References of "Kjærgaard, P"
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See detailOGLE-2008-BLG-510: first automated real-time detection of a weak microlensing anomaly - brown dwarf or stellar binary?
Bozza, V.; Dominik, M.; Rattenbury, N. J. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2012), 424

The microlensing event OGLE-2008-BLG-510 is characterized by an evident asymmetric shape of the peak, promptly detected by the Automated Robotic Terrestrial Exoplanet Microlensing Search (ARTEMiS) system ... [more ▼]

The microlensing event OGLE-2008-BLG-510 is characterized by an evident asymmetric shape of the peak, promptly detected by the Automated Robotic Terrestrial Exoplanet Microlensing Search (ARTEMiS) system in real time. The skewness of the light curve appears to be compatible both with binary-lens and binary-source models, including the possibility that the lens system consists of an M dwarf orbited by a brown dwarf. The detection of this microlensing anomaly and our analysis demonstrate that: (1) automated real-time detection of weak microlensing anomalies with immediate feedback is feasible, efficient and sensitive, (2) rather common weak features intrinsically come with ambiguities that are not easily resolved from photometric light curves, (3) a modelling approach that finds all features of parameter space rather than just the 'favourite model' is required and (4) the data quality is most crucial, where systematics can be confused with real features, in particular small higher order effects such as orbital motion signatures. It moreover becomes apparent that events with weak signatures are a silver mine for statistical studies, although not easy to exploit. Clues about the apparent paucity of both brown-dwarf companions and binary-source microlensing events might hide here. Based in part on data collected by MiNDSTEp with the Danish 1.54m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. [less ▲]

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See detailFrequency of Solar-like Systems and of Ice and Gas Giants Beyond the Snow Line from High-magnification Microlensing Events in 2005-2008
Gould, A.; Dong, Subo; Gaudi, B. S. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2010), 720

We present the first measurement of the planet frequency beyond the "snow line," for the planet-to-star mass-ratio interval –4.5 < log q < –2, corresponding to the range of ice giants to gas giants. We ... [more ▼]

We present the first measurement of the planet frequency beyond the "snow line," for the planet-to-star mass-ratio interval –4.5 < log q < –2, corresponding to the range of ice giants to gas giants. We find \endgraf\vbox{\begin{center}$\displaystyle{d^2 N{_{\rm pl}}\over d\log q\, d\log s} = (0.36\pm 0.15)\;{\rm dex}^{-2}$\end{center}}\noindentat the mean mass ratio q = 5 × 10 –4 with no discernible deviation from a flat (Öpik's law) distribution in log-projected separation s. The determination is based on a sample of six planets detected from intensive follow-up observations of high-magnification ( A>200) microlensing events during 2005-2008. The sampled host stars have a typical mass M host ~ 0.5 M sun [less ▲]

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See detailOGLE 2008-BLG-290: an accurate measurement of the limb darkening of a galactic bulge K Giant spatially resolved by microlensing
Fouqué, P.; Heyrovský, D.; Dong, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 518

Context. Not only is gravitational microlensing a successful tool for discovering distant exoplanets, but it also enables characterization of the lens and source stars involved in the lensing event. <BR ... [more ▼]

Context. Not only is gravitational microlensing a successful tool for discovering distant exoplanets, but it also enables characterization of the lens and source stars involved in the lensing event. <BR /> Aims: In high-magnification events, the lens caustic may cross over the source disk, which allows determination of the angular size of the source and measurement of its limb darkening. <BR /> Methods: When such extended-source effects appear close to maximum magnification, the resulting light curve differs from the characteristic Paczyński point-source curve. The exact shape of the light curve close to the peak depends on the limb darkening of the source. Dense photometric coverage permits measurement of the respective limb-darkening coefficients. <BR /> Results: In the case of the microlensing event OGLE 2008-BLG-290, the K giant source star reached a peak magnification at about 100. Thirteen different telescopes have covered this event in eight different photometric bands. Subsequent light-curve analysis yielded measurements of linear limb-darkening coefficients of the source in six photometric bands. The best-measured coefficients lead to an estimate of the source effective temperature of about 4700[SUP]+100[/SUP][SUB]-200[/SUB] K. However, the photometric estimate from colour-magnitude diagrams favours a cooler temperature of 4200 ± 100 K. <BR /> Conclusions: Because the limb-darkening measurements, at least in the CTIO/SMARTS2 V_s- and I_s-bands, are among the most accurate obtained, the above disagreement needs to be understood. A solution is proposed, which may apply to previous events where such a discrepancy also appeared. [less ▲]

