References of "Humblet, Marie-France"
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See detailAlkaline hydrolysis for animal carcass disposal: a regulatory challenge
Van der Meulen, Karen; Custer, René; Houthoofd, Koen et al

Conference (2014, May)

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See detailECONOMIC IMPACT OF USING AN ANTIVIRAL IN THE CONTROL OF A FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE EPIZOOTIC IN SOUTHERN BELGIUM
Dal Pozzo, Fabiana ULg; Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Vandeputte, Sébastien ULg et al

Poster (2013, October)

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed mammals and one of the biggest concerns for veterinary authorities. The control measures to be applied in case of an ... [more ▼]

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed mammals and one of the biggest concerns for veterinary authorities. The control measures to be applied in case of an outbreak vary in function of the disease-free or disease-enzootic status. Vaccination depends on the prior identification of the involved viral serotype and subtype, it confers an immunity limited to 6 months and it requires between 4 to 7 days to trigger the immune response (i.e. immunity-gap). The use of anti-FMD drugs has been discussed as an alternative or supplementary method to be used in previously FMD-free countries/zones. Such an antiviral treatment could protect against the viral dissemination to fill the gap between vaccination and the rise of a protective immunity. Apart from broad spectrum antiviral agents, such as ribavirin, specific anti-FMDV molecules have been identified in vitro, but none of them has been used in clinical studies involving ruminants or pigs. Next to the anti-FMDV activity, the absence of toxicity and the withdrawal period influencing the food safety, the cost of the treatment would be another important parameter influencing the potential use of an antiviral agent in the control of a FMD outbreak. The aim of this study was to assess the economic impact of using an antiviral in the control of a FMD epizootic in southern Belgium (Walloon Region). This work was based on the results of previous investigations concerning the epidemiological and economic data of a FMD outbreak in Southern Belgium. In the considered scenario, the epizootic was caused by the introduction of an infected cow (during the incubation time) in a beef cattle farm during winter. During the two weeks between the brood cow introduction and the official declaration of the outbreak, animal movements occurred between other beef cattle farms. The economic effects of the epidemic were evaluated taking into account the air-borne transmission of FMDV, the occurrence of animal movements (two scenarios were considered, with a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 17 movements), the presence of bovine and small ruminant farms, as well as pig farms in the protection and surveillance zones around the initial and secondary outbreaks. The wild fauna was not involved in the epidemic. In order to integrate in the above scenario the application of an antiviral agent in the control of the disease, it was assumed that the efficacy of the anti-FMDV drug was proven by reducing viral excretion in infected animals as well as by preventing the infection in animals at risk. Two hypothetical prices were used to introduce in the model the costs related to the administration of the antiviral drug (5€ and 10€ per dose). Furthermore, different strategies of control could be envisaged, such as the administration of the drug to both domestic ruminants and pigs, or depending on the epidemiological role of these species in the FMD transmission and their density in the territory, the administration of the drug to only one of them. Other scenarios could be characterized by the use of the antiviral in the control of the epizootic within the protection and surveillance zones or in only one of them. The costs associated with the use of antivirals in the different proposed scenarios are compared to the costs and socio-economic losses associated with the FMD outbreak and the implementation of control measures. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural esuation models to estimate risk infection and tolerance to bovine mastitis
Detilleux, Johann ULg; Theron, Léonard ULg; Duprez, Jean-Noël ULg et al

in Genetics, Selection, Evolution (2013), 45

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See detailPreliminary assessment of the risk linked to furan ingestion by babies consuming only ready-to-eat food
Scholl, Georges ULg; Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg et al

in Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A. Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment (2013), 30(4), 654-659

The risk linked to furan ingestion has been assessed in previous papers for Belgian adults and children (Scholl et al., 2012b; Scholl et al., 2012c). The present paper focuses on infants consuming only ... [more ▼]

The risk linked to furan ingestion has been assessed in previous papers for Belgian adults and children (Scholl et al., 2012b; Scholl et al., 2012c). The present paper focuses on infants consuming only ready-to-eat baby food. As there is no Belgian baby dietary database, the furan exposure assessment was carried out by using Italian infant consumption database and Belgian contamination data. The estimated daily intake (EDI) was calculated according to a deterministic methodology. It involved 42 commercially available ready-to-eat baby food and 36 baby consumption records. The mean EDI was 1,460 ng * (kgb.w.*day)-1 which is 3.8 times higher than the 381 ng * (kgb.w.*day)-1 reported for Belgian adults, and 3.5 times higher than the 419 ng * (kgb.w. * day)-1 measured for Belgian children. To assess and characterize the risk for babies exposure the Margin of Exposure (MoE) was calculated. It highlighted that 74% of infants have a MoE below 1,000, with a minimum of 140. However, these are only preliminary results as they were calculated from a very small dataset and the infant cytochrome P450 activity is significantly different compared to the adult. Therefore, the risk linked to furan ingestion by babies should be assessed in a different manner. To this end, additional data regarding a baby diet as well as a better understanding of furan toxicity for babies are needed to characterize more accurately the risk for infants. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk assessment for furan contamination through the food chain in Belgian children
Scholl, Georges ULg; Huybrechts, Inge; Humblet, Marie-France ULg et al

