References of "Hornick, Jean-Luc"
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See detailPerformances of local poultry breed fed black soldier fly larvae reared on horse manure
Moula, Nassim ULiege; Scippo, Marie-Louise ULiege; Douny, Caroline ULiege et al

in Animal Nutrition (in press)

In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of Black Soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect ... [more ▼]

In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of Black Soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect competition with human food. Little information is currently available on the utility of these larvae in poultry feed, so goals of this study were to determine whether larvae could be reared on horse manure under traditional farming conditions and to evaluate the growth performances of a local poultry fed these larvae and the fatty acids profiles of their meat. After freezing and thawing, larvae were introduced in the feed of Ardennaise chickens between 30 and 80 days of age. Birds in the control group received a commercial standard feed while those in the treatment group received the same commercial feed in which 8% was substituted with whole fresh larvae corresponding to 2% on a dry matter basis. Mean ± standard errors of larval length and weight were 20.67 ± 2.21 mm and 0.14 ± 0.02 g, respectively. Mean larval percentages of dry matter and of substances extractable in diethyl ether were 24.6% and 23.1%, respectively. Larval fatty acids profiles were predominantly composed of lauric (28.1%) and palmitic (22.0%) acids. Least squares means of weekly weights of chicken, adjusted for the effects of sex, replication and initial weights, were significantly higher (P < 0.05) by 77.03 ± 53.37 g in larvae-fed than in control chickens. All the other measurements were not statistically different between larvae-fed and control chicken, including fatty acid profiles, protein content and ω6/ω3 ratio. In conclusion, the use of black soldier fly larvae in the diet of local chicken breed may be an alternative to the use of soy. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Pig Diets Containing By-product of Rice Distiller on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality
Nguyen Cong, Oanh ULiege; Do Duc, Luc; Pham Kim, Dang et al

Scientific conference (2017, October 13)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fattening pig diets containing rice distiller’s by-product (RDP) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. A total of 24 ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fattening pig diets containing rice distiller’s by-product (RDP) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. A total of 24 castrated male crossbred pigs ♂Duroc ×♀(Landrace × Yorkshire) were used for the experiment. Pigs were divided randomly by weight and litter into 3 diets, with 4 replications of 2 pigs in each pen. Pigs were fed one of 3 diets including DAR0 (control), DAR15 (15% RDP in dry matter) and DAR30 (30% RDP in dry matter) during 8 weeks. The results showed that the diets with RDP tended to affect average daily gain (P=0.09) and feed conversion ratio (P=0.08), while feed cost was decreased (P<0.001). Carcass traits was not significantly different between the diets, however back fat thickness was increased by RDP levels (P=0.03). Drip loss of Longissimus dorsi muscle at 24 and 48 hours was increased (P<0.05), whereas there were not effect on pH value and meat color at 45 min, 24 and 48 hours postmortem. Muscle lipid content was increased (P<0.01), whereas protein content was not influenced by RDP in diets. This suggests that using diet with 30% RDP for fattening pigs can improve lipid content of Longissimus dorsi muscle and reduce feed costs while not affecting growth performance and meat quality. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the effects of Opuntia ficus-indica powder on growth performance and serum parameters of the Broiler Chicken in Algeria
Moula, Nassim ULiege; Humbel, Maïlis ULiege; Leterrier, Mélanie ULiege et al

Poster (2017, October 13)

In Algeria, the ingredients used in the broiler feed are exclusively imported from abroad, which affects negatively the production cost of the chicken meat and its sale price in the market at national ... [more ▼]

