Tuning of AKT-pathway by Nef and its blockade by protease inhibitors results in limited recovery in latently HIV infected T-cell line.
; ; et al
in Scientific reports (2016), 6
Akt signaling plays a central role in many biological processes, which are key players in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. We found that Akt interacts with HIV-1 Nef protein. In ... [more ▼]
Akt signaling plays a central role in many biological processes, which are key players in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. We found that Akt interacts with HIV-1 Nef protein. In primary T cells treated with exogenous Nef or acutely infected with Nef-expressing HIV-1 in vitro, Akt became phosphorylated on serine(473) and threonine(308). In vitro, Akt activation mediated by Nef in T-cells was blocked by HIV protease inhibitors (PI), but not by reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI). Ex vivo, we found that the Akt pathway is hyperactivated in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from cART naive HIV-1-infected patients. PBLs isolated from PI-treated patients, but not from RTI-treated patients, exhibited decreased Akt activation, T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production. We found that PI but not RTI can block HIV-1 reactivation in latently infected J-Lat lymphoid cells stimulated with various stimuli. Using luciferase measurement, we further confirmed that Nef-mediated reactivation of HIV-1 from latency in 1G5 cells was blocked by PI parallel to decreased Akt activation. Our results indicate that PI-mediated blockade of Akt activation could impact the HIV-1 reservoir and support the need to further assess the therapeutic use of HIV-1 PI in order to curtail latently infected cells in HIV-1-infected patients. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg)
CTIP2 is a negative regulator of P-TEFb.
Cherrier, Thomas ; ; et al
in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2013), 110(31), 12655-60
The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) is involved in physiological and pathological events including inflammation, cancer, AIDS, and cardiac hypertrophy. The balance between its active ... [more ▼]
The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) is involved in physiological and pathological events including inflammation, cancer, AIDS, and cardiac hypertrophy. The balance between its active and inactive form is tightly controlled to ensure cellular integrity. We report that the transcriptional repressor CTIP2 is a major modulator of P-TEFb activity. CTIP2 copurifies and interacts with an inactive P-TEFb complex containing the 7SK snRNA and HEXIM1. CTIP2 associates directly with HEXIM1 and, via the loop 2 of the 7SK snRNA, with P-TEFb. In this nucleoprotein complex, CTIP2 significantly represses the Cdk9 kinase activity of P-TEFb. Accordingly, we show that CTIP2 inhibits large sets of P-TEFb- and 7SK snRNA-sensitive genes. In hearts of hypertrophic cardiomyopathic mice, CTIP2 controls P-TEFb-sensitive pathways involved in the establishment of this pathology. Overexpression of the beta-myosin heavy chain protein contributes to the pathological cardiac wall thickening. The inactive P-TEFb complex associates with CTIP2 at the MYH7 gene promoter to repress its activity. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that CTIP2 controls P-TEFb function in physiological and pathological conditions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 44 (3 ULg)
Histone methyltransferase inhibitors induce HIV-1 recovery in resting CD4(+) T cells from HIV-1-infected HAART-treated patients.
; GATOT, Jean-Stéphane ; et al
in AIDS (London, England) (2012), 26(12), 1473-82
OBJECTIVE: Reactivation of HIV-1 expression in persistent reservoirs together with an efficient HAART has been proposed as an adjuvant therapy aimed at reaching a functional cure for HIV. Previously, H3K9 ... [more ▼]
OBJECTIVE: Reactivation of HIV-1 expression in persistent reservoirs together with an efficient HAART has been proposed as an adjuvant therapy aimed at reaching a functional cure for HIV. Previously, H3K9 methylation was shown to play a major role in chromatin-mediated repression of the HIV-1 promoter. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of histone methyltransferase inhibitors (HMTIs) in reactivating HIV-1 from latency. DESIGN: We evaluated the reactivation potential of two specific HMTIs (chaetocin and BIX-01294, two specific inhibitors of Suv39H1 and G9a, respectively) in ex-vivo cultures of resting CD4 T cells isolated from HIV-1-infected HAART-treated individuals. METHODS: We measured HIV-1 recovery in ex-vivo cultures treated with an HMTI alone or in combination with other HIV-1 inducers (in absence of IL-2 and of allogenic stimulation) of CD8-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or of resting CD4 T cells isolated from 67 HIV-infected, HAART-treated patients with undetectable viral load. RESULTS: We demonstrated, for the first time, that chaetocin induced HIV-1 recovery in 50% of CD8-depleted PBMCs cultures and in 86% of resting CD4 T-cell cultures isolated from HIV-1-infected, HAART-treated patients, whereas BIX-01294 reactivated HIV-1 expression in 80% of resting CD4 T-cell cultures isolated from similar patients. Moreover, we showed that combinatory treatments including one HMTI and either the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid or the non-tumor-promoting NF-kappaB inducer prostratin had a higher reactivation potential than these compounds alone. CONCLUSION: Our results constitute a proof-of-concept for the therapeutic potential of HMTIs in strategies aiming at reducing the pool of latent reservoirs in HIV-infected, HAART-treated patient. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (3 ULg)
LSD1 cooperates with CTIP2 to promote HIV-1 transcriptional silencing.
