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See detailA SUMOylation-defective MITF germline mutation predisposes to melanoma and renal carcinoma.
Bertolotto, Corine; Lesueur, Fabienne; Giuliano, Sandy et al

in Nature (2011), 480(7375), 94-8

So far, no common environmental and/or phenotypic factor has been associated with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The known risk factors for melanoma include sun exposure, pigmentation and nevus ... [more ▼]

So far, no common environmental and/or phenotypic factor has been associated with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The known risk factors for melanoma include sun exposure, pigmentation and nevus phenotypes; risk factors associated with RCC include smoking, obesity and hypertension. A recent study of coexisting melanoma and RCC in the same patients supports a genetic predisposition underlying the association between these two cancers. The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) has been proposed to act as a melanoma oncogene; it also stimulates the transcription of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1A), the pathway of which is targeted by kidney cancer susceptibility genes. We therefore proposed that MITF might have a role in conferring a genetic predisposition to co-occurring melanoma and RCC. Here we identify a germline missense substitution in MITF (Mi-E318K) that occurred at a significantly higher frequency in genetically enriched patients affected with melanoma, RCC or both cancers, when compared with controls. Overall, Mi-E318K carriers had a higher than fivefold increased risk of developing melanoma, RCC or both cancers. Codon 318 is located in a small-ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) consensus site (PsiKXE) and Mi-E318K severely impaired SUMOylation of MITF. Mi-E318K enhanced MITF protein binding to the HIF1A promoter and increased its transcriptional activity compared to wild-type MITF. Further, we observed a global increase in Mi-E318K-occupied loci. In an RCC cell line, gene expression profiling identified a Mi-E318K signature related to cell growth, proliferation and inflammation. Lastly, the mutant protein enhanced melanocytic and renal cell clonogenicity, migration and invasion, consistent with a gain-of-function role in tumorigenesis. Our data provide insights into the link between SUMOylation, transcription and cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel FH mutations in families with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) and patients with isolated type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma.
Gardie, Betty; Remenieras, Audrey; Kattygnarath, Darouna et al

in Journal of Medical Genetics (2011), 48(4), 226-34

BACKGROUND: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant disorder predisposing humans to cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas; in 20% of affected families, type 2 papillary ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant disorder predisposing humans to cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas; in 20% of affected families, type 2 papillary renal cell cancers (PRCCII) also occur with aggressive course and poor prognosis. HLRCC results from heterozygous germline mutations in the tumour suppressor fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. METHODS: As part of the French National Cancer Institute (INCa) 'Inherited predispositions to kidney cancer' network, sequence analysis and a functional study of FH were preformed in 56 families with clinically proven or suspected HLRCC and in 23 patients with isolated PRCCII (5 familial and 18 sporadic). RESULTS: The study identified 32 different germline FH mutations (15 missense, 6 frameshifts, 4 nonsense, 1 deletion/insertion, 5 splice site, and 1 complete deletion) in 40/56 (71.4%) families with proven or suspected HLRCC and in 4/23 (17.4%) probands with PRCCII alone, including 2 sporadic cases. 21 of these were novel and all were demonstrated as deleterious by significant reduction of FH enzymatic activity. In addition, 5 asymptomatic parents in 3 families were confirmed as carrying disease-causing mutations. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified and characterised 21 novel FH mutations and demonstrated that PRCCII can be the only one manifestation of HLRCC. Due to the incomplete penetrance of HLRCC, the authors propose to extend the FH mutation analysis to every patient with PRCCII occurring before 40 years of age or when renal tumour harbours characteristic histologic features, in order to discover previously ignored HLRCC affected families. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. A propos d'un cas de maladie de von Hippel-Lindau
Bourguignont, A.; Blaise, Pierre ULg; Janin, Nicolas ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(2), 62-6

von Hippel-Lindau disease is an inherited multisystemic familial cancer syndrome caused by mutations of the VHL gene. The spectrum of clinical manifestations is broad and includes central nervous system ... [more ▼]

von Hippel-Lindau disease is an inherited multisystemic familial cancer syndrome caused by mutations of the VHL gene. The spectrum of clinical manifestations is broad and includes central nervous system hemangioblastomas and visual benign and malignant tumors. The various manifestations can be demonstrated by means of different imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and fluorescein retinal hemangiography. A systematic approach must be followed for repeated screening in patients at risk, since many lesions in VHL disease are treatable. [less ▲]

