References of "Heuskin, Stéphanie"
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See detailInsecticidal activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. against Acyrtosiphum pisum
Attia, Sabrine; Lognay, Georges ULg; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

in journal of entomology and zoology studies (in press)

The essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia was investigated for its biocide activity against Acyrtosiphum pisum by fumigation. The oil was characterised by GC-MS revealing that linalool was the most ... [more ▼]

The essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia was investigated for its biocide activity against Acyrtosiphum pisum by fumigation. The oil was characterised by GC-MS revealing that linalool was the most abundant component (38.57%), followed by linalyl acetate (29.95%), 1,8-cineole (13,66%), camphor (13,13%), -pinene (3,14%) and terpinene-4-ol (1,54%). The Mortality was measured upon treatment with oil concentrations ranging from 5 to 25 µl.l-1 of air. The mortality of aphids increased with oil concentration and LC50 values were determined to be 11.2 µl.l-1 of air. The full mixture was also prepared and toxicity was compared with individual constituents. The results showed that the presence of all constituents were necessary to equal the toxicity of the natural oils L. angustifolia oil can provide valuable pesticide activity with significantly lower LC50 values [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the secondary endosymbiont Serratia Symbiotica on the resistance to the parasitism in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum
Attia, Sabrine; Foray, Vincent; Louâpre, Philippe et al

in Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies (in press)

Aphids have an obligate association with the primary symbiont Buchnera aphidicola and is known to affect aphid fitness. Aphids commonly harbour other facultative bacterial endosymbionts and may benefit ... [more ▼]

Aphids have an obligate association with the primary symbiont Buchnera aphidicola and is known to affect aphid fitness. Aphids commonly harbour other facultative bacterial endosymbionts and may benefit from their presence through increased resistance to parasitoids [1]. Present results suggest that the ability of hosts to defend against natural enemies depend not only on the presence of symbionts but also on the host genotype. Aphids represent a complex micro-environment for the parasitoid larvae and both the aphid physiology and endosymbiont influence their survival until mummification. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytical methods used to quantify isoflavones in cow's milk: a review
Daems, Frédéric ULg; Romnee, Jean-Michel; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Dairy Science and Technology (2016)

This paper provides an update and comprehensive review of the analytical methods used for quantifying isoflavones and their metabolites in cow’s milk. Isoflavones are secondary plant metabolites that are ... [more ▼]

This paper provides an update and comprehensive review of the analytical methods used for quantifying isoflavones and their metabolites in cow’s milk. Isoflavones are secondary plant metabolites that are similar to 17 β-estradiol in chemical structure. They form one of the most common categories of phytoestrogens. Numerous health benefits have been attributed to isoflavones, but many of these compounds are also considered to be endocrine disruptors, with adverse effects on health. These contradictory trends offer an attractive prospect for future research, and therefore, sensitive and reliable analytical methods are required to clarify various issues about isoflavones. For this review, a structured methodology was used to select 26 relevant articles published between 2005 and 2015 from the Scopus and CAB Abstract databases. The review discusses individual steps of the analytical procedures described in these articles, including sample preparation, instrumental analysis and validation. The most commonly used analytical procedure is sample preparation involving liquid-liquid extraction and an enzymatic hydrolysis step followed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. Currently, however, there is no standardized procedure for the sample preparation and analysis of isoflavones in milk. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of climatic factors on the release of E-β-caryophyllene from alginate beads
Daems, Frédéric ULg; Bera, François ULg; Lorge, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016), 20(2),