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See detailRealisation of a fully-deterministic microlensing observing strategy for inferring planet populations
Dominik, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Rattenbury, N. J. et al

in Astronomische Nachrichten (2010), 331

Within less than 15 years, the count of known planets orbiting stars other than the Sun has risen from none to more than 400 with detections arising from four successfully applied techniques: Doppler ... [more ▼]

Within less than 15 years, the count of known planets orbiting stars other than the Sun has risen from none to more than 400 with detections arising from four successfully applied techniques: Doppler-wobbles, planetary transits, gravitational microlensing, and direct imaging. While the hunt for twin Earths is on, a statistically well-defined sample of the population of planets in all their variety is required for probing models of planet formation and orbital evolution so that the origin of planets that harbour life, like and including ours, can be understood. Given the different characteristics of the detection techniques, a complete picture can only arise from a combination of their respective results. Microlensing observations are well-suited to reveal statistical properties of the population of planets orbiting stars in either the Galactic disk or bulge from microlensing observations, but a mandatory requirement is the adoption of strictly-deterministic criteria for selecting targets and identifying signals. Here, we describe a fully-deterministic strategy realised by means of the ARTEMiS (Automated Robotic Terrestrial Exoplanet Microlensing Search) system at the Danish 1.54-m telescope at ESO La Silla between June and August 2008 as part of the MiNDSTEp (Microlensing Network for the Detection of Small Terrestrial Exoplanets) campaign, making use of immediate feedback on suspected anomalies recognized by the SIGNALMEN anomaly detector. We demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of such an approach, and thereby the readiness for studying planet populations down to Earth mass and even below, with ground-based observations. While the quality of the real-time photometry is a crucial factor on the efficiency of the campaign, an impairment of the target selection by data of bad quality can be successfully avoided. With a smaller slew time, smaller dead time, and higher through-put, modern robotic telescopes could significantly outperform the 1.54-m Danish, whereas lucky-imaging cameras could set new standards for high-precision follow-up monitoring of microlensing events. Based on data collected by the MiNDSTEp consortium with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. [less ▲]

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See detailFrequency of Solar-Like Systems and Planet Mass-Ratio Distribution Function Beyond the Snow Line from High-Magnification Microlensing Events
Gould, A.; Dong, S.; Gaudi, B~S et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2010), 720

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See detailHigh-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - I. The transiting planetary system WASP-5
Southworth, John; Hinse, T. C.; Jørgensen, U. G. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2009), 396

We present high-precision photometry of two transit events of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-5, obtained with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at European Southern Obseratory La Silla. In order to ... [more ▼]

We present high-precision photometry of two transit events of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-5, obtained with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at European Southern Obseratory La Silla. In order to minimize both random and flat-fielding errors, we defocused the telescope so its point spread function approximated an annulus of diameter 40 pixel (16 arcsec). Data reduction was undertaken using standard aperture photometry plus an algorithm for optimally combining the ensemble of comparison stars. The resulting light curves have point-to-point scatters of 0.50mmag for the first transit and 0.59mmag for the second. We construct detailed signal-to-noise ratio calculations for defocused photometry, and apply them to our observations. We model the light curves with the JKTEBOP code and combine the results with tabulated predictions from theoretical stellar evolutionary models to derive the physical properties of the WASP-5 system. We find that the planet has a mass of M[SUB]b[/SUB] = 1.637 +/- 0.075 +/- 0.033M[SUB]Jup[/SUB], a radius of R[SUB]b[/SUB] = 1.171 +/- 0.056 +/- 0.012R [SUB]Jup[/SUB], a large surface gravity of g[SUB]b[/SUB] = 29.6 +/- 2.8ms[SUP]-2[/SUP] and a density of rho[SUB]b[/SUB] = 1.02 +/- 0.14 +/- 0.01rho[SUB]Jup[/SUB] (statistical and systematic uncertainties). The planet's high equilibrium temperature of T[SUB]eq[/SUB] = 1732 +/- 80K makes it a good candidate for detecting secondary eclipses. Based on data collected by Microlensing Network for the Detection of Small Terrestrial Exoplanets (MiNDSTEp) with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. E-mail: j.k.taylor@warwick.ac.uk â ¡ Royal Society University Research Fellow. [less ▲]

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