In Algeria, the ingredients used in the broiler feed are exclusively imported from abroad, which affects negatively the production cost of the chicken meat and its sale price in the market at national level. Because of the wide diversity in soil and climate, Algeria has a substantial number of plants which can be used in animal feed. This work is part of the valuation of the feed potential of the barbaric fig tree, widely present in the Algerian rural landscape, for the broiler chicken. The Opuntia ficus-indica is known for its edible fruits and for use of its fleshy leaves or “racquets” as fodder especially during periods of drought. It is also used to control the water and wind erosion as well as for the protection and improvement of soil fertility in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of Opuntia ficus-indica powder on growth performance, serum composition and carcass yield of broiler chickens. The experiments were performed in a private poultry farm in the Chemini region (Wilaya de Bejaia). In this study, 120 Ross-308 day-old male chicks were monitored. They were divided in 3 groups (Group 1, 2 and 3) according to the specific diet (4 x 10 chicks / group). The group 1 was offered commercial feed. The group 2 and group 3 were offered the same commercial feed as group 1 but 5% and 10% of the commercial feed was replaced by the Opuntia ficus-indica powder respectively. The Opuntia ficus-indica powder did not show any negative effect (p>0.05) on the final body-weight, average daily gain and carcass yield. However, it decreased (p<0.05) the biochemical parameters -blood concentration- (plasma glucose, uremia, cholesterol and triglycerides). In conclusion, the Opuntia ficus-indica powder has the potential to be used in poultry feed to reduce the cost of broiler feed in Algeria [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of concentrate allocation on traffic and milk production of pasture based cows milked by an automatic milking system
Lessire, Françoise ULiege; Froidmont, Eric; Shortall, John et al

in Animal (2017), 11(4), 1-9

Increased economic, societal and environmental challenges facing agriculture are leading to a greater focus on effective way to combine grazing and automatic milking systems (AMS). One of the fundamental ... [more ▼]

Increased economic, societal and environmental challenges facing agriculture are leading to a greater focus on effective way to combine grazing and automatic milking systems (AMS). One of the fundamental aspects of robotic milking is cows’ traffic to the AMS. Numerous studies have identified feed provided, either as fresh grass or concentrate supplement, as the main incentive for cows to return to the robot. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concentrate allocation on voluntary cow traffic from pasture to the robot during the grazing period, to highlight the interactions between grazed pasture and concentrate allocation in terms of substitution rate and the subsequent effect on average milk yield and composition. Thus, 29 grazing cows, milked by a mobile robot, were monitored for the grazing period (4 months). They were assigned to 2 groups: a low concentrate (LC) group (15 cows) and a high concentrate (HC) group (14 cows) receiving 2 kg and 4 kg concentrate per cow per day respectively. Two allocations per day of fresh pasture were provided at 0700h and 1600h. The cows had to go through the AMS to receive the fresh pasture allocation. The effect of concentrate level on robot visitation was calculated by summing milkings, refusals and failed milkings/cow per day. The impact on average daily milk yield and composition was also determined. The interaction between lactation number and month was used as an indicator of pasture availability. Concentrate allocation increased significantly robot visitations in HC (3.60 ± 0.07 visitations/cow per day in HC - 3.10 ± 0.07 visitations/cow per day in LC; P<0.001) while milkings/cow per day were similar in both groups (LC: 2.37 ± 0.02/day - HC: 2.39 ± 0.02/day; ns). The average daily milk yield over the grazing period was enhanced in HC (22.39 ± 0.22 kg/cow per day in HC- 21.33 ± 0.22 kg/cow per day in LC; P<0.001). However the gain in milk due to higher concentrate supply was limited with regards to the amount of provided concentrates. Milking frequency in HC primiparous compared with LC was increased. In the context of this study, considering high concentrate levels as an incentive for robot visitation might be questioned, as it had no impact on milking frequency and limited impact on average milk yield and composition. By contrast, increased concentrate supply could be targeted specifically to primiparous cows. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the ruminal function of Belgian dairy cows suspected of subacute ruminal acidosis.
Lessire, Françoise ULiege; Knapp, Emilie; Theron, Léonard et al

in Vlaams Diergeneeskundig tijdschrift (2017), 86(1), 16-23

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) has been considered a major pathology in high producing dairy herds for years. These findings were corroborated by several studies in Europe. However, different feeding ... [more ▼]

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) has been considered a major pathology in high producing dairy herds for years. These findings were corroborated by several studies in Europe. However, different feeding practices and herds’ production levels are found in Southern Belgium. This study aimed to ascertain whether dairy cows of several herds from the south of Belgium (Wallonia) with a suspicion of SARA really did present too low ruminal pH values. Twenty-four herds were visited and 172 cows were sampled using an oropharyngeal device to collect ruminal fluid, i.e. Geishauser probe. On the samples, three tests were performed: pH measurement, methylene blue reduction test and microscopic evaluation of protozoa vitality. Based on these analyses, no cows demonstrated pH values lower than 5.5 and, only ten cows could be considered at risk for SARA. By contrast, in eightteen cows, pH values higher than 7.0 were measured and ruminal inactivity was suspected. In this study, ruminal alkalosis appeared to be more frequently observed than SARA. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of defatting combined or not to heating of Jatropha curcas kernel meal on feed intake and growth performance in broiler chickens and chicks in Senegal
Nesseim, Thierry ULiege; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Mergeai, Guy ULiege et al

in Tropicultura (2017), 35(3), 149-157

Jatropha curcas is a tropical drought-resistant plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that has gained importance for the production of biodiesel. The kernel of the seed contains approximately 55 ... [more ▼]

