References of "Kirschvink, Nathalie"
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See detailDevelopmental profiles of GFAP-positive astrocytes in sheep cerebellum
Salouci, Moustafa ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (2014)

Astroglial account for the largest glial population in the brain and play a variety of vital functions in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). An immunohistochemical study was performed in ... [more ▼]

Astroglial account for the largest glial population in the brain and play a variety of vital functions in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). An immunohistochemical study was performed in 19 ovine foetuses ranging from two to five months of gestation, one newborn lamb and three adult sheep. Using the anit-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) marker, several variations were found in the degree of GFAP positive (GFAP+) astrocyte distribution between the different zones in the cerebellum of sheep during brain development. Our study indicates that the first appearance of astrocytes from restricted zones in the cerebellum occurs around the eighth week of gestation. Bergmann cells were found to be present from around the 15th week of gestation onwards. Our findings suggest that the maturation of astrocytes begins in the caudal parts of the cerebellum, developing from their initial ventral regions to spread first to dorsal regions radially within the white matter, then followed by the more rostral parts of the cerebellum. Astrocytes were also found to proliferate in the vermis before appearing in the cerebellar hemispheres. [less ▲]

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See detailStrategies for Using the Sheep Ovarian Cortex as a Model in Reproductive Medicine
Fransolet, Maïté ULg; Labied, Soraya ULg; Henry, Laurie ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(3), 91073

Objective: To evaluate and compare the distribution and density of primordial follicles within a whole sheep ovary and to gain insight into how to overcome the impact of natural follicular heterogeneity ... [more ▼]

Objective: To evaluate and compare the distribution and density of primordial follicles within a whole sheep ovary and to gain insight into how to overcome the impact of natural follicular heterogeneity on the experimental results. Design: Histological study. Setting: Academic research center. Animals: Five- to nine-month-old ewes. Interventions: Freshly sampled whole sheep ovaries were collected and prepared for histological analysis. Main Outcome Measure(s): The follicular densities and distributions were determined for hematoxylin and eosin sections. A mathematical model was derived based on the follicle counts and Monte-Carlo simulations. Results: Heterogeneous distributions and densities of primordial follicles were identified 1) for distinct areas of the same ovarian cortex, 2) between the ovaries of the same animal and 3) across different ewes. A mathematical model based on the analysis of 37,153 primordial follicles from 8 different ovaries facilitated the estimation of the number of cortical biopsies and sections that had to be analyzed to overcome such heterogeneity. Conclusion: The influence of physiological follicular heterogeneity on experimental and clinical results can be overcome when a definite number of cortical pieces and sections are taken into consideration. [less ▲]

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See detailBiochemical composition of cartilage with naturally occurring defects in the ovine femora-tibial joint
Matagne, A; Clegg, P; Tew, S et al

in Osteoporosis International (2014), 25(S2), 173

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See detailComparaison des populations de Culicoides Latreille 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) présentes au sein d’une bergerie belge et d’une prairie ovine associée
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg; Saegerman, Claude et al

in Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (2013), 49(4), 446-459

Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) serve as biological vectors for several pathogens, including the Bluetongue virus and the recently described Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe ... [more ▼]

Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) serve as biological vectors for several pathogens, including the Bluetongue virus and the recently described Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. These diseases have caused considerable direct and indirect economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. This study undertaken between August and December 2007 on a sheep farm in the Namur province (Belgium) aims to evaluate Culicoides populations present inside a partially opened sheepfold and in a nearby sheep meadow, using light traps. The comparative analysis of insects trapped at 18 dates at regular intervals showed that Culicoides were most abundant Inside this livestock building (17,450 midges) than in surrounding meadow (1,121 midges); this meadow had however a greater species diversity. The two species C. obsoletus and C. scoticus constituting the Obsoletus complex predominated for all trappings and females were much more numerous than males. Important capture of engorged females of the Obsoletus complex inside the sheepfold seems to reflect the possibility of an opportunistic endophagous behavior. Maintaining sheep inside livestock buildings in order to reduce the risk of Culicoides bites – and thus of pathogens transmission – however requires to limit biting midge populations which are likely to enter or to develop inside these buildings. Implementation of effective sanitation and hygiene measures against midges present inside farms, as well as establishing of measures to protect livestock against intrusion and improvement of “midge-proofing” of animal housing are therefore highly recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of Astrocytes in the Sheep Cerebellum
Salouci, Moustafa ULg; Antoine, Nadine; Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg et al

Scientific conference (2013, October 11)

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See detailDevelopment of Purkinje cells in the ovine brain
Salouci, Moustafa ULg; Engelen, Virginie; Gyan, Mathilda et al

Poster (2013, July 18)

