References of "Huybrechts, Benjamin"
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See detailHow can new players establish themselves in highly institutionalized labour markets? A Belgian case study in the area of project-based work
Xhauflair, Virginie ULiege; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULiege; Pichault, François ULiege

in British Journal of Industrial Relations (in press)

How can new players seeking to serve nonstandard worker categories (such as project-based workers) establish themselves into labour markets that are highly institutionalized? This paper explores the case ... [more ▼]

How can new players seeking to serve nonstandard worker categories (such as project-based workers) establish themselves into labour markets that are highly institutionalized? This paper explores the case of SMart, a Belgian community-based labour market intermediary that successfully developed solutions to better represent the interests of project-based workers and secure their discontinuous careers. Using an organizational legitimacy approach, we find that labour market entry and growth involve different types of boundary-crossing when addressing the needs of workers that do not fit into established categories. However, to justify boundary-crossing, the new player must complement its pragmatic work on delivering new services and tools with conceptual (cognitive) and structural (moral) legitimation work. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Roles of Networks in Institutionalizing New Hybrid Organizational Forms: Insights from the European Renewable Energy Cooperative Network
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULiege; Haugh, Helen

in Organization Studies (in press)

Hybrid organizational forms combine values and practices from different institutional domains, rendering them difficult to fit neatly into the structures of extant organizational forms. Since the work ... [more ▼]

Hybrid organizational forms combine values and practices from different institutional domains, rendering them difficult to fit neatly into the structures of extant organizational forms. Since the work required to institutionalize a new hybrid organizational form may be beyond the resources and capabilities of individual organizations acting alone, we shift the focus to inter-organizational collective action. Using empirical data from a study of a European network of renewable energy cooperatives, we find that, in order to institutionalize the new hybrid organizational form, the network can contribute to overcome the legitimacy challenges inherent in organizational hybridity. In particular, the network builds field-level receptivity to institutional pluralism, collectively codifies the hybrid organizational form, and consolidates legitimation towards plural field-level audiences. In order to perform these institutionalization roles, the network itself becomes increasingly formalized and mobilizes mediating functions involving different types of resources, legitimacy and target audiences. The research advances knowledge of hybrid organizational forms and their collective institutionalization through inter-organizational networks. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom distant neighbours to bedmates: Exploring the synergies between the social economy and sustainable development
Hudon, Marek; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULiege

in Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics (2017), 88(2), 141-154

To introduce this special issue we explore the conceptual and practical synergies between the social economy and sustainable development. New empirical evidence is presented on the emergence of these two ... [more ▼]

To introduce this special issue we explore the conceptual and practical synergies between the social economy and sustainable development. New empirical evidence is presented on the emergence of these two research fields and the increasing combination of these fields in the literature. Several avenues through which social enterprises can contribute to the transition towards sustainable development are then identified. This is followed by a discussion of how and why the combination can be particularly fruitful both for the social economy and for sustainability transition movements. We also highlight some important challenges facing the social economy with regard to its contribution to sustainable development. Finally we introduce the papers that constitute this special issue and show how they contribute, individually and collectively, to a better understanding of the increasing linkage between the social economy and sustainable development. [less ▲]

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See detailFair Trade and Co-operatives
Nicholls, Alex; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULiege

in Michie, Jonathan; Blassi, Joseph; Borzaga, Carlo (Eds.) The Handbook of Co-operative and Mutual Businesses (2017)

The Fair Trade and co-operative movements have much in common. This chapter aims to examine the convergences and divergences between the two fields, highlighting what they can learn from each other and ... [more ▼]