Jatropha curcas is a tropical drought-resistant plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that has gained importance for the production of biodiesel. The kernel of the seed contains approximately 55% lipid in dry matter and the meal obtained could be an exceptional source of protein for family poultry farming, after treatments to remove toxic and anti-nutritional compounds. The ingestion and the growth performance of J. curcas kernel meal (JKM), obtained after partial physico chemical de-oiling combined or not with heating was evaluated in broiler chickens and chicks. Sixty unsexed broiler chickens, 30 day-old, divided into three groups as well as twenty broiler chicks, 1 day-old, divided into two groups were obtained for two experiments. In experiment 1, jatropha kernel was de-oiled and incorporated into a control fattening feed at 40 and 80g/kg (diets 4JKM1 and 8JM1). In experiment 2, jatropha kernel meal obtained in experiment 1 was heat treated and incorporated into a growing diet at 80g/kg (diet 8JKM2). Daily dietary intakes as well as weight gain of the animals were affected by the incorporation of jatropha kernel meal in the ration. In experiment 1, average daily feed intake (ADFI1) of 139.2, 55.2 and 23.4g/day/animal and also average daily weight gain (ADWG1) of 61.9, 18.5 and -7.7g/animal were obtained respectively for the groups fed with diets 0JKM1, 4JKM1 and 8JKM1. In experiment 2, Average daily feed intake (ADFI2) of 18.7 and 3.1g/day/animal and also average daily weight gain (ADWG2) of 7.1 and 1.9g/animal were obtained respectively for the groups fed with diets 0JKM2 and 8JKM2. In both experiment, feed conversion ratio (FCR) was also affected by the dietary treatments and the overall mortality rate showed an increase according to levels of jatropha kernel meal in diet. Keywords: broiler chickens, broiler chicks, Jatropha curcas, ingestion, growth performance [less ▲]

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See detailGoat grazing in northern Morocco: problem or solution?
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, Mouad; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 4th FARAH-Day (2017)

In northern Morocco, silvopastoral areas are characterized by pastoral activities, and the goats find some or all their feed rations. Overgrazing is listed as a main factor of silvopastoral degradation by ... [more ▼]

In northern Morocco, silvopastoral areas are characterized by pastoral activities, and the goats find some or all their feed rations. Overgrazing is listed as a main factor of silvopastoral degradation by local authority and several authors. Goat cannot only be regarded as a problem for silvopastoral ecosystems. A survey, with local population and local authority, were conducted in several rural communes of northern Morocco, to understand the actual factors of silvopastoral degradation. According to all interviewed persons: agriculture development, authority policy, cannabis cultivation, deforestation, drought, fire, overgrazing, population growth and soil erosion are the most cited drivers of silvopastoral degradation. Local population and local authority have the same perception that soil erosion, drought, fire and population growth are factors of silvopastoral degradation. Goat grazing can be considerate as a solution and not just a problem. In some forest areas, goat grazing contributes to a reduction of burned areas by elimination of inflammable shrubs. Herd mobility, as an ecological rationality, is considered as a response to unexpected variability in pasture production and/or animal nutritional needs. Despite all forms of degradation, silvopastoral areas in northern Morocco continue to play a support of all livestock activities, considered an inevitable source of goats feeding. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the method and the period of oil extraction on in vitro digestibility of olive cake in northern of Morocco
El Otmani, Samira ULiege; Ayadi, Mohamed; Chentouf, Mouad et al

in Proceedings of the 4th FARAH-Day (2017)

In Northern Morocco, goat population is the most dominant livestock. His feeding is based on forest rangelands and characterized by strong seasonal variability responsible of low productivity. Therefore ... [more ▼]

