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See detailMyelin-Derived Lipids Modulate Macrophage Activity by Liver X Receptor Activation
Bogie, Jeroen F. J.; Timmermans, Silke; Huynh-Thu, Vân Anh ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(9), 44998

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which macrophages and microglia play a central role. Foamy macrophages and microglia, containing ... [more ▼]

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which macrophages and microglia play a central role. Foamy macrophages and microglia, containing degenerated myelin, are abundantly found in active multiple sclerosis lesions. Recent studies have described an altered macrophage phenotype after myelin internalization. However, it is unclear by which mechanisms myelin affects the phenotype of macrophages and how this phenotype can influence lesion progression. Here we demonstrate, by using genome wide gene expression analysis, that myelin-phagocytosing macrophages have an enhanced expression of genes involved in migration, phagocytosis and inflammation. Interestingly, myelin internalization also induced the expression of genes involved in liver-X-receptor signaling and cholesterol efflux. In vitro validation shows that myelin-phagocytosing macrophages indeed have an increased capacity to dispose intracellular cholesterol. In addition, myelin suppresses the secretion of the pro-inflammatory mediator IL-6 by macrophages, which was mediated by activation of liver-X-receptor b. Our data show that myelin modulates the phenotype of macrophages by nuclear receptor activation, which may subsequently affect lesion progression in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of protein networks involved in the disease course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis.
Vanheel, Annelies; Daniels, Ruth; Plaisance, Stephane et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(4), 35544

A more detailed insight into disease mechanisms of multiple sclerosis (MS) is crucial for the development of new and more effective therapies. MS is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the ... [more ▼]

A more detailed insight into disease mechanisms of multiple sclerosis (MS) is crucial for the development of new and more effective therapies. MS is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. The aim of this study is to identify novel disease associated proteins involved in the development of inflammatory brain lesions, to help unravel underlying disease processes. Brainstem proteins were obtained from rats with MBP induced acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a well characterized disease model of MS. Samples were collected at different time points: just before onset of symptoms, at the top of the disease and following recovery. To analyze changes in the brainstem proteome during the disease course, a quantitative proteomics study was performed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) followed by mass spectrometry. We identified 75 unique proteins in 92 spots with a significant abundance difference between the experimental groups. To find disease-related networks, these regulated proteins were mapped to existing biological networks by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The analysis revealed that 70% of these proteins have been described to take part in neurological disease. Furthermore, some focus networks were created by IPA. These networks suggest an integrated regulation of the identified proteins with the addition of some putative regulators. Post-synaptic density protein 95 (DLG4), a key player in neuronal signalling and calcium-activated potassium channel alpha 1 (KCNMA1), involved in neurotransmitter release, are 2 putative regulators connecting 64% of the identified proteins. Functional blocking of the KCNMA1 in macrophages was able to alter myelin phagocytosis, a disease mechanism highly involved in EAE and MS pathology. Quantitative analysis of differentially expressed brainstem proteins in an animal model of MS is a first step to identify disease-associated proteins and networks that warrant further research to study their actual contribution to disease pathology. [less ▲]

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See detailLeukemia inhibitory factor induces an antiapoptotic response in oligodendrocytes through Akt-phosphorylation and up-regulation of 14-3-3.
Slaets, Helena; Dumont, Debora; Vanderlocht, Joris et al

in Proteomics (2008), 8(6), 1237-47

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) promotes the survival of oligodendrocytes (OLG) both in vitro and in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Here, we show that LIF protects mature rat OLG cultures ... [more ▼]

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) promotes the survival of oligodendrocytes (OLG) both in vitro and in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Here, we show that LIF protects mature rat OLG cultures selectively against the combined insult of the proinflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but it does not protect against oxidative stress nor against staurosporine induced apoptosis. We further demonstrate that LIF activates the janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt pathway in mature OLG. We show that LIF protection is independent of suppressors of cytokine signaling and Bcl-2 mRNA expression levels. To gain further insight into the protective mechanism, a quantitative proteomic approach (DIGE) was applied to identify differentially expressed proteins in LIF-treated OLG. Our results indicate that LIF induces a shift in the cellular machinery toward a prosurvival execution program, illustrated by an enhanced expression of isoforms of the antiapoptotic molecule 14-3-3. These data provide further insight into the mechanisms of LIF-mediated protection of mature OLGs. [less ▲]

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