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See detailPremière évaluation des impacts des poussières désertiques sur la santé des enfants en Afrique de l’Ouest : étude de cas dans le Bénin septentrional
De Longueville, Florence ULg; Henry, Sabine; Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Camberlin, Pierre; Richard, Yves (Eds.) Actes du 27e Colloque International de l'Association Internationale de Climatologie (2014)

Le Sahara est à l’origine de plus de la moitié des aérosols désertiques présents dans l’atmosphère. Ces aérosols terrigènes diminuent la visibilité horizontale et augmentent les concentrations en ... [more ▼]

Le Sahara est à l’origine de plus de la moitié des aérosols désertiques présents dans l’atmosphère. Ces aérosols terrigènes diminuent la visibilité horizontale et augmentent les concentrations en particules de taille inférieure à 10 µm (PM10), qui font partie de la catégorie des particules respirables. Un nombre croissant d’études démontrent des impacts significatifs des épisodes de poussières désertiques sur la santé mais aucune étude n’a été menée en Afrique de l’Ouest. Cette étude est la première qui vise à évaluer les impacts réels des aérosols sahariens sur la qualité de l’air et la santé respiratoire dans cette partie du monde. La combinaison de deux sources d’informations a permis de déterminer les épisodes de poussières ayant affecté la région de Kandi (Bénin septentrional) en saison sèche durant la période 2003-2007. Sur l’ensemble de cette période, 61 jours d’épisodes de poussières ont été notés. Les concentrations journalières en PM10 ont été multipliées par 18,5 lors de ces épisodes, ce qui contribue à dépasser de très loin les normes de l’OMS fixant un seuil de concentration annuelle maximale de 20 µg.m-3. Sur la base de données mensuelles de consultations des enfants pour infections respiratoires aiguës basses (IRAB), nous avons calculé une augmentation de 12,5% des taux mensuels d’IRAB dans la région de Kandi durant les mois ayant enregistré un épisode de poussières. Même si cette augmentation est loin d’être négligeable, elle apparaît relativement limitée par rapport aux impacts auxquels on pourrait s’attendre compte tenu des concentrations en PM10 atteintes. Ainsi, il est nécessaire de multiplier les recherches en Afrique de l’Ouest afin de mieux quantifier les impacts des aérosols désertiques sur la santé des populations qu’elle abrite. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst assessment of the impacts of Saharan dust events on the respiratory health in West Africa: A case study in the Northern Benin
De Longueville, Florence ULg; Henry, Sabine; Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Belviso, Claudia; Fiore, Saverio; Giannossi, Maria Luigia (Eds.) DUST2014 - International Conference on Atmospheric Dust _ Book of Abstracts (2014)

More than 50% of the global dust emitted into the atmosphere comes from the Sahara. About 60% of the Saharan dust move southwards to the Gulf of Guinea (Engelstaedter et al., 2006). Once in the air, these ... [more ▼]

More than 50% of the global dust emitted into the atmosphere comes from the Sahara. About 60% of the Saharan dust move southwards to the Gulf of Guinea (Engelstaedter et al., 2006). Once in the air, these dust contribute to increase the concentrations of particles smaller than 10 microns (PM10), which are respirable particles (Ozer et al. 2005). A number of adverse health effects have been associated with desert dust, including respiratory diseases (Goudie, 2014). [...] [less ▲]

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See detailDesert dust impacts on human health: an alarming worldwide reality and a need for studies in West Africa
De Longueville, Florence ULg; Ozer, Pierre ULg; Doumbia, Seydou et al

in International Journal of Biometeorology (2013), 57

High desert dust concentrations raise concerns about adverse health effects on human populations. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper aims to learn more about the relationship between ... [more ▼]

High desert dust concentrations raise concerns about adverse health effects on human populations. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper aims to learn more about the relationship between desert dust and human health in the world and to analyse the place of West Africa as a study area of interest. Papers focussing on the potential relationship between dust and health and showing quantitative analyses, published between January 1999 and September 2011, were identified using the ISI Web of Knowledge database (N = 50). A number of adverse health effects, including respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary diseases, are associated with dust. This survey highlights obvious dust impacts on human health independently of the study area, health outcomes and method. Moreover, it reveals an imbalance between the areas most exposed to dust and the areas most studied in terms of health effects. None of these studies has been conducted in West Africa, despite the proximity of the Sahara, which produces about half of the yearly global mineral dust. In view of the alarming results in many parts of the world (Asia, Europe, America), this paper concludes by stressing the importance of carrying out impact studies of Saharan dust in West Africa, where dust events are more frequent and intense than anywhere else. [less ▲]