In Northern Morocco, goat population is the most dominant livestock. His feeding is based on forest rangelands and characterized by strong seasonal variability responsible of low productivity. Therefore, it is necessary to diversify and improve its diet. Olive cake is an oil extraction by-product that is widely available and can be a ruminant feed. Olive cake is produced by three methods and for limited period. This work aims to determine the effect of oil extraction method and period on digestibility of olive cake. Twenty-seven samples were collected from 3 mills by each extraction method (mechanical pressure, centrifugation 2 and 3 phases) during three periods (November, December and January). In vitro digestibility was performed using gas production method of (Menke et al., 1979) improved by Menke and Steingass (1988). Samples were incubated in glass syringes that contained rumen fluid and incubation solution that conserved in water bath in 39°C during 72 hours. Gas production was recorded after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Studied digestibility parameters were dry and organic matter digestibility, microbial biomass production, partitioning factor and volatile fatty acid. Extraction method affected digestion kinetics and the digestibility parameters except partition factor and volatile fatty acids. Olive cake obtained by 2 phases method had the highest digestibility. For extraction period, gas production decreased significantly per period. Period had no effect on digestibility parameters except for volatile fatty acids. Two phases olive cake is most suitable for feed but has a reduced shelf life, which requires the development of a suitable conservation mode. [less ▲]

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See detailExtensive goat production systems in northern Morocco: production and use of pastoral resources
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, Mouad; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Porqueddu, C; Franca, A; Lombardi, G (Eds.) et al Grassland resources for extensive farming systems in marginal lands: major drivers and future scenarios (2017)

Grazing is a Mediterranean tradition with an unvaried importance in northern Morocco. Rangeland has known profound changes, inducing a major gap between pastoral supply and demand. This study aimed to ... [more ▼]

Grazing is a Mediterranean tradition with an unvaried importance in northern Morocco. Rangeland has known profound changes, inducing a major gap between pastoral supply and demand. This study aimed to assess pastoral production of pastures at two sites in northern Morocco (Derdara and Loubar) and investigate their use by goats. Concerning biomass production, we used the method of the reference module. The surveys were realized during the biomass evaluation period. Pastoral species, mainly Arbutus unedo, Cistus monspeliensis, Erica arborea, Lavandula stoechas and Pistacia lentiscus, represent the most palatable species selected by goats. Grazing is practised throughout the year except during rainy days when breeders practice ‘cut and carry’ of the branches. The biomass produced was estimated at 1,455 and 333 kg dry matter ha‑1, respectively, in Derdara and Loubar. Significant differences were observed depending on the season and according to sampling sites. Furthermore, the research showed the appearance of degraded areas dominated by annual species together with species of low pastoral interest – thorny plant species that characterize degraded areas. Due to climate changes and overgrazing, pastoral resources will have availability and quality reduced. The reasonable use of pastures, including a reduction in grazing pressure, should be developed to insure their sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation of Rice Distiller’s By-product for swine Production in Northern Vietnam
Nguyen Cong, Oanh ULiege; Dang, Pham Kim; Luc, Do Duc et al

Scientific conference (2016, December 08)

The objective of this study was to investigate the production of rice distiller’s by-product and its use as feed for pigs in three provinces (Hai Duong, Hung Yen and Bac Giang) of Northern Vietnam to ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to investigate the production of rice distiller’s by-product and its use as feed for pigs in three provinces (Hai Duong, Hung Yen and Bac Giang) of Northern Vietnam to identify annual supply resource of the by-product as pig feed. A total of 120 rice alcohol producers classified by production scales (large, medium and small) were interviewed from January to August 2015. Additionally, sixty-three rice distiller’s by-product samples were collected from investigated areas to determine nutrition components and to evaluate the effect of storage time (from the first to the seventh day) on quality of rice distiller’s by-product. Annual rice distiller’s by-product production was 4.8, 3.0 and 2.1 tons per household for large, medium and small scales respectively (P<0.001). The dominance of swine quantity in large-scale alcohol producing households in comparison with smaller number of pigs raised in medium and small ones (P<0.05) proved a clear relation between number of pigs in household and alcohol production scales. The amount of by-product used in daily diet of sows in all three scales gradually reduced from pregnant to lactating sows. The utilisation of by-product for fattening pigs was significantly diversified among different scales (33.6%, 29.3% and 25.3% for large, medium and small scales respectively) (P<0.05). The rice distiller’s by-product was a rich source of crude protein (26.2%), neutral detergent fiber (33.7%), lactic acid (2.27 %) and gross energy (20.41 MJ/kg DM). Furthermore, its nutritive values were stable under ambient condition during a week (P>0.05). [less ▲]