Description of the subject. Alginate beads that release semiochemical compounds are interesting biological control devices used to attract the natural enemies of aphids in infested crops. Little ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. Alginate beads that release semiochemical compounds are interesting biological control devices used to attract the natural enemies of aphids in infested crops. Little information, however, is available about the impact of climatic factors on the release of semiochemicals from this diffusive system. Objectives. The objective of this scoping study was to investigate the impact of temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, on the release of E-β-caryophyllene from alginate beads. Method. The impact of the three climatic factors on the release of E-β-caryophyllene from alginate beads was evaluated using a Box-Behnken experimental design and a laboratory scale volatile collection system. The influence of relative humidity on bead water content and size, with and without this semiochemical, was also investigated using a gravimetric method and an easy-to-use photographic device, respectively. Results. The results showed that an increase in temperature caused a significant increase in the E-β¬-caryophyllene release rate. Neither relative humidity nor airflow, however, had a significant effect on the release of this semiochemical when relative humidity and wind speed ranged from 33% to 75% and from 6.61 x10-4 m.s-1 to 2.05 x10-2 m.s-1, respectively. The isotherm curves obtained were characteristic of food products and biopolymer materials. The isotherm shapes were not modified by the incorporation of the semiochemical into alginate beads, and showed an important increase in water content when relative humidity values exceeded 85%. Fortunately, this water content increase did not affect bead size, which facilitates the calculation of E-β-caryophyllene release. Conclusion. The present study shows for the first time the impact of the three main climatic factors on the release of E-β-caryophyllene from alginate beads. It allows learning more about how these biological control devices operate in order to optimize future field trials. [less ▲]

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See detailDo changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration affect aphid alarm signaling?
Boullis, Antoine ULg; Appeldoorn, Claire; Oostrom, Marjolein et al

Conference (2015, November 06)

The effects of global atmospheric changes on vegetation and associated insect populations are increasingly studied, but how these gases affect the interactions between herbivore insects and their natural ... [more ▼]

The effects of global atmospheric changes on vegetation and associated insect populations are increasingly studied, but how these gases affect the interactions between herbivore insects and their natural enemies is less clear. As the efficacy of natural enemies is governed largely by behavioral mechanisms, changes in the behavior of insect prey defenses can change the dynamics of insect populations. The impact of increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on aphid population dynamic is well documented. However, few publications about their chemical ecology are reported. Aphids are using many chemical signals to communicate with each other or with their environment. For example aphids produce an alarm pheromone to signal the presence of a natural enemy in the colony. For our experiments, aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) were reared on Vicia faba L. in home-made Plexiglas® chambers, allowing us to control the CO2 concentration, temperature and humidity. Aphids were reared under both ambient (aCO2 ≈ 400 ppm) and elevated (eCO2 ≈ 800 ppm) CO2 concentration for several generations. Here we quantified the emission of (E)-β-Farnesene (EβF - main compound of alarm pheromone) released by predated aphids reared under ambient or elevated CO2 concentration, with two different methods: a real-time analysis, and the total amount analysis. The EβF content of whole aphid bodies was also analyzed, as well as the escape behavior of aphid colony according to the growing conditions of aphid populations. These results will be discussed in terms of biological control in future climate. [less ▲]

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See detailA PHEROMONE TRAP MONITORING SYSTEM FOR THE SADDLE GALL MIDGE, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (DIPTERA: CECIDOMYIIDAE)
Censier, Florence ULg; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; SAN MARTIN Y GOMEZ, Gilles et al

in Crop Protection (2015), 80

Outbreaks of saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) have been reported in Belgium and other European countries since 2010. Because of the sporadic nature of this ... [more ▼]

Outbreaks of saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) have been reported in Belgium and other European countries since 2010. Because of the sporadic nature of this pest, which can sometimes be very harmful to cereal crops, an effective monitoring tool is required, both to determine the optimal timing for insecticide applications, and to understand the enigmatic population dynamics of this insect. Following the recent identification of the major sex pheromone component of the saddle gall midge, non-2-yl butanoate, a slow-release dispenser was developed using rubber septa. The release rates of 5 mg and 10 mg-loaded dispensers were initially measured under laboratory conditions, and their effectiveness in terms of pheromone loading and use duration was assessed in the field. The experiments showed that sticky traps baited with 5 mg pheromone-loaded rubber dispensers, renewed every 6 weeks, are suitable for accurately monitoring male H. marginata flights. [less ▲]

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See detailComment évaluer un arôme: approche analytique
Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg

Scientific conference (2015, October)

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See detailDoes combining a wheat and pea mixture with methyl salicylate reduces aphid populations in both crops?
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Hatt, Séverin ULg et al

Conference (2015, August 25)