Purkinje cells are involved in many vital functions within the body. Twenty ovine fetuses ranging from 2 to 5 months of gestation, two lambs in the first week after birth and three adult sheep were ... [more ▼]

Purkinje cells are involved in many vital functions within the body. Twenty ovine fetuses ranging from 2 to 5 months of gestation, two lambs in the first week after birth and three adult sheep were studied. Sections of the cerebellum were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, cresyl violet and Klu¨ver–Barrera. This study indicates that Purkinje cells began to appear after the 15th week of gestation. There were varying degrees of development of Purkinje cells in different zones of the cerebellum. Our findings in sheep fetuses suggest that the maturation of Purkinje cells starts in the caudal regions of the cerebellum and that the process begins in the vermis before it does in the cerebellar hemispheres. The alignment of Purkinje cells was found to be very regular in the caudal regions of the cerebellum. A partial absence of Purkinje cells in the rostral regions of the cerebellum was observed in both sheep fetuses and adult sheep. In the first post-natal week, some ectopic Purkinje cells were found in the white matter of the cerebellum. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of naturally occuring cartilage defects in the ovine knee
Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Hontoir, Fanny; Kirschvink, Nathalie et al

in Osteoarthritis and cartilage (2013), 21

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See detailDevelopment of Purkinje cells in the ovine brain
Salouci, Moustafa ULg; Engelen, Virginie; Gyan, Mathilda et al

in Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia (2012), 41(3), 227232

Purkinje cells are involved in many vital functions within the body. Twenty ovine fetuses ranging from 2 to 5 months of gestation, two lambs in the first week after birth and three adult sheep were ... [more ▼]

Purkinje cells are involved in many vital functions within the body. Twenty ovine fetuses ranging from 2 to 5 months of gestation, two lambs in the first week after birth and three adult sheep were studied. Sections of the cerebellum were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, cresyl violet and Klu¨ver–Barrera. This study indicates that Purkinje cells began to appear after the 15th week of gestation. There were varying degrees of development of Purkinje cells in different zones of the cerebellum. Our findings in sheep fetuses suggest that the maturation of Purkinje cells starts in the caudal regions of the cerebellum and that the process begins in the vermis before it does in the cerebellar hemispheres. The alignment of Purkinje cells was found to be very regular in the caudal regions of the cerebellum. A partial absence of Purkinje cells in the rostral regions of the cerebellum was observed in both sheep fetuses and adult sheep. In the first post-natal week, some ectopic Purkinje cells were found in the white matter of the cerebellum. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidisciplinary and Evidence-based Method for Prioritizing Diseases of Food-producing Animals and Zoonoses
Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Vandeputte, Sébastien ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2012), 18(4),

To prioritize 100 animal diseases and zoonoses in Europe, we used a multicriteria decision-making procedure based on opinions of experts and evidence-based data. Forty international experts performed ... [more ▼]

To prioritize 100 animal diseases and zoonoses in Europe, we used a multicriteria decision-making procedure based on opinions of experts and evidence-based data. Forty international experts performed intracategory and intercategory weighting of 57 prioritization criteria. Two methods (deterministic with mean of each weight and probabilistic with distribution functions of weights by using Monte Carlo simulation) were used to calculate a score for each disease. Consecutive ranking was established. Few differences were observed between each method. Compared with previous prioritization methods, our procedure is evidence based, includes a range of fields and criteria while considering uncertainty, and will be useful for analyzing diseases that affect public health [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroimmune connections in ovine pharyngeal tonsil: potential site for prion neuroinvasion
Toppets, Vinciane ULg; Piret, Joëlle ULg; Kirschvink, Nathalie et al

in Cell & Tissue Research (2012)

Recent studies have proved the possible implication of nasal associated lymphoid tissues, mainly the pharyngeal tonsil, in prion pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms of this neuroinvasion are still being ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have proved the possible implication of nasal associated lymphoid tissues, mainly the pharyngeal tonsil, in prion pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms of this neuroinvasion are still being debated. To determine the potential sites for prion neuroinvasion inside the ovine pharyngeal tonsil, the topography of neurofilaments heavy (200 kDa) (NFH), neurofilaments light (70 kDa) (NFL) and glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) was semi-quantitatively analysed inside the different compartments of the tonsil. The results showed that the most innervated areas were the interfollicular area and the connective tissue located beneath the respiratory epithelium. Even if the germinal centre of the lymphoid follicles was poorly innervated, the existence of rare follicular dendritic cell-nerve synapses inside the germinal centre indicates that this mechanism of neuroinvasion is possible but unlikely to be unique. The host PRNP genotype did not influence the pattern of innervation in these different tonsil compartments, unlike age: an increase of nerve endings in a zone of high trafficking cells beneath the respiratory epithelium occurred with ageing. A minimal age-related increase of innervation inside the lymphoid follicles was also observed. An increase in nerve fibre density around the lymphoid follicles, in an area rich in mobile cells able to transport PrPd, could ensure a more efficient infectivity, not in the early phase but in the advanced phase of lymphoinvasion after amplification of PrPd, or could act as direct site of entry during neuroinvasion. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication d’une méthodologie fondée sur la multidisciplinarité et la médecine factuelle pour ordonnancer et classer les maladies des animaux producteurs de denrées alimentaires et les zoonoses
Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Vandeputte, Sébastien ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in Epidémiologie et Santé Animale (2012), 62