in Food Additives & Contaminants (2012), 29(8), 1219-1229

Young, old, pregnant and immuno-compromised persons are of great concern for risk assessors as they represent the sub-populations most at risk. The present paper focuses on risk assessment linked to furan ... [more ▼]

Young, old, pregnant and immuno-compromised persons are of great concern for risk assessors as they represent the sub-populations most at risk. The present paper focuses on risk assessment linked to furan exposure in children. Only the Belgian population was considered because individual contamination and consumption data that are required for accurate risk assessment were available for Belgian children only. Two risk assessment approaches, so called deterministic and probabilistic, were applied and their results were compared for the estimation of the daily intake. A significant difference between the average Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) was underlined between the deterministic (419 ng * (kgb.w. * day)-1) and the probabilistic (583 ng * (kgb.w. * day)-1) approaches, which results from the mathematical treatment of the null consumption and contamination data. The risk was characterized by two ways: (1) the classical approach by comparison of the EDI to a reference dose (RfDchronic-oral) and (2) the most recent approach, namely the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach. Both reached similar conclusions: the risk level is not of a major concern, but is neither negligible. In the first approach, only 2.7% or 6.6% (respectively in the deterministic and in the probabilistic way) of the studied population presented an EDI above the RfDchronic-oral. In the second approach, the percentage of children displaying a MoE above 10,000 and below 100 is 3% - 0% and 20% - 0.01% in the deterministic and probabilistic modes respectively. In addition, children were compared to adults and significant differences between the contamination patterns were highlighted. Whilst major contamination was linked to coffee consumption in adults (55%), no item predominantly contributed to the contamination in children. The most important were soups (19%), dairy products (17%), pasta and rice (11%), fruit and potatoes (9% each). [less ▲]

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See detailMultidisciplinary and Evidence-based Method for Prioritizing Diseases of Food-producing Animals and Zoonoses
Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Vandeputte, Sébastien ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2012), 18(4),

To prioritize 100 animal diseases and zoonoses in Europe, we used a multicriteria decision-making procedure based on opinions of experts and evidence-based data. Forty international experts performed ... [more ▼]

To prioritize 100 animal diseases and zoonoses in Europe, we used a multicriteria decision-making procedure based on opinions of experts and evidence-based data. Forty international experts performed intracategory and intercategory weighting of 57 prioritization criteria. Two methods (deterministic with mean of each weight and probabilistic with distribution functions of weights by using Monte Carlo simulation) were used to calculate a score for each disease. Consecutive ranking was established. Few differences were observed between each method. Compared with previous prioritization methods, our procedure is evidence based, includes a range of fields and criteria while considering uncertainty, and will be useful for analyzing diseases that affect public health [less ▲]

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See detailRisk assessment of Belgian adults for furan contamination through the food chain
Scholl, Georges ULg; Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg et al

in Food Additives & Contaminants (2012), 29(3), 345-353

Risk assessment is an interdisciplinary process used to quantify the risk linked to a hazard. In the present paper it is applied to quantify the risk linked to furan ingestion through the food chain for ... [more ▼]

Risk assessment is an interdisciplinary process used to quantify the risk linked to a hazard. In the present paper it is applied to quantify the risk linked to furan ingestion through the food chain for the Belgian adult population. Two approaches, deterministic and probabilistic, were carried out in parallel. The deterministic method relied on a case study, whereas the probabilistic approach involved statistical distributions of contamination and consumption data to calculate a statistical distribution of the daily intake. First, the deterministic method revealed a low estimated daily intake (EDI) for the average population (380 ng*(kgbw*day)–1) and a huge contribution of coffee consumption to the EDI (55%). Increasing or decreasing the daily coffee consumption by one cup can affect the EDI by about 22%. Afterwards, the probabilistic approach showed that the average population has a low EDI (494 ng*(kgbw*day) 1), and that high contamination levels were only registered in a small proportion of the population. Finally, a comparison of the RfDchronic oral showed that less than 10% of the Belgian population had an EDI above the reference dose proposed by the USEPA; the majority of the population had an EDI 20% below the reference dose. The margin of exposure (MoE) approach indicated that the level of risk related to furan intake through ingestion is low, with a MoE>10,000 for more than 10% of the population and no result < 100. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication d’une méthodologie fondée sur la multidisciplinarité et la médecine factuelle pour ordonnancer et classer les maladies des animaux producteurs de denrées alimentaires et les zoonoses
Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Vandeputte, Sébastien ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in Epidémiologie et Santé Animale (2012), 62