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See detailUtilization of Rice Distiller’s By-product for Swine Production in Northern Vietnam
Nguyen Cong, Oanh ULiege; Dang, Pham Kim; Luc, Do Duc et al

Poster (2016, October 21)

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See detailEvaluation of chemical composition of 6 available by-products in the North of Morocco
El Otmani, Samira ULiege; Ayadi, Mohamed; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Book of Abstracts of the 12th International Conference on Goats (2016, September)

In the northern region of Morocco, goat breeding is the dominant activity of farmers. This livestock plays a major economic role in the contribution of more than 70% of household income. His diet is based ... [more ▼]

In the northern region of Morocco, goat breeding is the dominant activity of farmers. This livestock plays a major economic role in the contribution of more than 70% of household income. His diet is based essentially on forest rangelands characterized by a variable feed offer. Therefore, it is necessary to diversify and improve its feed calendar to reduce overgrazing and increase livestock productivity. This work aims to characterize the chemical composition of agricultural by-products to be introduced in the diet of goat herd. The studied by-products was residues of watermelon, melon, zucchini, tomato, sunflower and peanut. These samples were collected in the different places in the region of the north of Morocco. In the laboratory, they were dried in oven at 60°C and subsequently ground and sieved to 1 mm diameter. The studied composition parameters were dry matter, ash, total nitrogen and fat. The chemical composition of these samples was determined by the methods of AOAC (1997). The means and the standard error of means were calculated using SAS software. From results, dry matter of by-products varies from 16.4% in watermelon residues and 96.7% in sunflower residues. The sunflower residues has a low mineral content of 3% while the melon residue contains 26.5% of mineral matter. The nitrogenous matter ranges from 2.6% in sunflower residue to 19.5% in watermelon residues. The highest fat content was recorded in melon residues (5.1%). Sunflower residue is lower in fat (1.4%). In conclusion, sunflower and peanut residues drier than the other by-products and contain less mineral matter, fat and nitrogenous matter. These by-products represent a free feed that can take their place in feed calendar in the northern region of Morocco for the goat population. However, to introduce them in the diet, it is necessary to evaluate their nutritional values. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Dietary Energy on Productive and Reproductive Performance of Algerian Local Rabbit Does and Their Litters
Saidj, Dahia; Ainbaziz, H.; Salhi, O. et al

in Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology (2016), 16

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See detailĐánh giá tiềm năng bã rượu làm thức ăn chăn nuôi lợn nông hộ tại ba tỉnh phía Bắc
Nguyen Cong, Oanh ULiege; Pham Kim, Dang; Vu Dinh, Ton et al

in Journal of Science and Development (2016), 14(1), 79-86

In order to evaluate the potential of the rice distiller’s by-product for use as feed, the chemical composition and nutritive value, and its utilisation in pig production, 120 rice alcohol producers were ... [more ▼]

In order to evaluate the potential of the rice distiller’s by-product for use as feed, the chemical composition and nutritive value, and its utilisation in pig production, 120 rice alcohol producers were surveyed and 18 samples of rice distiller’s by-product were collected from 3 traditional alcohol villages belonging to 3 different provinces in the North of Viet Nam (Hai Duong, Hung Yen and Bac Giang). The study results showed that rice distillers’ by product was produced in large quantity and available the whole year round in households surveyed (8.266 kg DM/household/year). The majority of this by-product was used for pig production. The rice distiller’s by-product use in feed ration varied between 11- 40% DM and 11-50% DM for sows and fattening pigs, respectively. For the sows, this by-product used in diet gradually reduced from pregnancy to milking sows. For the fattening pigs, its by-product is used continuously from piglet to finishing stage. Rice distiller’s by-product was high in protein, NDF (% DM) and energy (28.18%, 29.93% and 4.866,67 kcal/kg, respectively) but low in dry matter (DM) (11.04%). The low pH value (3.19) and high lactic acid ratio (2.31 g/100 g sample) might help improve digestive health and prevent intestinal diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailThe “FMV small animal husbandry unit” for students and research
Moula, Nassim ULiege; Dawans, Edwin ULiege; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege et al

in Zeippen, Caroline; Bayrou, Calixte; Cabaraux, Jean-François (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 3rd FARAH-Day (2016)