Le processus de hiérarchisation présenté dans ce travail repose sur une prise de décision multicritères qui inclut les opinions d’experts multidisciplinaires et des données de médecine factuelle. Cent ... [more ▼]

Le processus de hiérarchisation présenté dans ce travail repose sur une prise de décision multicritères qui inclut les opinions d’experts multidisciplinaires et des données de médecine factuelle. Cent maladies animales et zoonotiques ont été considérées dans l’exercice et cinq catégories regroupant 57 critères ont été prises en compte. Des experts internationaux ont réalisé une pondération intra-catégorie et inter-catégories des critères. L’information correspondant à chaque critère/maladie a été collectée sur base de la médecine factuelle. Un score global pondéré a été calculé pour chaque maladie sur base de deux approches, déterministe et probabiliste. Un classement consécutif des maladies a été établi. Un arbre de classification et de régression a permis de classer les maladies en quatre sous-groupes. Peu de différences ont été observées entre les méthodes déterministe et probabiliste. Cet outil générique et prédictif pourrait être appliqué dans différents contextes et à des maladies affectant d’autres espèces animales [less ▲]

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See detailIs evidence-based medicine so evident in veterinary research and practice? History, obstacles and perspectives.
Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel ULg; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Clegg, Peter et al

in Veterinary Journal (2012), 191(1), 28-34

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) refers to the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence from research for the care of an individual patient. The concept of EBM was first described ... [more ▼]

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) refers to the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence from research for the care of an individual patient. The concept of EBM was first described in human medicine in the early 1990s and was introduced to veterinary medicine 10 years later. However, it is not clear that the EBM approach promulgated in human medicine can be applied to the same extent to veterinary medicine. EBM has the potential to help veterinarians to make more informed decisions, but obstacles to the implementation of EBM include a lack of high quality patient-centred research, the need for basic understanding of clinical epidemiology by veterinarians, the absence of adequate searching techniques and accessibility to scientific data bases and the inadequacy of EBM tools that can be applied to the busy daily practise of veterinarians. This review describes the development of EBM in the veterinary profession, identifies its advantages and disadvantages and discusses whether and how veterinary surgeons should further adopt the EBM approach of human medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of Purkinje cells in the ovine brain
Salouci, Moustafa ULg; Engelen, Virginie; Gyan, Mathilda et al

Scientific conference (2012)

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See detailIsoform 111 of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF111) improves angiogenesis of ovarian tissue xenotransplantation
Labied, Soraya ULg; Delforge, Yves ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg et al

in Journal of Assisted Reproduction & Genetics (2012), 28(11), 1009

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See detailEffect of an inactivated bluetongue serotype 8 vaccine on semen quality in rams.
Leemans, Jerome; Raes, Marianne; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2012), 193(2), 567-9

The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of an inactivated bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) vaccine altered semen quality in rams. Twenty sexually mature rams were assigned to three ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of an inactivated bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) vaccine altered semen quality in rams. Twenty sexually mature rams were assigned to three experimental groups: two groups of four animals were vaccinated and a third group of four animals was unvaccinated. The first group included rams with a history of natural BTV-8 infection in 2007 and the second and third groups included BTV-8 naive rams. Semen was collected prior to vaccination and for 4months post-vaccination. There were no significant differences in semen quality traits, including motility and concentration of spermatozoa, and percentages of living, normal dead and abnormal dead spermatozoa, between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups, or over time (P>0.05). The BTV-8 vaccine tested in this study did not appear to have any adverse effect on semen quality in rams. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphological and histological studies of sheep’s brain
Salouci, Moustafa ULg; Engelen, Virginie; Jacqmot, Olivier ULg et al

Poster (2011, December)