Aphids are important pests of wheat and pea. Among the alternative methods to control them with less reliance on insecticides, crop associations already proved to be efficient. However, if increasing the ... [more ▼]

Aphids are important pests of wheat and pea. Among the alternative methods to control them with less reliance on insecticides, crop associations already proved to be efficient. However, if increasing the chemical and structural complexity of vegetation can disrupt their host plants location, the searching efficiency of predators and parasitoids can also be reduced. Therefore, these beneficials may not always be more abundant in such systems. Combining crop associations with attractive semiochemicals for natural enemies can be interesting to solve this problem. In this research, we compared the effect of a wheat and pea pure stand, wheat and pea mixture, and wheat and pea mixture combined with methyl salicylate (MeSA) formulated in alginate gel beads, on the abundance and diversity of aphids and their natural enemies. These were weekly observed on plants during 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. Over these two years, significantly higher numbers of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum (H.)) were observed in the pure stand of pea compared with both mixtures (with and without MeSA). No significant differences were observed between treatments for wheat aphids (Sitobion avenae (F.), Metopolophium dirhodum (W.) and Rhopalosiphum padi (L.)), which were significantly less abundant than pea aphids. Aphid natural enemies were mainly observed on pea plants. Hoverfly larvae abundance was not significantly different between treatments during both years. The same phenomenon occurred with hoverfly pupae in 2013, while these were significantly more abundant in both mixtures compared with the pure stand in 2014. However, their number did not differ significantly between the mixture with and without MeSA. Few ladybirds and lacewings were observed. No significant differences were observed between treatments for parasitoid mummies in 2013. Their abundance was significantly higher in the pure stand of pea compared with both mixtures in 2014. Results from this study show that mixing wheat and pea is an efficient method to maintain aphid populations at a very low level on pea. The use of MeSA did not show significant effects on natural enemies. However, mixing these crops may be enough to reduce aphid populations under an acceptable threshold. [less ▲]

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See detailKin recognition and inbreeding avoidance in a butterfly
Fischer; Karl, Isabell; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Ethology (2015), 121

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See detailEfficiency of pheromone-based formulations against phytophagous pests
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 19)

Innovative integrated pest management methods are needed to overcome market withdrawal of synthetic pesticides. Therefore, the identification of environment-friendly bio-products carrying direct or ... [more ▼]

Innovative integrated pest management methods are needed to overcome market withdrawal of synthetic pesticides. Therefore, the identification of environment-friendly bio-products carrying direct or indirect biocide activity is one promising alternative option. Our researches focus on the identification of appropriate formulations releasing volatile organic compounds that are attractant for natural enemies of insect pests. However, the elaboration of slow-release devices that ensure stable and controlled release of active volatile compounds is quite challenging. Here, we developed a formulation based on E-β-farnesene and (-)-β-caryophyllene, these two semiochemicals having strong attractive potential on aphid natural enemies including lady beetles and hoverflies. Both compounds were encapsulated together in alginate gel beads. The blend efficiency was first evaluated through laboratory assays, and then in wheat and broad bean fields, by considering the abundance and diversity of aphids and their natural enemies. [less ▲]

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See detailFood Compounds from Meadow Grasshoppers
Paul, Aman ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg et al

Poster (2015, March 15)

Eating insects as food, particularly grasshopper is practiced in many cultures throughout the world. Meadow grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus) is commonly found in Europe and some part of Asia. It is ... [more ▼]

Eating insects as food, particularly grasshopper is practiced in many cultures throughout the world. Meadow grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus) is commonly found in Europe and some part of Asia. It is already known that grasshoppers of Chorthippus species are consumed as food in countries such as Thailand. With the aim of evaluating the nutritional potential of this insect species the proximate nutritional composition of grasshoppers caught from the local fields was realized. Besides this, the fatty acid profile of extracted lipids, amino acid profile and mineral composition of the insect was also revealed. Results suggest that meadow grasshopper is an excellent source of protein and essential amino acids. Lipids extracted from the grasshopper have an interesting fatty acid composition. Also the grasshopper contains some minerals that are important for body. With such protein content, amino acid profile, fatty acid profile of the lipids and mineral content this grasshopper species could present an interesting alternate to conventional protein sources. [less ▲]

