References of "Jérôme, Christine"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOne-pot synthesis of double poly(ionic liquid) block copolymers by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization-induced self assembly (CMR-PISA) in water
Cordella, Daniela ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (in press)

Amphiphilic double poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) block copolymers are directly prepared by cobalt- mediated radical polymerization induced self-assembly (CMR-PISA) in water of N-vinyl imida- zolium monomers ... [more ▼]

Amphiphilic double poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) block copolymers are directly prepared by cobalt- mediated radical polymerization induced self-assembly (CMR-PISA) in water of N-vinyl imida- zolium monomers carrying distinct alkyl chains. The cobalt-mediated radical polymerization of N-vinyl-3-ethyl imidazolium bromide (VEtImBr) is first carried out until high conversion in water at 30 °C, using an alkyl bis(acetylacetonate)cobalt(III) adduct as initiator and con- trolling agent. The as-obtained hydrophilic poly(N-vinyl-3- ethyl imidazolium bromide) (PVEtImBr) is then used as a macroinitiator for the CMR-PISA of N-vinyl-3-octyl imidazo- lium bromide (VOcImBr). Self-assembly of the amphiphilic PVEtImBr-b-PVOcImBr block copolymer, i.e., of PIL-b-PIL-type, rapidly takes place in water, forming polymer nanoparticles consisting of a hydrophilic PVEtImBr corona and a hydro- phobic PVOcImBr core. Preliminary investigation into the effect of the size of the hydrophobic block on the dimension of the nanoparticles is also described. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAnionic flow polymerizations toward functional polyphosphoesters in microreactors: Polymerization and UV-modification
Baeten, Evelien; Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in European Polymer Journal (in press)

The polymerization of cyclic phosphates to poly(phosphoester)s, PPEs, is optimized for chip- based microreactors under continuous flow conditions. The anionic ring-opening polymerization of 2-isobutyoxy-2 ... [more ▼]

The polymerization of cyclic phosphates to poly(phosphoester)s, PPEs, is optimized for chip- based microreactors under continuous flow conditions. The anionic ring-opening polymerization of 2-isobutyoxy-2-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane (iBP) via the use of two organocatalytic systems allowed to polymerize to nearly quantitative monomer conversion within 10 or 3 minutes, respectively at a reaction temperature of 40 °C. Further, the optimized polymerization protocol was applied to 2-butenoxy-2-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane (BP) which yields a polymer that carries an alkene functionality per monomer repeating unit. This material can be postmodified in an UV-induced radical thiol-ene reaction, which was also shown to proceed with very high efficiency under UV-flow conditions. Eventually, both reactions were coupled in a two-stage reactor setup, showing that the thermally-activated polymerization can be coupled with high efficiency to the UV-activated post-polymerization modification reaction. The introduced reactor setup can in the future be used to produce and screen a broad variety of functional PPE materials with various functionalities and physical properties. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (20 ULg)
See detailPolyphosphoesters as a new platform for the design of particulate drug delivery systems
Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie; Ergul Yilmaz, Zeynep; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

Conference (2016, June)

Thanks to their biocompatibility and degradability properties, polyphosphates are appealing polymers for biomedical applications. In contrast to aliphatic polyesters, such as poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly ... [more ▼]