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See detailEffect of the method and the period of oil extraction on chemical composition of olive cake in northern of Morocco
El Otmani, Samira ULiege; Ayadi, Mohamed; Chentouf, Mouad et al

in Bayrou, Calixte; Cabaraux, Jean-François; Delguste, Catherine (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 3rd FARAH Day (2016)

In the northern of Morocco, goat population is the most dominant. His diet is based on forest rangelands. Therefore, it is necessary to diversify and improve its feed calendar. Olive cake is by-product of ... [more ▼]

In the northern of Morocco, goat population is the most dominant. His diet is based on forest rangelands. Therefore, it is necessary to diversify and improve its feed calendar. Olive cake is by-product of oil extraction that widely available in the region with important production. It can be a feed resource of ruminant. This resource is produced by three methods and for limited period. This work aims to determine the effect of different oil extraction method and period on the chemical composition of olive cake in northern of Morocco. Twenty-seven samples of olive cake were collected from 3 mills by each extraction method (mechanical pressure, centrifugation 2 and 3 phases) during three periods (November, December and January). The chemical composition (dry matter, fat, mineral matter, crude protein and fibers) of the collected samples was determined by AOAC methods (1997). The extraction method had a significant effect on all parameters of the chemical composition with the exception of the fat and crude protein (P<0.05). The olive cake obtained by centrifugation 2 phases method had lower dry matter and fibers. The period had no effect on chemical composition, which eases the introduction of olive cake in the diet of ruminants. The olive cake of 2 phases is the most suitable for feed but has a reduced shelf life, which requires the development of a suitable conservation mode. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomass production and use of silvopastoral areas in northern Morocco
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, M.; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Goats (2016) (2016)

In Rif Mountain of Morocco, sylvopastoral systems satisfy the diverse needs of local population and represent the most important feed sources for goats. This system is under pressure due to climate change ... [more ▼]

In Rif Mountain of Morocco, sylvopastoral systems satisfy the diverse needs of local population and represent the most important feed sources for goats. This system is under pressure due to climate change and overgrazing. For a sustainable and integrated development of this area, it is essential to establish a resource assessment. This study aims to evaluate the pastoral production (biomass) and investigate the use of pasture in Rif Mountain (Loubar) exclusively used by goat herds. For biomass production, we used the method of the reference module. The surveys, on using pasture by breeders, were realized during the biomass evaluation period. The pastoral shrubs, mainly Cistus crispus, Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoeches and Pistacia lentiscus, represent the most palatable species selected by goats. Breeders use pasture throughout the year, except on rainy days where they resort to limbing. The pasture was characterized by a poor floristic diversity (65 species) dominated by shrubs. The biomass produced was estimated at 373 kg dry matter per hectare composed for 63% by shrubs. For biomass production, significant differences were observed depending on the season and according to sampling sites. The continuous use of the same pasture for a long time can explain the low production estimated and appearance of unpalatable species, such as Arisarum vulgare, Daphne gnidium and Ranunculus sardous. In fact, due to the bad operating practices of pastoral resources, sylvopastoral areas will be less available and of lower quality. The reasonable use of these resources, including a reduction in grazing pressure, should be developed to ensure a better productivity and sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailThe assessment of grazing intensity in northern Morocco, using new techniques
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, M.; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

Conference (2016)

In Rif Mountain of Morocco, forest rangelands provide goods and services, which satisfy the diverse needs of local population. These silvopastoral areas represent the most important feed sources for goats ... [more ▼]