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See detailCancer predisposing missense and protein truncating BARD1 mutations in non-BRCA1 or BRCA2 breast cancer families.
De Brakeleer, Sylvia; De Greve, Jacques; Loris, Remy et al

in Human Mutation (2010), 31(3), 1175-85

Fifteen years ago BRCA1 and BRCA2 were reported as high penetrant breast cancer predisposing genes. However, mutations in these genes are found in only a fraction of high risk families. BARD1 is a ... [more ▼]

Fifteen years ago BRCA1 and BRCA2 were reported as high penetrant breast cancer predisposing genes. However, mutations in these genes are found in only a fraction of high risk families. BARD1 is a candidate breast cancer gene, but only a limited number of missense mutations with rather unclear pathogenic consequences have been reported.We screened 196 high risk breast cancer families for the occurrence of BARD1 variants. All genetic variants were analyzed using clinical information as well as IN SILICO predictive tools, including protein modeling. We found three candidate pathogenic mutations in seven families including a first case of a protein truncating mutation (p.Glu652fs) removing the entire second BRCT domain of BARD1. In conclusion, we provide evidence for an increased breast cancer risk associated to specific BARD1 germline mutations. However, these BARD1 mutations occur in a minority of hereditary breast cancer families. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel SACS mutation in a Belgian family with sacsin-related ataxia.
Ouyang, Y.; SEGERS, Karin ULg; BOUQUIAUX, Olivier ULg et al

in Journal of the Neurological Sciences (2008), 264(1-2), 73-6

The authors describe the four patients in the first known Belgian family with autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS). A novel homozygous missense mutation, NM_014363.3: c.3491T ... [more ▼]

The authors describe the four patients in the first known Belgian family with autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS). A novel homozygous missense mutation, NM_014363.3: c.3491T>A in exon 9, of the SACS gene was identified in the present family, which results in an original amino acid of methionine to lysine substitution at amino acid residue 1164 (p.M1164K). Although the cardinal clinical features, i.e., spastic ataxia with peripheral neuropathy, in our patients were similar to those in Quebec patients, our patients exhibited some atypical clinical features, e.g., teenage-onset and absence of retinal hypermyelination. The present family is from Wallonia, and there could be shared ethnicity with the families of Charlevoix-Saguenay. [less ▲]

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See detailThe contribution of large genomic deletions at the CDKN2A locus to the burden of familial melanoma.
Lesueur, F.; de Lichy, M.; Barrois, M. et al

in British Journal of Cancer (2008), 99(2), 364-70

Mutations in two genes encoding cell cycle regulatory proteins have been shown to cause familial cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). About 20% of melanoma-prone families bear a point mutation in the ... [more ▼]

Mutations in two genes encoding cell cycle regulatory proteins have been shown to cause familial cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). About 20% of melanoma-prone families bear a point mutation in the CDKN2A locus at 9p21, which encodes two unrelated proteins, p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF). Rare mutations in CDK4 have also been linked to the disease. Although the CDKN2A gene has been shown to be the major melanoma predisposing gene, there remains a significant proportion of melanoma kindreds linked to 9p21 in which germline mutations of CDKN2A have not been identified through direct exon sequencing. The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of large rearrangements in CDKN2A to the disease in melanoma-prone families using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. We examined 214 patients from independent pedigrees with at least two CMM cases. All had been tested for CDKN2A and CDK4 point mutation, and 47 were found positive. Among the remaining 167 negative patients, one carried a novel genomic deletion of CDKN2A exon 2. Overall, genomic deletions represented 2.1% of total mutations in this series (1 of 48), confirming that they explain a very small proportion of CMM susceptibility. In addition, we excluded a new gene on 9p21, KLHL9, as being a major CMM gene. [less ▲]

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See detailGermline PTPN11 missense mutation in a case of Noonan syndrome associated with mediastinal and retroperitoneal neuroblastic tumors.
Mutesa, Léon; Pierquin, Geneviève ULg; Janin, Nicolas ULg et al

in Cancer Genetics & Cytogenetics (2008), 182(1), 40-2

Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, typical craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, congenital heart defects, and predisposition to malignant ... [more ▼]

Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, typical craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, congenital heart defects, and predisposition to malignant tumors. In approximately 50% of cases, the disease is caused by missense mutations in the PTPN11 gene. To date, solid tumors, and particularly brain tumors and rhabdomyosarcomas, have been documented in patients with NS; however, few cases of neuroblastoma associated with NS have been reported. Here we report an unusual case of neuroblastoma with mediastinal, retroperitoneal, and medullar locations associated in a NS patient carrying a PTPN11 germline missense mutation (p.G60A). This missense mutation occurs within the N-SH2 domain of the PTPN11 gene and has been reported to be associated with acute leukemia in NS patients. The association of this p.G60A PTPN11 mutation with neuroblastoma provides new evidence that gain of function PTPN11 mutations may play an important role in the pathogenesis of solid tumors associated with Noonan syndrome. [less ▲]