Thanks to their biocompatibility and degradability properties, polyphosphates are appealing polymers for biomedical applications. In contrast to aliphatic polyesters, such as poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(lactide), the pentavalency of the phosphorus atom allows the easy modification of the polyphosphate properties by simply adjusting the nature, the length and the functionality of the polyphosphate pendant groups. Therefore, macromolecular engineering of polyphosphoesters was applied to design well-defined architectures and functionalities adapted to drug nanocarriers. In a first approach, amphiphilic block copolymers are synthesized by organo-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization process for the synthesis of a range of PEO-b-polyphosphate bearing various pendant groups. Post-polymerization thiol-ene click reactions preformed on PEO-b-polyphosphate copolymers was also investigated to improve the hydrophobicity of the polyphosphate. The self-assembly of these PEO-b-polyphosphate copolymers into micelles was investigated, particularly, the effect of the nature of the polyphosphate pendant groups (i) on the micelles characteristics, (ii) on the encapsulation of a poorly soluble drug and (iii) on the drug release profile. The toxicity of the different amphiphilic block copolymers was also evaluated by live/dead cell viability assays. In a second approach, double hydrophilic copolymers based on polyphosphoesters have been used as templating agent for the synthesis of calcium carbonate particles. Indeed, the use of such microparticles is becoming more and more attractive in many fields especially for biomedical applications for which fine tuning of size, morphology and crystalline form of CaCO3 particles is crucial. Although some structuring compounds, like hyaluronic acid, give satisfying results, the control of the particle structure still has to be improved. To this end, we evaluated the CaCO3 structuring capacity of the well-defined double hydrophilic block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene oxide) and of a polyphosphoester segment with affinity for calcium like poly(phosphotriester)s bearing pendant carboxylic acids or poly(phosphodiester)s with a negatively charged oxygen atom on each repeating monomer unit. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (10 ULg)
See detailChitosan-based nanofibers mats for tissue engineering
Aqil, Abdelhafid ULg; Croisier, Florence ULg; Colige, Alain ULg et al

Conference (2016, May)

Polymer hydrogels resemble the natural living tissue due to their high water content and soft consistency. They find many applications in the design and production of contact and intraocular lenses ... [more ▼]

Polymer hydrogels resemble the natural living tissue due to their high water content and soft consistency. They find many applications in the design and production of contact and intraocular lenses, biosensors membranes, matrices for repairing and regenerating a wide diversity of tissues and organs. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and hyaluronic acid based hydrogels have shown a great potential for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, on account of their remarkable compatibility with physiological medium. Besides, it is degraded in a physiological environment into non-toxic products, which make them outstanding candidates for short- to medium-term applications, especially for tissue engineering. In this respect, the preparation of nanometric fibers mats based on this polysaccharide are highly interesting as such structure mimics the one of skin extracellular matrix. Such nanofibrous materials can be prepared by electrospinning (Figure 1). This technique uses a high voltage to create an electrically charged jet of polymer solution to obtain polymer fibers ranging from nanometers to a few microns in diameter. We thus have investigated strategies allowing to generate chitosan based nanofiber mats exhibiting a mechanical resistance strong enough to be easily handled while keeping the peculiar features of chitosan hydrogels favoring the interaction with cells and soft tissues to provide efficient tissue reconstruction. In a first strategy, polysaccharide-based nanofibers with a multilayered structure were prepared by combining electrospinning (ESP) and layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition techniques. Elastic nanofibers bearing charges at their surface were firstly prepared by electrospinning poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with a polyelectrolyte precursor. After activation by adjusting the pH, the layer-by-layer deposition of chitosan and hyaluronic acid, can be used to coat the electrospun fibers. A multilayered structure is then achieved by alternating the deposition of the positively charged chitosan with the deposition of a negatively charged polyelectrolyte. These novel polysaccharide-coated PCL fiber mats remarkably combine the mechanical resistance typical of the core material (PCL) – particularly in the hydrated state –, with the surface properties of chitosan. Besides, crosslinked nanofibrous mats of chitosan and polyethylene oxide blends, were successfully prepared via electrospinning technique followed by heat mediated chemical crosslinking. This chemical cross-linking allows adjusting the mechanical resistance of the mats while preserving their biocompatibility. In both cases, the control of the nanofiber structure offered by the electrospinning technology, makes the developed processes very promising to precisely design biomaterials for tissue engineering. Preliminary cell culture tests corroborate the potential use of such systems in wound healing applications. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 181 (11 ULg)
See detailCyclic and oligo-carbonates by organocatalytic coupling of CO2 with epoxides or oxetanes
Alves, Margot ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Boyaval, Amélie ULg et al