In Rif Mountain of Morocco, forest rangelands provide goods and services, which satisfy the diverse needs of local population. These silvopastoral areas represent the most important feed sources for goats. Goats are exclusively conducted in extensive farming systems in which most nutrients from forest pastures. Grazing is associated with daily activities significantly different from those of animals in confinement, such as grazing behavior and distance. The assessment of grazing intensity is important for making adequate management decisions on rangelands. Currently, new techniques have been proposed to characterize the feeding behavior of goats on rangelands and throughout the day. These measures are now determined mainly by GPS collars and IceTag, which are used to monitor activity, location and movement of goat in grazing areas. The aim was to characterise their spatio-temporal movement and activities depending on the season (spring and summer), i.e. the variation in grazing intensities, daily trajectories of the herds, the number of steps, time spent standing and lying. This study was conducted in a forest rangeland (Derdara) in western of Rif Mountain. 8 Goats were fitted by GPS collars (attached around the animal’s necks) and IceTags (attached to a rear leg of goat) during three days. Grazing area was estimated to 151 ha with a perimeter of 10 km. Grazing time and covered distance were estimated to 9 vs 12 hours and 6.9 vs 9.2 km per day, respectively in spring and summer. The short duration of grazing during spring compare to summer can be explained by the high forage supply, coinciding with the vegetative peak of pastoral species. In summer, goats are exhausted due to high temperature which limits their movement in altitude. In spring, 62.4% of animal activity is devoted to grazing, against 68.7% in summer. During dry season (summer) goats move more compared to the spring (6600 vs 4400 steps per day, respectively in summer and spring), which was confirmed by GPS collars results. The study also revealed that the goats consumed mainly of palatable vegetation at ground level. Pasture area, itinerary and covered distance of goats varies depending on the season. The intersection of several parameters of pastoral assessment with the study of feeding behavior of goats on rangelands by using new techniques, could be useful in future to a better management of herd in time and space. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomass production and use of silvopastoral areas in northern Morocco: A case study of western Rif
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, M.; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 3nd FARAH Day, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (2016) (2016)

In northern Morocco, silvopastoral areas provide diverse needs for local population and livestock. These pasture represent the most important feed sources for goats in Rif Mountain. This study aims to ... [more ▼]

In northern Morocco, silvopastoral areas provide diverse needs for local population and livestock. These pasture represent the most important feed sources for goats in Rif Mountain. This study aims to evaluate biomass production and investigate the use of a silvopastoral area in two representative pastoral areas (Derdara and Loubare) exclusively used by goatherds. For biomass production, we used the method of the reference module. The surveys, on using pasture by breeders, were realized during the biomass evaluation period. The pastoral shrubs, mainly Arbustus unedo, Cistus crispus, Cistus monspeliensis, Erica arborea, Lavendula stoeches and Mentha pulegium, are the main diet of goats. Breeders use pasture throughout the year, except on rainy days where they resort to limbing. The pasture was characterized by an average level of diversity of pastoral flora in Derdara (94 species) and poor floristic diversity in Loubare (65 species) dominated by shrubs . The phytomass productions at Derdara and Loubare were estimated at respectively 1867 kg and 373 kg for dry matter per hectare. The continuous use of pastoral resources and lack of pasture management has considerably reduced the palatable pasture species and has allowed the appearance of low pastoral value species. Statistically significant differences were observed depending on season, with a maximum in the spring and a minimum in the winter, and according to sampling sites are differentiating by intensity of canopy cover. Management actions and use of silvopastoral resources, including a reduction in grazing pressure, should be developed to ensure better productivity and sustainability of these resources. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of new technology to estimate the grazing behavior of goats in northern morocco
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, M.; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 3nd FARAH Day, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (2016) (2016)

In northern Morocco, goats are exclusively or partially conducted in extensive farming systems in which most nutrients from forest pastures. Grazing is associated with daily activities significantly ... [more ▼]

In northern Morocco, goats are exclusively or partially conducted in extensive farming systems in which most nutrients from forest pastures. Grazing is associated with daily activities significantly different from those of animals in confinement, such as grazing behavior and distance. Currently, new techniques have been proposed to characterize the feeding behavior of goats on rangelands and throughout the day. These measures are now determined mainly by GPS collars and IceTag, which are used to monitor activity,location and movement in grazing areas. This study was conducted in two representative pastures (Derdara and Loubare) in western Rif. The study concerned the characterization of movement of goats on a silvopastoral pasture through using new technology. GPS collars have allowed us to estimate a distance travelled at 8 km for 10 hours of grazing per day. With IceTag (attached to a rear leg of goat), we estimated the number of steps and time spent standing, lying , and active. IceTags and GPS collars data was used simultaneously to estimate times spent grazing/eating, as well as other behaviors. The study also revealed that the goats consumed mainly of palatable vegetation at ground level. The intersection of several parameters of pastoral assessment with the study of feeding behavior of goats on rangelands will allow us in future to manage better the herd in time and space. [less ▲]

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