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See detailPhysiological and proteomic evidences that domestication process differentially modulates the immune status of juvenile Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) under chronic confinement stress.
Douxfils, J.; Mathieu, Cédric; Mandiki, S. N. et al

in Fish & Shellfish Immunology (2011), 159(1), 92-9

The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of domestication process on the stress response and subsequent immune modulation in Eurasian perch juveniles (Perca fluviatilis) submitted to chronic ... [more ▼]

The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of domestication process on the stress response and subsequent immune modulation in Eurasian perch juveniles (Perca fluviatilis) submitted to chronic confinement. Briefly, F1 and F4 generations were confined into small-size tanks and sampled 7 and 55 days after stocking. Cortisol and glucose levels as well as lysozyme activity and immunoglobulin level were evaluated in the serum. Spleen Somatic Index and spleen ROS production were also measured. A proteomic analysis was performed on serum sampled on day 7. Finally, both generations were genetically characterized using a microsatellite approach. Globally, results revealed that chronic confinement did not elicit a typical stress response but resulted in a prolonged immune stimulation. Proteomic results suggested that domestication process influenced the immune status of perch submitted to chronic confinement as the F1 confined fish displayed lower abundance of C3 complement component, transferrin and Apolipoprotein E. Microsatellite data showed a strong genetic drift as well as reduced genetic diversity, allelic number and heterozygosity along with domestication process. The present work is the first to report that fish under domestication can develop an immune response, assessed by a combined approach, following recurrent challenges imposed by captive environment despite a reduced genetic variation. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavioural study of polyandrous spawning in Blicca bjoerkna under a controlled environment.
Poncin, Pascal ULg; Termol, C.; Nzau Matondo, Billy et al

in Folia Zoological (2010), 59(3)

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See detailOvarian steroidogenesis inhibition by constant photothermal conditions is caused by a lack of gonadotropin stimulation in Eurasian perch
Milla, S.; Mandiki, S. N. M.; Hubermont, P. et al

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (2009), 163(3), 242-250

In fish, the reasons for the inhibition of reproduction by constant photothermal conditions of rearing are far from clear. In an in vivo experiment, two groups of females reared under natural (4-28 ... [more ▼]

In fish, the reasons for the inhibition of reproduction by constant photothermal conditions of rearing are far from clear. In an in vivo experiment, two groups of females reared under natural (4-28 degrees C) or constant photothermal conditions (20-22 degrees C, photoperiod 12/12) were investigated for gonad development, sex-steroids (testosterone-T, 17-beta-estradiol-E2 and 11 Keto-Testosterone-11KT) dynamics and brain aromatase activity in January, February and March. Two days before each sampling date, a group of females reared under constant conditions was injected with HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: 100 Ul/kg) and evaluated for the same parameters. In addition, in vitro ovarian steroidogenesis capacity for each female was determined with or without stimulation by HCG and/or IGF-1 (insulin-like Growth Factor-1). The results indicate that vitellogenesis stage is the limit ovarian stage never reached in females submitted to constant photothermal conditions. This was associated with gonadogenesis delay and low levels of circulating sex-steroids (T, E2 and 11KT). Nevertheless, HCG injections partly counteracted the plasma steroid deprivation, indicating that ovaries from fish reared under constant photothermal conditions suffer from a lack of gonadotropin stimulation, maybe caused by plasma LH suppression. Such finding was confirmed by the in vitro ovary incubation test. HCG and IGF-1 treatments induced broad testosterone and 17-beta-estradiol elevations and the exposure to constant photothermal conditions, in some cases, decreased that response to HCG. In conclusion, we show that the inhibition of reproductive cycle in Eurasian perch females by constant photothermal conditions of rearing may be related to lower sex-steroid levels and to an inhibition of ovarian regulation by gonadotropins (at least LH), probably stopping gonadogenesis before vitellogenesis stage. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSex steroid dynamics during embryogenesis and sexual differentiation in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis
Rougeot, Carole ULg; Krim, A.; Mandiki, S. N. et al

in Theriogenology (2007), 67(5), 1046-1052

It is widely accepted that sex steroid hormones play an important and a specific role during the process of sex differentiation in fish. In order to describe the role of the three main sex steroid ... [more ▼]