Conference (2016, April 20)

Valorising CO2 as a renewable C1 feedstock for producing added value building blocks is the scope of many academic and industrial researches. Carbon dioxide is a thermodynamically and kinetically stable ... [more ▼]

Valorising CO2 as a renewable C1 feedstock for producing added value building blocks is the scope of many academic and industrial researches. Carbon dioxide is a thermodynamically and kinetically stable molecule that can be converted into five and six membered cyclic carbonates by coupling with epoxides or oxetanes, respectively, using appropriate catalysts. Although transition metal catalysts are efficient under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature, most of them are poorly selective, sensitive to hydrolysis and/or oxidation and/or toxic whereas less/non-toxic and eco-friendly organocatalysts such as ionic liquids and halide salts are generally only efficient at very high temperature and pressure favouring their thermal degradation. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new highly efficient bicomponent homogeneous organocatalyst composed of an ammonium salt as the catalyst and fluorinated single or double hydrogen bond donor activators. Through online FTIR kinetic studies, we demonstrated that this new organocatalyst showed unexpected catalytic activity for the fast and selective addition of CO2 onto epoxides under solvent-free and mild experimental conditions. The use of this dual catalyst was then extended to the coupling of CO2 with less reactive oxetanes to produce hydroxyl telechelic oligocarbonates. In the first part of this talk, based on kinetics of reactions followed by online FTIR under pressure, we will describe the reaction conditions required for the organocatalytic coupling of CO2 with epoxides and oxetanes. In the second part, the mechanism of the reaction will be approached and discussed based on DFT calculations. Finally, we will compare and discuss the efficiency of various organocatalytic systems for this type of reaction. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDirect one-pot synthesis of poly(ionic liquid) nanogels by cobalt-mediated radical cross-linking copolymerization in organic or aqueous media
Weiss-Maurin, Mathilde ULg; Cordella, Daniela ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2016), 7(14), 2521-2530

Nanogels of controlled kinetic chain length were synthesized by cobalt-mediated radical cross-linking copolymerization (CMRccP) involving a vinyl monomer and a divinyl cross-linker. This strategy was ... [more ▼]

Nanogels of controlled kinetic chain length were synthesized by cobalt-mediated radical cross-linking copolymerization (CMRccP) involving a vinyl monomer and a divinyl cross-linker. This strategy was first validated to achieve neutral poly(vinyl acetate) nanogels by CMRccP of vinyl acetate and divinyl adipate as cross-linker, at 40 °C, in presence of an alkyl- cobalt(III) serving both as initiator and controlling agent, using ethyl acetate as solvent. Poly(ionic liquid) nanogels were then directly obtained by CMRccP of N-vinyl-3-ethyl imidazolium bromide, in presence of 1,13-divinyl-3-decyl diimidazolium bromide as cross-linker. CMRccP experiments could be conducted either in organic solvent using dimethyl formamide or, more interestingly, in aqueous solution, demonstrating the robustness and the versatility of this one-step process. Chain extensions of PILs nanogels were also carried out in water, forming core-shell structures, thus opening new avenues in the design of functional nanogels. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (12 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCO2-blown microcellular non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) foams: from bio- and CO2-sourced monomers to potentially thermal insulating materials
Grignard, Bruno ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Gennen, Sandro ULg et al

in Green Chemistry (2016), 18(7), 2206-2215

Bio- and CO2-sourced non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) microcellular foams were prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) foaming technology. These low-density foams offer low thermal ... [more ▼]