; ; et al
in Nucleic Acids Research (2012), 40(5), 1904-15
Microglial cells are the main HIV-1 targets in the central nervous system (CNS) and constitute an important reservoir of latently infected cells. Establishment and persistence of these reservoirs rely on ... [more ▼]
Microglial cells are the main HIV-1 targets in the central nervous system (CNS) and constitute an important reservoir of latently infected cells. Establishment and persistence of these reservoirs rely on the chromatin structure of the integrated proviruses. We have previously demonstrated that the cellular cofactor CTIP2 forces heterochromatin formation and HIV-1 gene silencing by recruiting HDAC and HMT activities at the integrated viral promoter. In the present work, we report that the histone demethylase LSD1 represses HIV-1 transcription and viral expression in a synergistic manner with CTIP2. We show that recruitment of LSD1 at the HIV-1 proximal promoter is associated with both H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 epigenetic marks. Finally, our data suggest that LSD1-induced H3K4 trimethylation is linked to hSET1 recruitment at the integrated provirus. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
The AP-1 binding sites located in the pol gene intragenic regulatory region of HIV-1 are important for viral replication.
; ; et al
in PLoS ONE (2011), 6(4), 19084
Our laboratory has previously identified an important intragenic region in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome, whose complete functional unit is composed of the 5103 fragment, the ... [more ▼]
Our laboratory has previously identified an important intragenic region in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome, whose complete functional unit is composed of the 5103 fragment, the DNaseI-hypersensitive site HS7 and the 5105 fragment. These fragments (5103 and 5105) both exhibit a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-inducible enhancer activity on the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter. Here, we characterized the three previously identified AP-1 binding sites of fragment 5103 by showing the PMA-inducible in vitro binding and in vivo recruitment of c-Fos, JunB and JunD to this fragment located at the end of the pol gene. Functional analyses demonstrated that the intragenic AP-1 binding sites are fully responsible for the PMA-dependent enhancer activity of fragment 5103. Moreover, infection of T-lymphoid Jurkat and promonocytic U937 cells with wild-type and mutant viruses demonstrated that mutations of the intragenic AP-1 sites individually or in combination altered HIV-1 replication. Importantly, mutations of the three intragenic AP-1 sites led to a decreased in vivo recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the viral promoter, strongly supporting that the deleterious effect of these mutations on viral replication occurs, at least partly, at the transcriptional level. Single-round infections of monocyte-derived macrophages confirmed the importance of intragenic AP-1 sites for HIV-1 infectivity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (1 ULg)
Synergistic activation of HIV-1 expression by deacetylase inhibitors and prostratin: implications for treatment of latent infection
; ; et al
in PLoS ONE (2009), 4(6), 6093
The persistence of transcriptionally silent but replication-competent HIV-1 reservoirs in Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART)-treated infected individuals, represents a major hurdle to virus ... [more ▼]
The persistence of transcriptionally silent but replication-competent HIV-1 reservoirs in Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART)-treated infected individuals, represents a major hurdle to virus eradication. Activation of HIV-1 gene expression in these cells together with an efficient HAART has been proposed as an adjuvant therapy aimed at decreasing the pool of latent viral reservoirs. Using the latently-infected U1 monocytic cell line and latently-infected J-Lat T-cell clones, we here demonstrated a strong synergistic activation of HIV-1 production by clinically used histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) combined with prostratin, a non-tumor-promoting nuclear factor (NF)- kappaB inducer. In J-Lat cells, we showed that this synergism was due, at least partially, to the synergistic recruitment of unresponsive cells into the expressing cell population. A combination of prostratin+HDACI synergistically activated the 5' Long Terminal Repeat (5'LTR) from HIV-1 Major group subtypes representing the most prevalent viral genetic forms, as shown by transient transfection reporter assays. Mechanistically, HDACIs increased prostratin-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear NF-kappaB and degradation of cytoplasmic NF-kappaB inhibitor, IkappaBalpha . Moreover, the combined treatment prostratin+HDACI caused a more pronounced nucleosomal remodeling in the U1 viral promoter region than the treatments with the compounds alone. This more pronounced remodeling correlated with a synergistic reactivation of HIV-1 transcription following the combined treatment prostratin+HDACI, as demonstrated by measuring recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the 5'LTR and both initiated and elongated transcripts. The physiological relevance of the prostratin+HDACI synergism was shown in CD8(+)-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HAART-treated patients with undetectable viral load. Moreover, this combined treatment reactivated viral replication in resting CD4(+) T cells isolated from similar patients. Our results suggest that combinations of different kinds of proviral activators may have important implications for reducing the size of latent HIV-1 reservoirs in HAART-treated patients. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 81 (12 ULg)