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See detailBRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and CDKN2A germline mutations in patients with breast cancer and cutaneous melanoma
Monnerat, C.; Chompret, A.; Kannengiesser, C. et al

in Familial Cancer (2007), 6(4), 453-461

Purpose From epidemiological studies it appears that breast cancer (BC) and cutaneous melanoma (CMM) in the same individual occur at a higher frequency than expected by chance. Genetic factors common to ... [more ▼]

Purpose From epidemiological studies it appears that breast cancer (BC) and cutaneous melanoma (CMM) in the same individual occur at a higher frequency than expected by chance. Genetic factors common to both cancers can be suspected. Our goal was to estimate the involvement of "high risk" genes in patients presenting these two neoplasia, selected irrespectively from family history and age at diagnosis. Experimental Design Eighty two patients with BC and CMM were screened for BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, CDKN2A and CDK4 (exon 2) germline mutations. Results Deleterious mutations were identified in 6 patients: two carriers of a BRCA1 germline mutation, two carriers of TP53 germline mutations (one of which also harbored a BRCA2 deleterious mutation, the other one a BRCA2 unclassified variant), and two carriers of a CDKN2A germline mutation. In addition, 6 variants of unknown signification were identified in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Regarding family history, 3/13 (23%) patients with a positive family history of BC or CMM were carriers of a germline mutation, whereas only 3/69 (4%) patients without family history were carriers of a germline mutation. Conclusion Our findings show that few patients with BC and CMM who lacked family histories of these cancers are carriers of deleterious germline mutations in four of the five genes we examined. We describe for the first time, two simultaneous BRCA2 and TP53 mutations, suggesting that analysis in more than one gene could be performed if a patient's personal or familial history does not match a single syndrome. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased risk of breast cancer among female relatives of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia: a causal relationship?
d'Almeida, A. K.; Cavaciuti, E.; Dondon, M. G. et al

in British Journal of Cancer (2005), 93(6), 730-732

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See detailDiffuse cortical atrophy in a patient with Turner syndrome and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy
Blaise, Pierre ULg; Fumal, Arnaud ULg; Janin, Nicolas ULg et al

in Journal of Neurology (2005), 252(2), 232-233

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See detailAtaxia-telangiectasia genes and breast cancer risk in a French family study
Andrieu, N.; Cavaciuti, E.; Lauge, A. et al

in Journal of Dairy Research (2005), 72(Sp. Iss. SI), 73-80

Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a rare autosomal recessive early childhood disorder, characterized by progressive neuronal degeneration, immunological deficiency, radiosensitivity and an increased risk of ... [more ▼]

Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a rare autosomal recessive early childhood disorder, characterized by progressive neuronal degeneration, immunological deficiency, radiosensitivity and an increased risk of cancer caused in most cases by mutations in the AT-mutated gene (ATM). Epidemiological studies on AT families have shown that AT heterozygous women have an increased risk of developing breast cancer (BC). The ATM protein plays a central role in the recognition and repair of DNA double-strand breaks and the subsequent activation of cell-cycle checkpoints. Whilst AT is a rare disease, 0-5-1 % of the general population are estimated to be AT mutation carriers, thus any increases in the risks of cancer associated with ATM carrier status are of public health relevance. The main results of our published studies on the risk of BC in 34 French AT families according to heterozygote status, type of ATM mutation and exogenous factors are summarized here. The risk of BC was higher in ATM heterozygous (HetATM) women and did not differ significantly according to the type of ATM mutation (missense vs truncating) carried by the AT family members but appeared associated with the position of some truncating mutations in certain binding domains of the ATM protein. The effect of exogenous factors, such as reproductive life factors and exposure to ionizing radiation, on the risk of BC according to ATM heterozygote status was assessed. There was no evidence for interaction (except for age at first full-term pregnancy). These findings does not appear to justify a separate screening program from that already available to other women with a first-degree relative affected by BC, as their risks have similar amplitude. Chest X-rays did not appear to be a risk factor for BC in our study population. More powerful studies, using data sets pooled from international sources are being set up to confirm these observations. [less ▲]

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