activity. We conclude that LTBP4 mutations cause disease through both loss of function and gain of function mechanisms. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 2 (1 ULg)
Loss-of-function mutations in ATP6V0A2 impair vesicular trafficking, tropoelastin secretion and cell survival.
; ; et al
in Human Molecular Genetics (2009), 18(12), 2149-65
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2 (ARCL2), a syndrome of growth and developmental delay and redundant, inelastic skin, is caused by mutations in the a2 subunit of the vesicular ATPase H+-pump ... [more ▼]
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2 (ARCL2), a syndrome of growth and developmental delay and redundant, inelastic skin, is caused by mutations in the a2 subunit of the vesicular ATPase H+-pump (ATP6V0A2). The goal of this study was to define the disease mechanisms that lead to connective tissue lesions in ARCL2. In a new cohort of 17 patients, DNA sequencing of ATP6V0A2 detected either homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations. Considerable allelic and phenotypic heterogeneity was observed, with a missense mutation of a moderately conserved residue p.P87L leading to unusually mild disease. Abnormal N- and/or mucin type O-glycosylation was observed in all patients tested. Premature stop codon mutations led to decreased ATP6V0A2 mRNA levels by destabilizing the mutant mRNA via the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. Loss of ATP6V0A2 either by siRNA knockdown or in ARCL2 cells resulted in distended Golgi cisternae, accumulation of abnormal lysosomes and multivesicular bodies. Immunostaining of ARCL2 cells showed the accumulation of tropoelastin (TE) in the Golgi and in large, abnormal intracellular and extracellular aggregates. Pulse-chase studies confirmed impaired secretion and increased intracellular retention of TE, and insoluble elastin assays showed significantly reduced extracellular deposition of mature elastin. Fibrillin-1 microfibril assembly and secreted lysyl oxidase activity were normal in ARCL2 cells. TUNEL staining demonstrated increased rates of apoptosis in ARCL2 cell cultures. We conclude that loss-of-function mutations in ATP6V0A2 lead to TE aggregation in the Golgi, impaired clearance of TE aggregates and increased apoptosis of elastogenic cells. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 ULg)
Mutations in PYCR1 cause cutis laxa with progeroid features.
; ; et al
in Nature Genetics (2009), 41(9), 1016-21
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa (ARCL) describes a group of syndromal disorders that are often associated with a progeroid appearance, lax and wrinkled skin, osteopenia and mental retardation. Homozygosity ... [more ▼]
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa (ARCL) describes a group of syndromal disorders that are often associated with a progeroid appearance, lax and wrinkled skin, osteopenia and mental retardation. Homozygosity mapping in several kindreds with ARCL identified a candidate region on chromosome 17q25. By high-throughput sequencing of the entire candidate region, we detected disease-causing mutations in the gene PYCR1. We found that the gene product, an enzyme involved in proline metabolism, localizes to mitochondria. Altered mitochondrial morphology, membrane potential and increased apoptosis rate upon oxidative stress were evident in fibroblasts from affected individuals. Knockdown of the orthologous genes in Xenopus and zebrafish led to epidermal hypoplasia and blistering that was accompanied by a massive increase of apoptosis. Our findings link mutations in PYCR1 to altered mitochondrial function and progeroid changes in connective tissues. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (3 ULg)
Vacuolar H+-ATPase d2 subunit: molecular characterization, developmental regulation, and localization to specialized proton pumps in kidney and bone.
; JOURET, François ; et al
in Journal of the American Society of Nephrology [=JASN] (2005), 16(5), 1245-56
The ubiquitous multisubunit vacuolar-type proton pump (H+- or V-ATPase) is essential for acidification of diverse intracellular compartments. It is also present in specialized forms at the plasma membrane ... [more ▼]
The ubiquitous multisubunit vacuolar-type proton pump (H+- or V-ATPase) is essential for acidification of diverse intracellular compartments. It is also present in specialized forms at the plasma membrane of intercalated cells in the distal nephron, where it is required for urine acidification, and in osteoclasts, playing an important role in bone resorption by acid secretion across the ruffled border membrane. It was reported previously that, in human, several of the renal pump's constituent subunits are encoded by genes that are different from those that are ubiquitously expressed. These paralogous proteins may be important in differential functions, targeting or regulation of H+-ATPases. They include the d subunit, where d1 is ubiquitous whereas d2 has a limited tissue expression. This article reports on an investigation of d2. It was first confirmed that in mouse, as in human, kidney and bone are two of the main sites of d2 mRNA expression. d2 mRNA and protein appear later during nephrogenesis than does the ubiquitously expressed E1 subunit. Mouse nephron-segment reverse transcription-PCR revealed detectable mRNA in all segments except thin limb of Henle's loop and distal convoluted tubule. However, with the use of a novel d2-specific antibody, high-intensity d2 staining was observed only in intercalated cells of the collecting duct in fresh-frozen human kidney, where it co-localized with the a4 subunit in the characteristic plasma membrane-enhanced pattern. In human bone, d2 co-localized with the a3 subunit in osteoclasts. This different subunit association in different tissues emphasizes the possibility of the H+-ATPase as a future therapeutic target. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)