Le processus de hiérarchisation présenté dans ce travail repose sur une prise de décision multicritères qui inclut les opinions d’experts multidisciplinaires et des données de médecine factuelle. Cent ... [more ▼]

Le processus de hiérarchisation présenté dans ce travail repose sur une prise de décision multicritères qui inclut les opinions d’experts multidisciplinaires et des données de médecine factuelle. Cent maladies animales et zoonotiques ont été considérées dans l’exercice et cinq catégories regroupant 57 critères ont été prises en compte. Des experts internationaux ont réalisé une pondération intra-catégorie et inter-catégories des critères. L’information correspondant à chaque critère/maladie a été collectée sur base de la médecine factuelle. Un score global pondéré a été calculé pour chaque maladie sur base de deux approches, déterministe et probabiliste. Un classement consécutif des maladies a été établi. Un arbre de classification et de régression a permis de classer les maladies en quatre sous-groupes. Peu de différences ont été observées entre les méthodes déterministe et probabiliste. Cet outil générique et prédictif pourrait être appliqué dans différents contextes et à des maladies affectant d’autres espèces animales [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence-based early clinical detection of emerging diseases in food animals and zoonoses: two cases.
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Porter, Sarah ULg et al

in Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice (2012), 28(1), 121-131

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See detailApparent prevalence of antibodies to Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in bulk tank milk from dairy herds in southern Belgium
Czaplicki, G.; Houtain, J. Y.; Mullender, C. et al

in Veterinary Journal (2012), 192(3), 529-531

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See detailReducing hazards for humans from animals: emerging and re-emerging zoonoses
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana ULg; Humblet, Marie-France ULg

in Italian Journal of Public Health (2012), 9(2), 13-24

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See detailInstruments de gestion économique des crises sanitaires touchant les animaux de production en Europe
Vandeputte, Sébastien ULg; Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Fecher-Bourgeois, Fabienne ULg et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique / Office International des Epizooties = Revista Cientifica y Tecnica / Officina Internacional de Epizootias = Scientific and Technical Review / International Office of Epizootics (2011), 30(3), 683-701

The importance of animal health crises has considerably increased over the last few years. When a crisis occurs, farmers can receive financial support through various public, private and mixed ... [more ▼]

The importance of animal health crises has considerably increased over the last few years. When a crisis occurs, farmers can receive financial support through various public, private and mixed compensation schemes. Economic losses resulting from diseases may be direct and indirect. If a disease is covered by European Union regulations then countries have a legal obligation to partly compensate farmers for direct losses, either directly through the national budget, or through a specific fund. The European Veterinary Fund also cofinances these losses. Only a few countries provide compensation for indirect losses. The private insurance sector also provides protection against some direct and indirect losses but the risks covered are variable. To encourage farmers to subscribe to this kind of insurance, some public authorities provide subsidies to help pay the premium. Insurance companies do not generally cover the risks linked to contagious diseases, but some companies do extend cover to include this type of risk. Several alternatives, such as mutual funds, are available to improve risk coverage. There is a lack of harmonisation among the various compensation schemes of different countries. Public authorities cannot provide full compensation, but mutual funds and private insurance companies are alternatives that should be further investigated and their use should be extended to other countries. A classification of diseases would harmonise the situation at the European level. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Importance of Awareness for Veterinarians Involved in Cattle Tuberculosis Skin Testing
Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Bardoux, Patrick et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2011)

France is currently facing a re-emergence of bovine tuberculosis in several regions. To assess the knowledge of veterinary field practitioners concerning skin testing, a questionnaire-based methodology ... [more ▼]