The Fair Trade and co-operative movements have much in common. This chapter aims to examine the convergences and divergences between the two fields, highlighting what they can learn from each other and how practitioners and researchers in the two areas can better collaborate. Fair trade is an innovative approach to economic development that uses a market-driven approach to exploit the growing trend in ethical, or caused-based, consumption (Nicholls & Opal 2005). Fair Trade organizations aim to re-engineer the value chains between poor producers and artisans - typically in developing countries - and their wholesale buyers such that a greater proportion of the overall rents accrue to those who provide the inputs. Put simply, Fair Trade aims to ensure that the poorest actors in a supply chain benefit from more of the overall financial value creation as a development tool. Moreover, Fair Trade reconnects producers and consumers at the point of purchase such that consumption becomes a political – or, at least, life style – choice. This chapter is structured as follows. After this introduction, the second section describes the development of Fair Trade from its historical roots to the current organizational landscape and market organization. Next there is a discussion of several key issues and challenges that have emerged as Fair Trade has become increasingly institutionalized. Then, the fourth section explores the relationship between Fair Trade and the co-operative and mutual movements. Finally, conclusions serve to sum up the chapter. [less ▲]

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See detailHow inclusive is inclusive recycling? Recyclers’ perspectives on a cross-sector partnership in Santiago de Chile
Giovannini, Michela; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULiege

in Local Environment (2017)

Inclusive recycling is the inspiring slogan of a project relying on a cross- sector (public–private–civil society) partnership implemented in Latin America with the objective to improve the socioeconomic ... [more ▼]

Inclusive recycling is the inspiring slogan of a project relying on a cross- sector (public–private–civil society) partnership implemented in Latin America with the objective to improve the socioeconomic conditions of recyclers. Through a qualitative study in Santiago de Chile, this paper seeks to understand how inclusive inclusive recycling is, by assessing how organised recyclers perceive the goals, the process, and the outcomes of this project. The main findings converge in observing a general low inclusion of recyclers, but they also enable to decompose the notion of inclusion into three dimensions: “inclusive goals” refers to the extent to which the goals of the recyclers are taken into account when designing the collaboration project; “inclusive process” refers to the extent to which recyclers are involved in the process of implementing the project; and “inclusive outcomes” refers to the capacity of the partnership to acknowledge the achievements of recyclers organisations before (and during) the project and to take into account the ongoing local dynamics when evaluating the project. These findings contribute to better understand the position and challenges of recyclers in this type of partnership and more generally to shed light on the potential power imbalance in waste management cross-sector partnerships. [less ▲]

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See detailSacred Alliance or Pact with the Devil? How and Why Social Enterprises Collaborate with Mainstream Businesses in the Fair Trade Sector
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULiege; Nicholls, Alex; Edinger, Katharina

in Entrepreneurship and Regional Development (2017), 29(7-8), 586-608

This paper uses institutional theory to highlight different patterns of cross-sector collaboration from the perspective of social enterprises. Specifically, it explores how and why social enterprises ... [more ▼]

This paper uses institutional theory to highlight different patterns of cross-sector collaboration from the perspective of social enterprises. Specifically, it explores how and why social enterprises interact with mainstream businesses and to what extent their collaboration patterns reflect a vision of how their social mission should be implemented and institutionalized. The empirical analysis is derived from a qualitative study of ‘fair trade’ – a hybrid model created by social enterprises and using market mechanisms to support small-scale producers in developing countries and to advocate for changes in international trading practices. The findings highlight three strategies used by fair trade social enterprises to manage their interactions with mainstream businesses: sector solidarity, selective engagement, and active appropriation. This paper suggests that each strategy is motivated by a different vision of how best to articulate the social mission of fair trade via specific types of collaborations. It also notes how each vision has a distinct pattern of institutionalization at the field level. This paper adds to the emergent literatures on social enterprise and social entrepreneurship, fair trade, cross-sector collaboration and hybrid organizing. [less ▲]

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See detailEntrepreneurial teams in social entrepreneurship: When team heterogeneity facilitates organizational hybridity
Dufays, Frédéric ULiege; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULiege

in Ben-Hafaïedh, Cyrine; Cooney, Thomas (Eds.) Research handbook on entrepreneurial teams: Theory and practice (2017)