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See detailAn analysis of potential resistance of the phytophagous mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) to four botanical pesticides
Attia, Sabrine; Lebdi, KL; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(3), 232-238

Description of the subject. Synthetic acaricides have been widely used to manage Tetranychus urticae. Due to the excessive use of biocide and the associated problems of pesticide resistance and ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. Synthetic acaricides have been widely used to manage Tetranychus urticae. Due to the excessive use of biocide and the associated problems of pesticide resistance and environmental pollution, there is an increasing demand for sustainable, environmentally-friendly control methods. Among the current alternative strategies aimed at decreasing the pest populations, the pesticides based on plant extracts are currently one of the most promising methods. Essential oils with acaricidal properties have been categorized as green pesticides because they are biodegradable and predominantly non-toxic to vertebrates. Objectives. With an aim to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides, they represent a promising approach for eco-chemical control of mites. Method. The aim of the present work was to analyze the risk of resistance emergence of T. urticae to repeated treatments with four plant extracts: Deverra scoparia Coss. & Durieu (Araliales: Apiaceae), Hertia cheirifolia (L.) Kuntze (Asterales: Ateraceae), Santolina africana Jord. & Fourr. (Asterales: Asteraceae) essential oils and garlic distillate Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae) after 20 generations. Results. Repeated treatments with S. africana essential oil during 20 generations did not provoke an emergence of resistance while a low development of resistance was observed with H. cheirifolia, A. sativum and D. scoparia extracts. Conclusions. The efficacy of these extracts against the two spotted spider mite and their low development of resistance make them a promising use for pest management. [less ▲]

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See detail10. Perspectives - 1. La Lutte contre les pucerons grâce aux odeurs: développement d'une formulation phéromonale
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg et al

in Watillon, Bernard; Bodson, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2015, February 25)

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See detailMyzus persicae feeding on water stressed Arabidopsis affects the emission profile of plant volatile organic compounds
Truong, Dieu-Hien; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Journal of Environment and Ecology (2014), 5(2),

Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by water-controlled or water-stressed Arabidopsis thaliana infested or not infested with Myzus persicae were evaluated by headspace solid phase ... [more ▼]

Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by water-controlled or water-stressed Arabidopsis thaliana infested or not infested with Myzus persicae were evaluated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The infestations were maintained for 0–24 h, 24–48 h, and 48–72 h, and the emission profile for each time period was determined. Under these controlled conditions, the proportion of 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate and dimethyl disulfide emitted by aphid-infested, water-stressed Arabidopsis was greater than that for aphid-infested water-controlled Arabidopsis over the 48–72 h sampling period. The proportion of terpene emitted by aphid-infested water-stressed plants also significantly increased compared with the other treatments over the three assayed sampling periods. In contrast, the proportion of 2-ethylhexanal (the only detected aldehyde) and ketones for the water-controlled plants generally remained high following aphid infestation. Taken together, these original data ascertain that abiotic factors can greatly interact to biotic stresses to alter the VOC emission profiles of plants. [less ▲]

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See detailL'étude des sémiochimiques. Applications en écologie chimique
Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg

Scientific conference (2014, December)

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See detailPlutella xylostella (L.) infestations at varying temperatures induce the emission of specific volatile blends by Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh
Hien, Truong Thi Dieu ULg; Delory, Benjamin ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Plant Signaling & Behavior (2014)

The effect of combined abiotic and biotic factors on plant volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions is poorly understood. This study evaluated the VOC emissions produced by Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Col ... [more ▼]