France is currently facing a re-emergence of bovine tuberculosis in several regions. To assess the knowledge of veterinary field practitioners concerning skin testing, a questionnaire-based methodology developed in Belgium was adapted to the context of the French department of Dordogne. The veterinarians involved in herds skin testing were solicited to participate to the survey (N = 94), through an anonymous postal questionnaire including items related to each step of the skin test procedure. Each item of the questionnaire was allotted a compliance score by 5 experts in the field of bovine tuberculosis (0, 1 or 2 a correct, acceptable and unacceptable answer respectively). These scores were balanced over 30 criteria according to their potential impact on the non-detection of reactors, on the basis of 11 experts’ opinion. A global score was calculated for each participating veterinarian. In addition, the Departmental sanitary authorities held meetings in December 2005 and June 2006 to make the veterinarians aware of the importance of correctly performing the skin test. The participants to the study were asked to fill in the questionnaire in duplicate, one related to their practices before the meeting, and the other one focusing on their practices after the meeting. A comparison of both situations was carried out (pre- and post-awareness meeting), as well as a comparison with the Belgian situation, arbitrarily selected as reference for the methodology. The participation was representative and reached a 23.4% rate. A significant difference was noticed between the mean global score reached before and after the meeting. These results show the usefulness of an appropriate awareness campaign of veterinarians in relation with skin testing and the importance of frequently holding awareness meetings in areas remaining confronted with bovine tuberculosis problems. It also highlights the interest of a structured auto-assessment process of veterinary practices [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring of the intra-dermal tuberculosis skin test performed by Belgian field practitioners
Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Walravens, K.; Salandre, O. et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2011)

The present study aimed to monitor skin test practices as performed by veterinarian field practitioners in Belgium. For this purpose, an anonymous postal questionnaire was elaborated and dispatched to ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to monitor skin test practices as performed by veterinarian field practitioners in Belgium. For this purpose, an anonymous postal questionnaire was elaborated and dispatched to veterinarians involved in bovine tuberculosis detection. The questionnaire included items focusing on the skin test performance. International experts in the field of bovine tuberculosis were asked to fill the questionnaire and a scoring scale was built as follows: 0='ideal' answer, 1=acceptable answer, whereas 2=unacceptable answer. Furthermore, experts were asked to rank the questionnaire's items according to their possible impact on the risk of not detecting reactors. A global score was further calculated for each participant and a comparison of practices was carried out between the two regions of the country, i.e. Wallonia and Flanders. Significant differences were observed between both regions, a harmonization at the country level is thus essential. No veterinarian summed a null score, corresponding to the ideal skin test procedure, which suggests that skin-testing is far from being performed correctly. Field practitioners need to be sensitized to the importance of correctly performing the test. The authors recommend the questionnaire is suitable for application in other countries or regions [less ▲]

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See detailA survey of the transmission of infectious diseases/infections between wild and domestic ungulates in Europe
Martin, C.; Pastoret, Paul-Pierre ULg; Brochier, B. et al

in Veterinary Research (2011)

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See detailDéveloppement d’un modèle de hiérarchisation des maladies émergentes en Région Wallonne
Vandeputte, Sébastien ULg; Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Fecher-Bourgeois, Fabienne ULg et al

in Epidémiologie et Santé Animale (2010), 58

Au niveau mondial, on observe depuis quelques décennies une augmentation de l’émergence ou de la réémergence de maladies animales dont la plupart sont zoonotiques. L’émergence récente de la fièvre ... [more ▼]

Au niveau mondial, on observe depuis quelques décennies une augmentation de l’émergence ou de la réémergence de maladies animales dont la plupart sont zoonotiques. L’émergence récente de la fièvre catarrhale ovine en Belgique ne fait que confirmer ce phénomène. L’objectif du projet est de développer un modèle conceptuel de hiérarchisation des maladies émergentes en Région Wallonne ayant pour but de quantifier les pertes économiques directes et indirectes subies par les éleveurs et la société civile en cas d’émergence d’une maladie animale. La première étape du projet consiste à construire une liste de maladies émergentes ou potentiellement émergentes en recourant à une revue de la littérature de référence récente et à des réunions de consensus entre experts. La liste finalisée sera hiérarchisée sur base de différents critères tels que, par exemple, des critères socio-économiques ou zootechniques. Plusieurs maladies modèles, figurant à des rangs différents dans la liste, seront ensuite étudiées en profondeur. L’étude de ces maladies modèles nous permettra d’estimer les pertes socio-économiques résultant des maladies animales et des maladies humaines si la maladie possède un potentiel zoonotique. Cette estimation se fera grâce à différentes techniques usuelles d’analyse socio-économique et le résultat de cette estimation nous permettra de paramétrer l’échelle des pertes socio-économiques. Finalement, l’ensemble des résultats obtenus seront synthétisés et, en tenant compte de la typologie de chaque maladie (basée sur divers éléments quantitatifs), une estimation des pertes socio-économiques de chaque maladie listée pourra être établie. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment methodology of the intradermal tuberculosis skin test performed in cattle by field practitioners
Humblet, Marie-France ULg; Walravens, K.; Salandre, O. et al

Poster (2010)

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