This chapter examines the composition of teams involved in social entrepreneurship and more particularly their heterogeneity in terms of “institutional logics”. It proposes that when social welfare and ... [more ▼]

This chapter examines the composition of teams involved in social entrepreneurship and more particularly their heterogeneity in terms of “institutional logics”. It proposes that when social welfare and market logics are integrated within founding teams, such hybridity is likely to infuse the whole entrepreneurial process to ultimately lead to the creation of a social enterprise as a “hybrid” organization. To theorize this process, a model is proposed that examines the implications of entrepreneurial team heterogeneity in social entrepreneurship. It makes clear that complexity and dynamism, in particular with regard to individuals’ social network structure, as well as interactions between team members, are necessary to understand the impact of team composition on the entrepreneurial process. An illustrative case study is presented to demonstrate the practical relevance of the model. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferent together: How cooperative networks contribute to sustaining workers’ participation as an institutional differentiation
Soetens, Aurélie ULiege; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULiege

Conference (2016, July)

This conceptual article aims at understanding how unconventional organizations may maintain distinctive organizing norms, rules and practices over time despite various constraining factors stemming from ... [more ▼]

This conceptual article aims at understanding how unconventional organizations may maintain distinctive organizing norms, rules and practices over time despite various constraining factors stemming from the institutional environment. It proposes a framework of inward-outward identity work and legitimation that describes how workers’ co-operative networks may help workers’ co-operatives sustaining workers’ participation over time. It is argued that by mobilizing the identity collectively constructed by organizations in the network, and by justifying the institutional differentiation in front of external constituents, networks may alter the legitimacy judgments of audiences and mediate the salience of institutional demands. In particular, they may secure social acceptance and ensure the maintenance of the institutional differentiation over time. [less ▲]

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See detailSustaining Inter-Organizational Relationships across Institutional Logics and Power Asymmetries: the Case of Fair Trade
Nicholls, Alex; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULiege

in Journal of Business Ethics (2016), 135(4), 699-714

In Fair Trade (FT), as well as in other ‘mixed-form’ fields (Becchetti & Huybrechts 2008; Marwell & McInerney 2005), non-profit organizations and social enterprises have been partnering with large ... [more ▼]

In Fair Trade (FT), as well as in other ‘mixed-form’ fields (Becchetti & Huybrechts 2008; Marwell & McInerney 2005), non-profit organizations and social enterprises have been partnering with large corporations over long time periods despite the presence of conditions that might be expected to destabilize such relationships. These conditions include striking differences in size, economic power, and organizational goals or ‘logics’. Given these asymmetries, the collaborations are typically seen as problematic and temporary because the stronger party (the corporation) will impose its (market) logics upon the weaker one (the social enterprise), leading to either instrumentalizing and corrupting the latter or to the breakdown of the collaboration. Whilst some of the literature on FT and other market-oriented social movements has tended to depict corporate participation as a threat to the original goals of the social movement and to the integrity of partnering social enterprises (e.g. Fridell et al. 2008; Reed 2009), there is evidence of a set of social enterprise-corporate relationships that persist over time and cannot be simply summarized as dominated by the sole corporate, market logic. These examples illustrate the emergence of new working relationships across the conventional divides between distinct sectors – the public, private, and civil society – that offer new approaches to managing power asymmetries and apparently conflicting logics – typically, in FT and more generally in social entrepreneurship, market and social justice/welfare logics (Battilana & Lee 2014; Defourny & Nyssens 2006; Huybrechts & Nicholls 2012; Smith et al. forthcoming). This leads to the following research question: Under what conditions can inter-organizational relationships emerge and be sustained despite power asymmetries and the presence of distinct, potentially conflicting, institutional logics? The analysis in this paper aims to extend theory by providing an alternative to more deterministic analyses of inter-organizational relationships that suggest that the more powerful actor will always impose its logics upon the less powerful organization thus undermining the persistence of the relationship over time. In the process, this research adds a new construct to existing theory around the resolution of conflict in institutional logics by suggesting that dynamic persistence is also evident in contrast to examples of conflict resolution through dominance, compromise, hybridization, synthesis, or relationship breakdown. Based on the analysis of the relationships between commercial buyers and FTOs, initially embodying market and social justice logics respectively, this paper proposes a set of key conditions under which dynamic persistence can be observed even in the presence of power asymmetries. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial enterprises and their eco-systems: A European mapping report. Updated country report: Belgium
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULiege

Report (2016)

This report provides an overview of the roots, concept, legal evolution, numbers and eco-system of social enterprise in Belgium and the challenges it faces. In the first section, a number of roots and ... [more ▼]

This report provides an overview of the roots, concept, legal evolution, numbers and eco-system of social enterprise in Belgium and the challenges it faces. In the first section, a number of roots and drivers are described that have paved the way for the current understanding and landscape of social enterprise in Belgium. These roots include the associative tradition, the cooperative movement, the tradition of mutuals, the (new) social economy and the more recent business-oriented approach. The role of public policies and philanthropic actors is also discussed. In the second section, the legal evolution of social enterprise is sketched out, and three main ideal types are identified based on their underlying dynamics: (i) the entrepreneurial approach to the general interest (typically embodied by associations and foundations); (ii) the combination of mutual and general interest (typically embodied by cooperatives and mutuals); and (iii) the more borderline case of businesses that combine private and general interest. In this section, the social purpose company framework is presented, as well as a number of certification schemes. In the third section on measuring social enterprises, two approaches are distinguished: bottom-up and inclusive. Figures are presented based on studies following each approach, with the inclusive approach providing the most comprehensive number of more than 18 000 social enterprises in Belgium. Figures on employment, growth rates, legal forms and activity sectors are also presented. The fourth section reviews the main actors in the social enterprise eco-system in Belgium and its various regions. Significant attention is devoted to public authorities and public policies at the federal and regional levels. Networks and federations of different types are also presented, as well as advice and consultancy organisations, universities, observatories, incubators, etc. Finally, the need for and supply of social finance are presented and the gaps between demand and supply are discussed. Finally, the last section discusses some of the debates, obstacles and opportunities around social enterprise in Belgium. Four trends and challenges are also discussed: diversification, market recognition, social impact and communication/visibility. The annexes include the EU operational definition of social enterprise, five illustrations relating to different fields of activity, and a list of references for further exploration of the social enterprise landscape in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailWhere do hybrids come from? Entrepreneurial team heterogeneity as an avenue for the emergence of hybrid organizations
Dufays, Frédéric ULiege; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULiege

in International Small Business Journal (2016), 34(6), 777-796

This conceptual paper aims to respond to the poorly addressed question of the emergence of hybrid organizations – i.e. organizations that embrace several institutional logics. It does so by developing a ... [more ▼]

This conceptual paper aims to respond to the poorly addressed question of the emergence of hybrid organizations – i.e. organizations that embrace several institutional logics. It does so by developing a model and a set of propositions focusing on the heterogeneity of the entrepreneurial team as a possible driver for hybridity throughout the entrepreneurial process and up to the emergence of a hybrid organization. As contributions to the literatures on (collective) entrepreneurship, imprinting and hybrid organizations, we advance several avenues and conditions under which the heterogeneity of the entrepreneurial team may imprint the entrepreneurial process and lead to the creation of hybrid organizations. Our propositions connect the individual, team and organizational levels and thus advance our understanding of how institutional logics can be combined across different levels of analysis and throughout the stages of an entrepreneurial process. [less ▲]

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See detailEmergent identity formation and the co-operative: Theory building in relation to alternative organizational forms
Nelson, Teresa; Nelson, Dylan; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULiege et al

in Entrepreneurship and Regional Development (2016), 28(3-4), 286-309

How are identities of alternative forms of organization constructed and how does this process differ relative to normative forms socially expected? In this research we consider identity formation in co ... [more ▼]