Introduction: The study of normal structures of the sheep’s brain is very important to understand pathological changes caused by the bluetongue virus in the fetus’s brain at various stages of the ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The study of normal structures of the sheep’s brain is very important to understand pathological changes caused by the bluetongue virus in the fetus’s brain at various stages of the gestation. Bluetongue is an arthropod-borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. The serotype 8 is responsible for outbreaks in Northern Europe in 2006. This virus causes lesions in the brain of fetuses as hydrancephaly and porencephaly. The aim of this work is to improve knowledge of anatomy and histology of the central nervous system of the sheep. Methods: Seven heads of adult sheep and one from a fetus aged 4,5 months were used. All heads were first opened in the frontal area using bone’s saw and immerged in a formalin solution for 10 days. After a good fixation, the brains were extracted and sectioned. Transversal, frontal and sagittal sections were realized. The sections of two brains were stained with Berlin-blue and treated to be embedded in methylmetacrylate for gross morphology. The different parts of the 6 resting brains were then embedded in paraffin, cut and the histological sections were stained with haematoxylin/eosin, cresyl violet or by use of silver impregnation. Results: Gross morphological examination of the brains embedded in methylmetacrylate showed the detailed anatomy of the different parts. The staining with haematoxylin/eosin permitted to differentiate the grey matter, the different nucleus and the layers of cerebral and cerebellum cortex. The cresyl violet technique permitted to visualize the Nissl bodies and the silver impregnation revealed nerve fibers. In the fetus brain, blood vessels were very numerous in the brainstem, the cerebellum and the cerebrum. The grey matter was less organized and looser. Conclusion: This work establishes an anatomical and histological approach allowing future studies in ovine fetuses with and without brain lesions potentially caused by the bluetongue virus. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of short-term oral and inhaled corticosteroids on airway inflammation and responsiveness in a feline acute asthma model
Leemans, Jérôme; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Clercx, Cécile ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2011)

The objective of this study was to investigate whether high-dose inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP), alone or in combination with salmeterol (SAL), is as effective as oral prednisolone in reducing airway ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to investigate whether high-dose inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP), alone or in combination with salmeterol (SAL), is as effective as oral prednisolone in reducing airway inflammation and obstruction in cats with experimentally-induced acute asthma. Six cats sensitised to Ascaris suum (AS) were enrolled in a prospective controlled therapeutic trial and underwent four aerosol challenges, at 1-month intervals with AS allergen. The allergen - stimulated animals received four consecutive days treatment with either oral prednisolone at 1mg/kg twice daily, 500μg of FP inhaled twice daily, or a combination of FP/SAL at 500μg/50μg inhaled twice daily, respectively, according to a randomised cross-over design. Treatment-related changes in lung function, airway responsiveness (AR) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology were assessed. Barometric whole-body plethysmography (BWBP) was used for the assessment of respiratory variables and AR. No significant differences in respiratory rate or Penh (an estimate of airflow limitation measured by BWBP) were detected among treatment groups. Allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness was significantly inhibited by all three steroid treatments (P<0.05). The mean BALF eosinophil percentage (±SEM) was lower after oral and inhaled corticosteroid treatment and these changes were significant for groups receiving prednisolone and the FP/SAL combination. Findings suggest high-dose FP, particularly in combination with SAL, is effective in ameliorating airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in this model of acute feline asthma, and highlight the potential use of these drugs in cats experiencing acute exacerbations of the naturally occurring disease. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of naturally-occurring, trans-placental bluetongue virus serotype-8 infection on reproductive performance in sheep.
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Bolkaerts, Benoit; Baricalla, Christine et al

in Veterinary Journal (2011), 187(1), 72-80

Infection with bluetongue virus serotype (BTV)-8 occurred in ruminants in 2006 in Central-Western Europe. The trans-placental passage of this virus has been demonstrated in naturally- and experimentally ... [more ▼]

Infection with bluetongue virus serotype (BTV)-8 occurred in ruminants in 2006 in Central-Western Europe. The trans-placental passage of this virus has been demonstrated in naturally- and experimentally-infected cattle and in experimentally-infected sheep. Trans-placental transmission is potentially important in the 'over-wintering' of this virus and its subsequent impact on reproductive performance. This epidemiological study was carried out on a sheep flock in Belgium that had experienced a severe outbreak of BTV-8 infection, and where the seroprevalence had increased from 1.3% to 88% between January and November 2007. In total, 476 lambs and 26 aborted fetuses from 300 ewes, lambing at four distinct time periods, were investigated between November 2007 and May 2008. The following evidence suggested that BTV-8 infection occurred in utero: (1) positive PCR results from splenic tissue from aborted fetuses (n=4); (2) fetal malformations suggestive of BTV infection (n=10); (3) positive PCR results from red blood cells in-lambs (n=7), and (4) the presence of antibody at birth in viable lambs prior to the intake of colostrum (n=9). The evidence provided by this investigation strongly suggests that trans-placental BTV-8 infection occurs in naturally-infected sheep and the impact of infection on the reproductive performance of such a naive flock was considerable, with up to 25% of ewes aborting and with flock fertility reduced by 50%. The contribution of in utero-infected lambs to the over-wintering of BTV appears limited. [less ▲]

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