The effect of combined abiotic and biotic factors on plant volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions is poorly understood. This study evaluated the VOC emissions produced by Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Col-0 subjected to three temperature regimes (17, 22, and 27 °C) in the presence and absence of Plutella xylostella larvae over two time intervals (0–4 and 4–8 h), in comparison to control plants. The analyses of VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis plants were made by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was found that certain volatile groups (e.g., alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and terpenes) are induced by both single factors (temperature or larval infestation) and combined factors (temperature and larvae interactions), whereas other volatile groups (e.g., isothiocyanates [ITCs] and nitrile) were specific to the experimental conditions. ITCs (mainly 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate) were emitted from plants subjected to larval infestation at 17 and 27 °C after the two time intervals. The proportions of sulfides (mainly dimethyl disulfide) and 4-(methylthio) butanenitrile were significantly higher on herbivore-infested plants at 22 °C compared to the other treatments. Overall, our findings indicate that changes in all experimental conditions caused significant changes to the VOC emissions of Arabidopsis plants. Therefore, the interaction between temperature and larval feeding may represent an important factor determining the variability of volatile emissions by plants subjected to multiple simultaneous factors. [less ▲]

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See detailThe composition of cuticular compounds indicates body parts, sex and age in the model butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera)
Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Bacquet, Paul et al

in Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution (2014), 2:37

Chemical communication in insects’ sexual interactions is well-known to involve olfaction of volatile compounds called sex pheromones. In theory, sexual chemical communication may also involve chemicals ... [more ▼]

Chemical communication in insects’ sexual interactions is well-known to involve olfaction of volatile compounds called sex pheromones. In theory, sexual chemical communication may also involve chemicals with low or no volatility exchanged during precopulatory gustatory contacts. Yet, knowledge on this latter type of chemicals is so far mostly restricted to the Drosophila fly model. Here we provide the most comprehensive characterization to date of the cuticular chemical profile, including both volatile and non-volatile compounds, of a model butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. First, we characterized the body distribution of 103 cuticular lipids, mostly alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Second, we developed a multivariate statistical approach to cope with such complex chemical profiles and showed that variation in the presence or abundance of a subset of the cuticular lipids indicated body parts, and traits involved in B. anynana mate choice, namely sex and age. Third, we identified the chemical structure of the 20 most indicative compounds, which were on average more abundant (1346.4 ± 1994.6 ng; mean ± SD) than other, likely less indicative, compounds (225.9 ± 507.2 ng; mean ± SD). Fourth, we showed that wings and legs displayed most of the chemical information found on the entire body of the butterflies. Fifth, we showed that non-random gustatory contacts occurred between specific male and female body parts during courtship. The body parts mostly touched by the conspecific displayed the largest between-sex differentiation in cuticular composition. Altogether, the large diversity of cuticular lipids in B. anynana, which exceeds the one of Drosophila flies, and its non-random distribution and evaluation across individuals, together suggest that gustatory information is likely exchanged during sexual interactions in Lepidoptera. [less ▲]

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See detailTemperature regimes and aphid density interactions differentially influence VOC emissions in Arabidopsis
Hien, Truong Thi Dieu ULg; Delory, Benjamin ULg; Vanderplanck, Maryse et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2014), 8(4), 317-327

The effects of volatile emissions from plants exposed to individual abiotic and biotic stresses are well documented. However, the influence of multiple stresses on plant photosynthesis and defense ... [more ▼]

The effects of volatile emissions from plants exposed to individual abiotic and biotic stresses are well documented. However, the influence of multiple stresses on plant photosynthesis and defense responses, resulting in a variety of volatile profiles has received little attention. In this study, we investigated how temperature regimes in the presence and absence of the sucking insect Myzus persicae affected volatile organic compound emissions in Arabidopsis over three time periods (0-24 h, 24-48 h, and 48-72 h). Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to evaluate Arabidopsis volatile organic compounds. The results showed that under laboratory conditions, eight volatile classes [alcohols (mainly 2-ethyl-hexan-1-ol), ketone (6-methyl hept-5-en-2-one), esters (mainly (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate), aldehydes (mainly phenylacetaldehyde), isothiocyanates (mainly 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate), terpenes (mainly (E,E)-α-farnesene), nitrile (5-(methylthio) pentanenitrile), and sulfide (dimethyl trisulfide)] were observed on plants exposed to stress combinations, whereas emissions of six volatile classes were observed during temperature stress treatments alone (with the exception of nitriles and sulfides). Aphid density at high temperature combinations resulted in significantly higher isothiocyanate, ester, nitrile and sulfide proportions. The results of the present study provide an insight into the effects of temperature - aphid interactions on plant volatile emissions. [less ▲]

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