Bio- and CO2-sourced non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) microcellular foams were prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) foaming technology. These low-density foams offer low thermal conductivity and have an impressive potential for use in insulating materials. They constitute attractive alternatives to conventional polyurethane foams. We investigated CO2’s ability to synthesize the cyclic carbonates that are used in the preparation of NIPU by melt step-growth polymerization with a bio-sourced amino-telechelic oligoamide and for NIPU foaming. Our study shows that CO2 is not only sequestered in the material for long-term application, but is also valorized as a blowing agent in the production of NIPU foams. Such foams will contribute to energy conservation and savings by reducing CO2 emissions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 99 (22 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHot Melt Extrusion as a New Method to Form Inclusion Complexes with Cyclodextrins
Thiry, Justine ULg; Krier, Fabrice; Ratwatte, Shenelka et al

Conference (2016, April 06)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNon-isocyanate polyurethanes from carbonated soybean oil Using monomeric or oligomeric diamines To achieve thermosets or thermoplastics
Poussard, Loïc; Mariage, J.; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Macromolecules (2016), 49(6), 2162-2171

Fully bio- and CO2-sourced non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs) were synthesized by reaction of carbonated soybean oil (CSBO) either with biobased short diamines or amino-telechelic oligoamides derived ... [more ▼]

Fully bio- and CO2-sourced non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs) were synthesized by reaction of carbonated soybean oil (CSBO) either with biobased short diamines or amino-telechelic oligoamides derived from fatty acids to achieve respectively thermoset or thermoplastic NIPUs. Biobased carbonated vegetable oils were first obtained by metal-free coupling reactions of CO2 with epoxidized soybean oils under supercritical conditions (120 °C, 100 bar) before complete characterization by FTIR, 1H NMR, and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). In a second step, biobased NIPUs were produced by melt-blending of the so-produced cyclocarbonated oil with the biobased aminated derivatives. The thermal and mechanical properties of resulting polymers were found to be depending on the cyclocarbonated vegetable oil/amine ratio. More precisely, short diamines and CSBO led to the formation of cross-linked NIPUs, and the resulting tensile and thermal properties were poor. In contrast, elastomeric NIPUs derived from oligoamides and CSBO exhibited a better rigidity, an improved elongation at break (εr up to 400%), and a higher thermal stability (T95 wt% > 350 °C) than those of starting oligoamides. These results are impressive and highlight the potentiality of this environmental friendly approach to prepare renewable NIPU materials of high performances. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 53 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCobalt-mediated radical polymerization of vinyl acetate and acrylonitrile in supercritical carbon dioxide
Kermagoret; Chau, Ngoc Do Quyen; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2016), 39(6), 539-544

Cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) of vinyl acetate (VAc) is successfully achieved in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ). CMRP of VAc is conducted using an alkyl-cobalt(III) adduct that is ... [more ▼]

Cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) of vinyl acetate (VAc) is successfully achieved in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ). CMRP of VAc is conducted using an alkyl-cobalt(III) adduct that is soluble in scCO2 . Kinetics studies coupled to visual observations of the polymerization medium highlight that the melt viscosity and PVAc molar mass ( Mn ) are key parameters that affect the CMRP in scCO2. It is noticed that CMRP is controlled for M n up to 10 000 g mol−1 , but loss of control is progressively observed for higher molar masses when PVAc precipitates in the polymerization medium. Low molar mass PVAc macroinitiator, prepared by CMRP in scCO2 , is then successfully used to initiate the acrylonitrile polymerization. PVAc-b-PAN block copolymer is collected as a free flowing powder at the end of the process although the dispersity of the copolymer increases with the reaction time. Although optimization is required to decrease the dispersity of the polymer formed, this CMRP process opens new perspectives for macromolecular engineering in scCO2 without the utilization of fluorinated comonomers or organic solvents. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSolubility and speciation of ketoprofen and aspirin in supercritical CO2 by infrared spectroscopy
Champeau, Mathilde; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data (2016), 61(2), 968-978

The solubility of ketoprofen and aspirin in subcritical and supercritical CO2 was measured using FTIR absorption spectroscopy in the large range of temperature of 298.2−353.2 K and pressure of 5−35 MPa ... [more ▼]