It is widely accepted that sex steroid hormones play an important and a specific role during the process of sex differentiation in fish. In order to describe the role of the three main sex steroid hormones (testosterone--T, 17beta-estradiol--E2 and 11keto-testosterone--11KT) during embryogenesis and sex differentiation in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis, eggs, larvae and juveniles originating from two mixed-sex and two all-female progenies were regularly sampled from fertilization to hatching (D0) and from hatching to day 70 post-hatching (D70). Just after spawning, a significant amount of sex steroids [T (1634.2pgg(-1)), E2 (554.4pgg(-1)) and 11KT (1513.2pgg(-1))] was measured in non-fertilised eggs suggesting a maternal transmission of these steroids. From D2 to D70 post-hatching, E2 levels were significantly higher in mixed-sex progenies (median: 725.7pgg(-1)) than in all-female progenies (156.2pgg(-1)) and significantly increased after the onset of the histological differentiation of the gonad in both progenies (D35). Levels of 11KT were significantly higher in mixed-sex (median: 431.5pgg(-1)) than in all-female progenies (below the limit of assay detection) and significantly increased at D35 in all-female progenies (median value: 343.2pgg(-1)). Mean 11KT to E2 ratio was six-fold higher in mixed-sex progenies (1.35) than in all-female progenies (0.24). The data suggest that the 11-oxygenated androgen (11KT) plays a major role in the male differentiation process, and that sex differentiation in Eurasian perch is probably determined by the 11KT to E2 ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale approach of fish responses to different types of environmental contaminations: A case study
Mayon, N.; Bertrand, Annick ULg; Leroy, Delphine ULg et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2006), 367(2-3), 715-731

In order to study the responses of wild fish to environmental contaminations, different sites (two references and three contaminated) were sampled across the Walloon hydrographical network (southern ... [more ▼]

In order to study the responses of wild fish to environmental contaminations, different sites (two references and three contaminated) were sampled across the Walloon hydrographical network (southern Belgium). The status of fish communities was characterized according to an index of biotic integrity (1131). Furthermore, population structure, reproductive parameters and biochemical assays were performed on chub (Leuciscus cephalus) as sentinel species. The results showed impaired responses in fish sampled downstream paper mill effluents (BKME), in a polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contaminated site, and in a river receiving pesticides (i.e. atrazine and hexachlorocyclohexane). High level of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-Odeethylase (EROD) activity were evidence of direct toxicant exposure, while population structures showed unbalanced size-frequency distributions. Moreover, in the pesticide contaminated site, a higher proportion of atretic oocytes was found in females and abnormally high plasma alkali-labile phosphorus (ALP) values were noticed in males, compared to reference sites, suggesting that chubs were exposed to estrogenic compounds. IBI scores from both sites were also lower than in reference sites. On the other hand, no particular response was found in hepatic glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, hepatic heat-shock protein HSP70 concentrations and plasma sex steroids (estradiol-17 beta, 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone) in chubs from any sites. By using a multiparametric approach, a better understanding of response mechanisms to pollution in fish may be achieved in order to improve the ecological status of river ecosystems. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative study of the reproductive characteristics of XY male and hormonally sex-reversed XX male Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis
Rougeot, Carole ULg; Nicayenzi, F.; Mandiki, S. N. et al

in theriogenology (2004), 62(5), 790-800

In order to compare the reproductive capacity of XY male versus XX male (neomales) Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), we determined the sperm quality (sperm concentration and motility) and reproductive ... [more ▼]

In order to compare the reproductive capacity of XY male versus XX male (neomales) Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), we determined the sperm quality (sperm concentration and motility) and reproductive characteristics such as gonadosomatic index (GSI), fertilization rate and sex steroid levels (testosterone, T; 17 beta-estradiol, E2 and 11-ketotestosterone, 11KT) during the reproductive season. Median GSI was not significantly different between XY males (7.9%) and XX males (7.5%). Fertilization rates ranged between 30.0 and 98.0%. Sperm concentration ranged between 27.9 x 10(9) and 42.0 x 10(9) spermatozoa ml(-1). Median level of T, 11KT and E2 levels increased in the middle of the reproductive season (2136.0, 2409.0 and 3252.0 pg ml(-1), respectively) and decreased at the end (1657.0, 2006.6 and 431.0 pg ml(-1) respectively). Sperm motility was assessed by CASA and expressed by the curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity (LIN), percentage of motile sperm (% MOT) and motile concentration (MOC). Overall, there were not any significant differences between XY and XX males. In conclusion, no differences of reproductive capacities were observed between XY males and XX males suggesting that the last can be crossed with females to improve the productivity of Eurasian perch by producing all-female stock. (c) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of total body fatty acids during early ontogeny of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) larvae
Abi-Ayad, SMEA; Boutiba, Z.; Mélard, Charles ULg et al

in Fish Physiology and Biochemistry (2004), 30(2), 129-136

The fatty acid composition of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) was determined according to their physiological status, during starvation (10 days) and feeding (28 days). In starved larvae, polyunsaturated ... [more ▼]