How are identities of alternative forms of organization constructed and how does this process differ relative to normative forms socially expected? In this research we consider identity formation in co-operatives, a population of organizations allied globally through values and practices such as democratic participation, voluntary and open membership, and limited return to capital investment. As an extension of current thinking on identity formation in entrepreneurship and organizational theory, we use co-operatives to explore social expectations and institutional arrangements around form at the societal, population, and organizational levels using a population ecology framework. We develop a research agenda based on propositions that address specific features of identity formation in less typical forms of organization, including tensions with normative business expectations, engagement with identity audiences, embeddedness in networks and alliances, structural factors influencing identity, and identity ambiguity. [less ▲]

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See detailLa empresa social en Bélgica: diversidad de fuentes, modelos y campos
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULiege

in Revista de la Academia (2016), 21

Este artículo está estructurado como sigue: la primera sección introductoria revisa las principales raíces históricas que han conduci- do a la emergencia de una diversidad de modelos relacionados con la ... [more ▼]

Este artículo está estructurado como sigue: la primera sección introductoria revisa las principales raíces históricas que han conduci- do a la emergencia de una diversidad de modelos relacionados con la empresa social y a la economía social en Bélgica. Enseguida, la segunda sección esboza los principales aspectos de esos modelos en relación a sus formas legales, tipos de misión social a las que se orientan, dinámicas de gobierno y recursos. En la tercera sección, esos modelos son ilustrados in diferentes campos de actividad, tanto establecidos como emergentes. Finalmente, la cuarta sección propone un análisis transversal de los principales tendencias y desafíos que enfrenta el desarrollo y coexisten- cia de los diferentes modelos. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Enterprise in Belgium: A Diversity of Roots, Models and Fields
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2015)

This working paper is structured as follows. The first introductory section reviews the main historical roots that have led to the emergence of a diversity of models related to social enterprise and the ... [more ▼]

This working paper is structured as follows. The first introductory section reviews the main historical roots that have led to the emergence of a diversity of models related to social enterprise and the social economy in Belgium. Next, the second section sketches the main features of these models in terms of legal forms, types of social missions addressed, governance dynamics and resources. In the third section, these models are then illustrated in different fields of activity both established and emerging. Finally, the fourth section proposes a transversal analysis of the main trends and challenges facing the development and coexistence of the different models. [less ▲]

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See detailFair Trade and Social Enterprise
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULiege

in Raynolds, Laura; Bennett, Elizabeth (Eds.) The Handbook of Research on Fair Trade (2015)

This chapter suggests that the notion of ‘social enterprise’ is useful to capture the DNA of organizations focused on fair trade and to locate them within a broader organizational taxonomy. Without ... [more ▼]

This chapter suggests that the notion of ‘social enterprise’ is useful to capture the DNA of organizations focused on fair trade and to locate them within a broader organizational taxonomy. Without seeking to impose a new term that may not resonate for certain actors or regions, this chapter aims to bring two contributions to fair trade research and practice. First, it is suggested that the social enterprise approach is particularly useful as an analytical tool enabling researchers and other stakeholders to capture the evolution and diversification of organizational models in fair trade. Second, the use of a broader organizational approach that is not specific to the sole fair trade sector allows for connections with similar organizations in other sectors and brings a shift from considering mainly what the organizations do (fair trade in this case) towards also addressing what they are (innovative social enterprise models combining market dynamics with social purpose). This chapter is structured as follows. First, the concept of social enterprise is introduced and discussed. Then, the evolution of the organizational landscape of fair trade (in the North) is summarized. Finally, fair trade organizations are examined in the light of the social enterprise concept, with illustrations from a study in four European countries (Huybrechts 2010a; 2012). [less ▲]

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