The solubility of ketoprofen and aspirin in subcritical and supercritical CO2 was measured using FTIR absorption spectroscopy in the large range of temperature of 298.2−353.2 K and pressure of 5−35 MPa. The evolution of the solubility of both active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was fitted using the Chrastil’s equation. In addition, the speciation of both APIs in monomeric and dimeric forms was explored by analyzing the characteristic carbonyl stretching vibrations of the carboxylic acid functions assigned to the dimers and monomers, respectively. Moreover, the evolution of the dimerization constant K of the two drugs as a function of the temperature and the pressure of scCO2 has been reported. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComprehensive study of the thermo-reversibility of Diels-Alder based PCL polymer networks
Defize, Thomas ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Alexandre, Michaël et al

in Polymer (2016), 84

Chemical crosslinking is an efficient tool to improve or impart new properties to conventional polymers. Especially, crosslinking imparts remarkable shapeememory properties to poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL ... [more ▼]

Chemical crosslinking is an efficient tool to improve or impart new properties to conventional polymers. Especially, crosslinking imparts remarkable shapeememory properties to poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) materials. Nevertheless, the processing of networks is often tricky due to infusibility and insolubility of cross-linked chains. Therefore, the synthesis of PCL networks including thermo-reversible crosslinks based on (retro)-Diels-Alder (DA) reaction were developed to allowpreserving the melt-processing while keeping the required mechanical properties below the melting point. This paper aims at studying in depth, such thermo-dependent network formation and stability. Besides conventional swelling experi- ments, Raman spectroscopy was revealed as a powerful tool to follow the formation of the DA adduct during the crosslinking. In combination with rheological measurements, we were able to determine the most appropriate temperatures to form the network (DA crosslinking) and to process it (retro-DA re- action) without degradation of the material. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFar beyond primary poly(vinylamine)s through free radical copolymerization and amide hydrolysis
Dréan, Mathilde ULg; Guégan, Philippe; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2016), 7(1), 69-78

Due to their affinity for many supports, their pH responsiveness, metal binding capacity and polyelectro- lyte complexation, poly(vinylamine) derivatives have attracted attention for many applications ... [more ▼]

Due to their affinity for many supports, their pH responsiveness, metal binding capacity and polyelectro- lyte complexation, poly(vinylamine) derivatives have attracted attention for many applications including coatings, water purification, or gas membrane separation. Nevertheless, most of them possess only pendant primary amines despite the possible benefits of incorporating different amino groups along the chain. In this work, a straightforward and scalable synthesis route towards polymers bearing primary and secondary amines, as well as imidazole groups, is reported. The general strategy relies on the radical copolymerization of different vinylamides and vinyl imidazoles followed by the hydrolysis of the resulting poly(vinylamide) derivatives. Binary and ternary free radical copolymerizations of N-vinylacetamide (NVA), N-methyl vinylacetamide (NMVA) and 1-vinylimidazole (VIm) were investigated and the reactivity ratios for each copolymerization system were determined. Thanks to these values a series of statistical copolymers with predictable composition and low deviation over the chain distribution could then be synthesized. Finally, the acidic hydrolysis of the acetamide functions towards the corresponding amine was performed and optimized. Copolymers containing various pendant amino groups and with low dispersity in the chain composition could be obtained, which opens new perspectives for the above mentioned applications. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (21 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCore cross-linked micelles of polyphosphoester containing amphiphilic block copolymers as drug nanocarriers
Ergül, Zeynep ULg; Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie; Cajot, Sébastien et al

in RSC Advances (2016), 6(48), 42081-42088

Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polyphosphoester amphiphilic block copolymers are known to self-assemble into polymer micelles when dissolved into water. This work aims at reporting on the improvement of the ... [more ▼]

Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polyphosphoester amphiphilic block copolymers are known to self-assemble into polymer micelles when dissolved into water. This work aims at reporting on the improvement of the stability of the micelles at high dilution by crosslinking the hydrophobic polyphosphoester micellar core. Typically, an unsaturated alkene side-chain was introduced on the cyclic phosphate monomer according to a one-step reaction followed by its organocatalyzed polymerization initiated by a poly(ethylene oxide) macroinitiator. This strategy avoids the use of any organometallic compounds in order to facilitate the purification and meet the stringent requirements of biomedical applications. After self-assembly into water, the micelles were cross-linked by simple UV irradiation. These cross-linked micelles have then been loaded by doxorubicin to evaluate their potential as drug nanocarriers and monitor the impact of crosslinking on the release profile. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA comprehensive density functional theory study of the key role of fluorination and dual hydrogen bonding in the activation of the epoxide/CO2 coupling by fluorinated alcohols
Alves, Margot ULg; Méreau, Raphaël; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in RSC Advances (2016), 6(43), 36327-36335

The activation mechanism of the CO2/propylene oxide coupling catalysed by a bicomponent organocatalyst combining the use of TBABr with (multi)phenolic or fluorinated hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) was ... [more ▼]

The activation mechanism of the CO2/propylene oxide coupling catalysed by a bicomponent organocatalyst combining the use of TBABr with (multi)phenolic or fluorinated hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) was investigated using the Density Functional Theory (DFT). Thus, it was shown that increasing the number of electron withdrawing trifluoromethyl substituents in HBDs strengthens their proton donor capability and allows a better stabilization by hydrogen bonding of the intermediates and transition states. In addition, the high efficiency of fluorinated monoalcohol activators is related to a dual hydrogen bonding mechanism by two fluorinated molecules that cooperatively contribute to the CO2/propylene oxide coupling. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (6 ULg)
See detailSynthesis of functional polyphosphates for hydrogel and particle drug delivery systems
Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie; Ergül, Zeynep ULg; Clément, Benoit et al

Conference (2015, December 02)

Thanks to their biocompatibility and degradability properties, polyphosphates are appealing polymers for biomedical applications. In contrast to aliphatic polyesters, such as poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly ... [more ▼]

Thanks to their biocompatibility and degradability properties, polyphosphates are appealing polymers for biomedical applications. In contrast to aliphatic polyesters, such as poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(lactide), the pentavalency of the phosphorus atom allows the easy modification of the polyphosphate properties by simply adjusting the nature, the length and the functionality of the polyphosphate pendant groups. Macromolecular engineering of polyphosphoesters was applied to design well-defined architectures and functionalities adapted to drug nanocarriers. In a first approach, amphiphilic block copolymers are synthesized by organo-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization process for the synthesis of a range of PEO-b-polyphosphate bearing various pendant groups. Post-polymerization thiol-ene click reactions preformed on PEO-b-polyphosphate copolymers was also investigated to improve the hydrophobicity of the polyphosphate. The self-assembly of these PEO-b-polyphosphate copolymers into micelles was investigated, particularly, the effect of the nature of the polyphosphate pendant groups (i) on the micelles characteristics, (ii) on the encapsulation of a poorly soluble drug and (iii) on the drug release profile. The toxicity of the different amphiphilic block copolymers was also evaluated by live/dead cell viability assays. In a second approach, double hydrophilic copolymers based on polyphosphoesters have been used as templating agent for the synthesis of calcium carbonate particles. Indeed, the use of such microparticles is becoming more and more attractive in many fields especially for biomedical applications for which fine tuning of size, morphology and crystalline form of CaCO3 particles is crucial. Although some structuring compounds, like hyaluronic acid, give satisfying results, the control of the particle structure still has to be improved. To this end, we evaluated the CaCO3 structuring capacity of the well-defined double hydrophilic block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene oxide) and of a polyphosphoester segment with affinity for calcium like poly(phosphotriester)s bearing pendant carboxylic acids or poly(phosphodiester)s with a negatively charged oxygen atom on each repeating monomer unit. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (7 ULg)