The fatty acid composition of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) was determined according to their physiological status, during starvation (10 days) and feeding (28 days). In starved larvae, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids were utilized as metabolic substrates until day 9. At day 10, all fatty acid levels remained stable or, at least, increased in larval body. Among fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid 22:6 n-3 was used preferentially (20.3% from total fatty acids utilized) followed by palmitoleic acid 16:1 n-7 (13.9%) and then by oleic 18:1 n-9 (12.3%), linoleic 18:2 n-6 (10.1%), linolenic 18:3 n-3 (9.7%) and eicosapentaenoic 20:5 n-3 (9.1%) acids. On the other hand, arachidonic acid 20:4 n-6 was utilized very lowly (0.3%). In fed larvae, no utilization of body fatty acids was observed during the experiment. It seems that energy requirements (and others) of fed larvae were satisfied by feed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of atrazine on sex steroid dynamics, plasma vitellogenin concentration and gonad development in adult goldfish (Carassius auratus)
Spano, L.; Tyler, C. R.; van Aerle, R. et al

in Aquatic Toxicology (2004), 66(4), 369-379

Sexually mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) of both sexes were exposed to two doses (100 and 1000 mug/l) of the widely used herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isolropylamino-s-triazine) for a ... [more ▼]

Sexually mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) of both sexes were exposed to two doses (100 and 1000 mug/l) of the widely used herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isolropylamino-s-triazine) for a period of 21 days and effects on the concentrations of gonad and plasma sex steroids (testosterone (T), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT)), plasma vitellogenin (VTG) and gonad histo-morphology assessed. Atrazine did not show any obvious estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a lack of vitellogenin induction. There were, however, effects of atrazine on plasma androgen concentrations (androgen dynamics) and tissue (plasma and gonad) estrogen concentrations in male goldfish; exposure to 1000 mug/l atrazine induced suppression in both testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, and resulted in elevated 17beta-estradiol, after 21 day of exposure. Further, these suppressive effects on plasma androgens and the induction in estrogen were dose- and time-related. The highest atrazine exposure dose induced structural disruption in the testis and both 100 and 1000 mug/l induced elevated levels of atresia in ovaries. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of geographic origin on growth and food intake in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) juveniles under intensive culture conditions
Mandiki, S. N. M.; Blanchard, G.; Mélard, Charles ULg et al

in Aquaculture (2004), 229(1-4), 117-128

Survival, growth, and food intake of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) juveniles from different stocks originating from various geographic regions of Europe were compared under the same conditions of ... [more ▼]

Survival, growth, and food intake of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) juveniles from different stocks originating from various geographic regions of Europe were compared under the same conditions of laboratory-scale intensive culture. In Experiment 1, four stocks originating from Italy (1), southwest (SF) and northwest (NF) France, and Belgium (B) were examined at larval and early juvenile (initial body weight, IBW = 0.53 g) stages. In Experiment 2, B stock was compared to a Finnish (F) one in two trials, including small (IBW = 1.26 g) and large (IBW = 32 g) juveniles. In Experiment 3, small (IBW = 1.29 g) and large (IBW = 7.33 g) juveniles from Polish (P), F, and B stocks were examined. In Experiment 1, body weight means at hatching and survival at the end of the larval stage were significantly lower in the I and SF stocks than in the B and NF stocks. In the early juvenile stage, survival and growth rates were significantly lower in the I and SF stocks than in the B and NF ones. In Experiment 2, {early juvenile stage} survival in the F stock was significantly lower than in the B stock, partly due to a higher incidence of cannibalism. During this stage, growth rates and food intake or feed efficiency in the F and B stocks were comparable, but at the end of the juvenile stage, the F stock outperformed the B one. In Experiment 3, survival in all the three stocks was comparable both in small and large juveniles. In contrast to the higher performance of F juveniles in Experiment 2, growth rates were comparable between the B and F stocks, and fish from the P stock had the highest growth rates. The results indicate a high level of variation within and between hatchery stocks in survival rates, growth rates, and food intake. These variations depended on the geographic origin of the fish, with the lowest survival and growth potentials being in the stocks originating from the southern regions. These findings highlight the interest in evaluating growth and food consumption of different Eurasian perch stocks. Such evaluation is a necessary tool for genetic selection in improving performance in perch aquaculture. (C) 2004 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSize heterogeneity, cannibalism and competition in cultured predatory fish larvae: biotic and abiotic influences
Kestemont, P.; Jourdan, S.; Houbart, M. et al

in Aquaculture (2003), 227(1-4), 333-356

Growth heterogeneity is a central problem in larviculture and especially in predatory species. It can be influenced by a wide range of intrinsic and environmental factors, of which the respective ... [more ▼]

