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See detailImpact of successive freezing-thawing cycles on 3-T magnetic resonance images of the digits of isolated equine limbs
Bolen, Géraldine ULg; Haye, Dimitri; Dondelinger, Robert ULg et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (2011), 72(6), 780-790

The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of freezing and thawing on MR images of equine feet examined ex vivo. Nine equine cadaver digits were first imaged at room temperature (T0). Among the 9 ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of freezing and thawing on MR images of equine feet examined ex vivo. Nine equine cadaver digits were first imaged at room temperature (T0). Among the 9 digits, 3 (group 1) were imaged in a 3 Tesla MR system after one and after 2 freezing-thawing cycles. Digits of group 1 were thawed in a cold room at 4°C for 36h. Three other digits (group 2) were imaged after one freezing-thawing cycle. Digits of group 2 were thawed in a cold room at 4°C and then rescanned after 24h at room temperature. The last 3 digits (group 3) were scanned after one freezing-thawing cycle. Digits of group 3 were thawed at room temperature for 24h. Sequences used were Spin Echo (SE) T1, Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) T2 and proton density (PD), Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR), Double Echo Steady State (DESS), 3D Gradient Echo (GE) T1 and 2D GE T2*. Images obtained on the fresh limbs at room temperature were subjectively compared side by side to images obtained at the different freezing-thawing cycles. A quantitative analysis to assess signal change between examinations was realized by measuring signal to noise ratio (SNR). Visibility and margination of the anatomical structures of the foot and overall image quality were subjectively considered unchanged except for the hoof where the lamina was considered less visible distally after freezing and thawing in the GE T2* and in TSE T2 and PD sequences. Quantitative analysis demonstrated SNR changes in the bone marrow only in the distal phalanx in the SE T1 sequence when the feet were thawed at room temperature. When the feet were thawed in a cold room at 4°C, bone marrow SNR changes were present in the SE T1, GE T1 and TSE PD sequences. Signal changes were significant in the synovial recess when the thawing process was made at 4°C and not when the thawing process was at ambient temperature. The soft tissue structures and the hoof capsule showed significant changes with an increase of SNR, except in STIR, after freezing and thawing at 4°C and at room temperature. SNR changes in the soft tissues were mainly present in GE sequences. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic resonance signal changes during time in equine limbs refrigerated at 4 degrees C.
Bolen, Géraldine ULg; Haye, Dimitri; Dondelinger, Robert ULg et al

in Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound (2010), 51(1), 19-24

When ex vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies are undertaken, specimen conservation should be taken into account when interpreting MR imaging results. The purpose of this study was to assess MR ... [more ▼]

When ex vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies are undertaken, specimen conservation should be taken into account when interpreting MR imaging results. The purpose of this study was to assess MR changes during time in the anatomic structures of the equine digit on eight cadaver limbs stored at 4 degrees C. The digits were imaged within 12 h after death and then after 1, 2, 7, and 14 days of refrigeration. After the last examination, four feet were warmed at room temperature for 24 h and reimaged. Sequences used were turbo spin echo (TSE) T1, TSE T2, short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and double-echo steady state (DESS). Images obtained were compared subjectively side by side for image quality and signal changes. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was measured and compared between examinations. There were no subjective changes in image quality. A mild size reduction of the synovial recesses was detected subjectively. No signal change was seen subjectively except for bone marrow that appeared slightly hyperintense in STIR and slightly hypointense in TSE T2 sequence after refrigeration compared with day 0. Using quantitative analysis, significant SNR changes in bone marrow of refrigerated limbs compared with day 0 were detected in STIR and TSE T2 sequences. Warming at room temperature for 24 h produced a reverse effect on SNR compared with refrigeration with a significant increase in SNR in TSE T2 images. After 14 days of refrigeration a statistically significant decrease of SNR was found in bone marrow in TSE T2 and DESS sequences. The SNR in the deep digital flexor tendon was not characterized by significant change in SNR. [less ▲]

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See detailChoix optimisé des plans et séquences utilisés pour l’examen par résonance magnétique du pied équin
Bolen, Géraldine ULg; Haye, Dimitri; Maquet, Nathalie et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2009), 153

The purpose of this work was to establish one or several short protocols for magnetic resonance imaging of the equine cadaver foot, using the most appropriated sequences in a limited number of planes ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this work was to establish one or several short protocols for magnetic resonance imaging of the equine cadaver foot, using the most appropriated sequences in a limited number of planes, allowing the assessment of the anatomical structures. Three feet were scanned with most of the sequences used for evaluation of the osteo-articular system in seven different ection planes (1 sagittal, 3 dorsal and 3 transverse planes). The sequences and the planes in which the anatomical structures were best assessed were selected by scoring the visualization of the anatomical structures. Three short protocols are proposed. The first protocol uses spin echo sequences, one fat suppressed sequence and one sequence to evaluate the cartilage. The second adds gradient echo sequences to show the sites of haemorrhage and the articular cartilage. The third protocol adds special section planes, the first perpendicular to the distal insertion of the deep digital flexor tendon and the second perpendicular to the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint and adds another sequence combining cartilage visualization and fat suppression. [less ▲]

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