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See detailSaharan dust impacts on air quality: What are the potential health risks in West Africa?
De Longueville, Florence ULg; Hountondji, Yvon-Carmen; Ozer, Pierre ULg et al

in Human & Ecological Risk Assessment (2013), 19

Despite the proximity of the Sahara, very few studies about dust impact on air quality and human health have been conducted in West Africa. The lack of data is a major constraint on our understanding of ... [more ▼]

Despite the proximity of the Sahara, very few studies about dust impact on air quality and human health have been conducted in West Africa. The lack of data is a major constraint on our understanding of the impacts on human health in this area. We analyzed PM10 concentrations and horizontal visibility recorded in four West African stations. The pollution levels often exceed the standards defined by many countries/regulatory authorities and have been associated with serious health risks outside Africa. Over the Sahelian stations, 45.6% of the days between November 2006 and March 2007 were likely to impact human health and the studied Sudanian population was exposed to potential health effects every 5 days. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat do we know about effects of desert dust on air quality and human health in West Africa compared to other regions?
De Longueville, Florence ULg; Hountondji, Yvon ULg; Henry, Sabine et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2010), 409(1), 1-8

This study aims to compare, on the one hand, the geographical distribution of the desert dust source areas, their contribution to quantities emitted into the atmosphere, the trajectories and the ... [more ▼]

This study aims to compare, on the one hand, the geographical distribution of the desert dust source areas, their contribution to quantities emitted into the atmosphere, the trajectories and the quantities deposited, with on the other hand the areas of research interest focused on the desert dust impacts on air quality and/or human health. Based on a systematic review of the literature using the ISI Web of Knowledge database, we found 231 articles published over the last decade on the desert dust impacts on air quality. Of these, 48% concerned Asian dust and 39% Saharan dust, with the remaining 13% divided between the other dust source areas. However, only one of these studies addressed the worsening air pollution in West Africa, even though it is very close to the Sahara, the greatest contributor to the global dust budget. Moreover, there have been very few studies (41) looking at the direct links between desert dust and human health; in this context too, no interest has been shown in West Africa. Yet this region is also among the areas in which morbidity rates have been noted to be far higher than those found in other regions of the world, and where respiratory infections alone account for more than 20% of the causes of infant mortality. This survey highlights a clear imbalance between those areas most exposed to dust and the most studied areas in terms of dust impacts. Given these findings and the often alarming results published about other regions of the world, we advocate a revival of interest in research on West Africa in order to achieve a better understanding of the desert dust impacts on air quality and health among the populations of this region. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of desert dust on air quality and human health. What do we know about West Africa compared to other regions?
De Longueville, Florence ULg; Henry, Sabine; Ozer, Pierre ULg

Conference (2009, February 24)

The main source of atmospheric mineral dust is the Sahara and its desertified margins that produce about half of the yearly global mineral dust. Saharan dust is often transported far away to the sources ... [more ▼]

The main source of atmospheric mineral dust is the Sahara and its desertified margins that produce about half of the yearly global mineral dust. Saharan dust is often transported far away to the sources and causes air quality deterioration impacting northwards the Mediterranean and Europe, westwards crossing the Atlantic Ocean to the United States, the Caribbean and South America, and southwards to the Gulf of Guinea. Saharan dust storms can lead to particulate levels that exceed internationally recommended levels and transport allergens, including bacteria and fungi. Therefore special attention is paid to dust storms as such mineral particulate matter air pollution may be a serious health threat in various regions of the world because it may promote respiratory infection, cardiovascular disease and other ailments. [less ▲]

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See detailSaharan Dust Pollution: Implications for the Sahel?
De Longueville, Florence ULg; Henry, Sabine; Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) (2009), 20(5), 780

The main source of atmospheric mineral dust is the Sahara desert, which produces about half of the yearly global mineral dust.1 About 12% of the Saharan dust moves northwards to Europe, 28% westwards to ... [more ▼]

The main source of atmospheric mineral dust is the Sahara desert, which produces about half of the yearly global mineral dust.1 About 12% of the Saharan dust moves northwards to Europe, 28% westwards to the Americas, and 60% southwards to the Gulf of Guinea. Saharan dust storms can lead to particulate matter (PM) levels that exceed internationally recommended levels. Recently, special attention has been paid to the mineral PM air pollution of dust storms, which may be a serious health threat. We took a systematic review of the literature to find relevant studies on the effects of Saharan dust on air quality or human health. We searched the ISI web of knowledge database using “PM10,” “PM2.5” or “health” AND “dust storm,” “sand storm,” “African dust,” “Saharan dust,” or “dust events” without restrictions. The search extended from January 1999 to December 2008. We selected 97 articles of which 72 studied PM air pollution in Europe, 13 in the Americas, 7 in the Near East and Asia, and 4 considered international data. Only one specifically addressed air pollution in the Sahel. Four focused on human health effects—2 in the Mediterranean and 2 in the Caribbean. [less ▲]

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