Growth heterogeneity is a central problem in larviculture and especially in predatory species. It can be influenced by a wide range of intrinsic and environmental factors, of which the respective influences are largely unknown. The role of non-interactive (temperature, day length, light intensity, food availability and composition) and interactive factors (stocking density, initial size heterogeneity, hatching time) on growth, survival and size heterogeneity was measured in larvae and post-larvae of the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax and Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis. Embryos hatching later than others were found less competitive than those hatching earlier in both species, but to a greater extent in perch. By contrast, the final size heterogeneity in both species was independent from the initial size heterogeneity or recurrent size sorting. High stocking density had a positive effect on perch larvae, no effect on seabass larvae and a negative impact on the post-larvae of both species, owing principally to density-dependent access to food. Day length and light intensity produced contrasting results in larvae and post-larvae. Larvae of both species performed better under bright light and continuous day length. Post-larvae of seabass performed equally well at different light levels but did better under short day lengths, whereas post-larvae of perch were unaffected by day length but performed better under reduced light levels. Increasing food availability resulted in increasing performance of perch larvae, although cannibalism was higher for submaximal than for maintenance rations. The similarity between the two species at the larval stage, and differences at the post-larval stage can be accounted for by the increasing specialisation towards specific environments and niches. Regarding the impact of rearing factors on growth, survival and size heterogeneity, interactive variables impacted essentially on growth and survival, whereas size heterogeneity was chiefly influenced by non-interactive variables, either directly or indirectly via interactive mechanisms such as cannibalism and size-dependent mortality. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of stocking density on the dynamics of cannibalism in sibling larvae of Perca fluviatilis under controlled conditions
Baras, E.; Kestemont, P.; Mélard, Charles ULg

in Aquaculture (2003), 219(1-4), 241-255

The effect of stocking density (10, 31.6 and 100 larvae 1(-1); three replicates per treatment) on the day-by-day dynamics of survival, growth and cannibalism was examined in sibling perch larvae reared ... [more ▼]

The effect of stocking density (10, 31.6 and 100 larvae 1(-1); three replicates per treatment) on the day-by-day dynamics of survival, growth and cannibalism was examined in sibling perch larvae reared from eyed-egg stage in 100-1 cages (16L:8D, 20.0 +/- 0.5 degreesC, O-2 greater than or equal to 6.0 mg 1(-1); feeding in excess with live Artemia nauplii during the photophase) during the first 3 weeks of exogenous feeding. Larvae unable to achieve the transition to exogenous feeding died in between 7 and I I days post-hatch. Later, mortality from causes other than cannibalism never exceeded 1% day(-1). Cannibalism did not start before days 10 - 11 and first consisted in the incomplete ingestion of prey attacked tail first, exclusively. This type of cannibalism never caused losses higher than 2.0% of the initial stock, and ceased after days 16-18. From days 12-14 onwards, differential growth was apparent, and cannibals turned to complete cannibalism of small prey ingested head first, which caused greater losses (28-53% of the stock). Increasing the stocking density did not compromise growth and decreased the overall impact of cannibalism through several complementary mechanisms: (i) a postponed emergence of cannibalism, (ii) a lower proportion of cannibals in the population, and (iii) probably a lower rate of cannibalism per capita as predation was complicated and less directed at high stocking density. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffet of dietary fat levels on growth, feed efficiency and biochemical compositions of Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis
Xu; Fontaine, P.; Mélard, Charles ULg et al

in Aquaculture International (2001), 9

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See detailDynamics of total lipids and fatty acids during embryogenesis and larval developpement of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatlis)
Abi-Ayad, Amine; Kestemont, P.; Mélard, Charles ULg

in Fish Physiology and Biochemistry (2000), 23

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See detailAquaculture
Kestemont, P.; Mélard, Charles ULg

in Craig, J. F. (Ed.) Percid Fishes: Systematics, Ecology and Exploitation (2000)

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See detailSpawning tactics and reproductive success in two european cyprinids, the barbel (Barbus meridionalis) and the bream (Abramis brama) : an overview.
Poncin, Pascal ULg; Binda, O.; Termol, C. et al

in Norberg, B.; Kjesbu, O. S.; Taranger, G. L. (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Reproductive Physiology of Fish (1999)

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See detailLe goujon (Gobio gobio).
Poncin, Pascal ULg; Kestemont, P.

Article for general public (1998)

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See detailCroissance ovocytaire et régulation stéroïdienne chez les poissons à pontes uniques et multiples: une revue.
Rinchard, J.; Kestemont, P.; Poncin, Pascal ULg

in Annales de Limnologie (1998), 34

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