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See detailLandslides' mechanism and evolution in the western Rwanda
Draidia, Salah ULg; El Ouahabi, Meriam ULg; Dewitte, Olivier et al

Scientific conference (2016, January 27)

Landslides' mechanism and evolution in the western Rwanda Salah DRAIDIA1,*, Meriam EL OUAHABI1, Olivier DEWITTE2, Nathalie Fagel1, Hans Balder HAVENITH1 1 Institution 1 University of Liège Department of ... [more ▼]

Landslides' mechanism and evolution in the western Rwanda Salah DRAIDIA1,*, Meriam EL OUAHABI1, Olivier DEWITTE2, Nathalie Fagel1, Hans Balder HAVENITH1 1 Institution 1 University of Liège Department of Geology Street, n° 4000 Liège Belgium 2 Institution 2 Royal Museum of Central Africa Department of Geomogy Tervuren Belgium *Corresponding author: sdraidia@gmail.com, Département de Géologie, Quartier Agora, Allée du six Août, 14, B- 4000 LIEGE (Sart Tilman) Tel +32 0497351617 Keywords: mass movement, landslides, landscape evolution, geohazard,. Abstract The mass movement, and especially the instability of the soil and rocks, play a significant role in the changing aspect and the evolution of the landscape worldwide and particularly in tropical region. In Central Africa the landslides and others kind of instabilities are very frequent, important and represent a real threat for both population and economy. The case of Rwanda is remarkable, this country which is known as the country of thousand hills, is rich of various and very complex morphology caracterized by very steep slopes crossed by a dense network of watercourse, powered by a considerable amount of precipitation distributed in two wet seasons. The growing economy of the country brings a lot of project of infrastructures and mines and quarries exploitation (embankments and cuttings) which have a strong impact on the triggering of huge instabilities and so the modification of landscape. These instabilities and the intense activity of the rivers and streams could be considered as the engine who control the shaping and the remodeling of the landform. To understand the evolution process of these instabilities, and then the landscape change we started by the mapping of the instabilities using satellite images and then we went on the field to validate the inventory to identify the morphological aspect of the terrain, to refine our knowledge of the geological nature of the materials by sedimentological analyses on selected samples, and of course to try to better know the impact of the rock's weathering process leading to the constant modification of the landform. The computer-based quantitative analyses using GIS's data processing, were carried out to help to understand the distribution of the instabilities and the geomorphological phenomena observed to better connect and explain the whole information collected. The aim of the study is to bring in more than the mapping of instabilities a response about the process and the evolution of the instabilities and the factors impacting the phenomenon. [less ▲]

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See detail2D dynamic studies combined with the surface curvature analysis to predict Arias Intensity amplification
Torgoev, Almazbek ULg; Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg

in Journal of Seismology (2016)

A 2D elasto-dynamic modelling of the pure topographic seismic response is performed for six models with a total length of around 23.0 km. These models are reconstructed from the real topographic settings ... [more ▼]

A 2D elasto-dynamic modelling of the pure topographic seismic response is performed for six models with a total length of around 23.0 km. These models are reconstructed from the real topographic settings of the landslide-prone slopes situated in the Mailuu-Suu River Valley, Southern Kyrgyzstan. The main studied parameter is the Arias Intensity (Ia, m/sec), which is applied in the GIS-based Newmark method to regionally map the seismically-induced landslide susceptibility. This method maps the Ia values via empirical attenuation laws and our studies investigate a potential to include topographic input into them. Numerical studies analyse several signals with varying shape and changing central frequency values. All tests demonstrate that the spectral amplification patterns directly affect the amplification of the Ia values. These results let to link the 2D distribution of the topographically amplified Ia values with the parameter called as smoothed curvature. The amplification values for the low-frequency signals are better correlated with the curvature smoothed over larger spatial extent, while those values for the high-frequency signals are more linked to the curvature with smaller smoothing extent. The best predictions are provided by the curvature smoothed over the extent calculated according to Geli’s law. The sample equations predicting the Ia amplification based on the smoothed curvature are presented for the sinusoid-shape input signals. These laws cannot be directly implemented in the regional Newmark method, as 3D amplification of the Ia values addresses more problem complexities which are not studied here. Nevertheless, our 2D results prepare the theoretical framework which can potentially be applied to the 3D domain and, therefore, represent a robust basis for these future research targets. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary assessment for the use of VORIS as a tool for rapid lava flow simulation at Goma Volcano Observatory, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Syavulisembo, A. M.; Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Smets, B et al

in Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences (2015)

Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga volcanic province in the ... [more ▼]

Assessment and management of volcanic risk are important scientific, economic, and political issues, especially in densely populated areas threatened by volcanoes. The Virunga volcanic province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with over 1 million inhabitants, has to cope permanently with the threat posed by the active Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo volcanoes. During the past century, Nyamulagira erupted at intervals of 1–4 years – mostly in the form of lava flows – at least 30 times. Its summit and flank eruptions lasted for periods of a few days up to more than 2 years, and produced lava flows sometimes reaching distances of over 20 km from the volcano. Though most of the lava flows did not reach urban areas, only impacting the forests of the endangered Virunga National Park, some of them related to distal flank eruptions affected villages and roads. In order to identify a useful tool for lava flow hazard assessment at Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO), we tested VORIS 2.0.1 (Felpeto et al., 2007), a freely available software (http://www.gvb-csic.es) based on a probabilistic model that considers topography as the main parameter controlling the lava flow propagation. We tested different parameters and digital elevation models (DEM) – SRTM1, SRTM3, and ASTER GDEM – to evaluate the sensitivity of the models to changes in input parameters of VORIS 2.0.1. Simulations were tested against the known lava flows and topography from the 2010 Nyamulagira eruption. The results obtained show that VORIS 2.0.1 is a quick, easy-to-use tool for simulating lava-flow eruptions and replicates to a high degree of accuracy the eruptions tested when input parameters are appropriately chosen. In practice, these results will be used by GVO to calibrate VORIS for lava flow path forecasting during new eruptions, hence contributing to a better volcanic crisis management. [less ▲]

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See detailLANDSLIDES IN CENTRAL AFRICA: FROM DEFORMATION MECHANISMS TO EVOLUTION PROCESSES – CASES STUDIES FROM RWANDA AND BURUNDI
Draidia, Salah ULg; Ndahimana, Hamuli; Habimana, Christophe et al

Scientific conference (2015, July)

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See detailRadar remote sensing observations to monitor landslides and prepare inventories for hazard assessment
Schlögel, Romy; Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Malet, Jean-Philippe et al

Scientific conference (2015, May)

Abstract: The creation of a landslide inventory encompassing multi-temporal information needs high quality and high-resolution data source as well as a good knowledge of the field. Visual image ... [more ▼]

Abstract: The creation of a landslide inventory encompassing multi-temporal information needs high quality and high-resolution data source as well as a good knowledge of the field. Visual image interpretation and field surveys are the prevailing methods for landslide inventory mapping while remote sensing techniques have become a widely used source of information for measuring the topography and deformation of the Earth surface (e.g. Berardino et al., 2002). Semi-automatic image analysis methods based on remote sensing techniques are proposed but their quality lacks behind the expert mappings (Guzzetti et al., 2012). Advance processing of SAR images have proven their ability for: (1) landslide detection and mapping (Farina et al., 2006; Cascini et al., 2009; Guzzetti et al., 2012), (2) process monitoring (Hilley et al., 2004; Zhao et al., 2012), (3) hazard assessment (e.g. Nikolaeva et al., 2014) and (4) risk management (Bardi et al., 2014). ... [less ▲]

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See detailThe Kambarata 2 blast-fill dam, Kyrgyz Republic: blast event, geophysical monitoring and dam structure modelling
Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Torgoev, Isakbek; Torgoev, Almazbek ULg et al

in Geoenvironmental Disasters (2015), 2(1), 1-15

Abstract Background The blast-and earth-fill dam of the Kambarata 2 hydropower station is situated in the seismically active Central Tien Shan region of the Kyrgyz Republic. More than 70% of the dam ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background The blast-and earth-fill dam of the Kambarata 2 hydropower station is situated in the seismically active Central Tien Shan region of the Kyrgyz Republic. More than 70% of the dam volume was produced during a blast event on December 22, 2009. In 2010– 2011, dam construction was completed after earth filling on top of the blasted material and installing concrete and clay screens together with bentonite grouts. A geophysical survey had been completed in 2012–2013, mainly to monitor the resistivities inside the dam. ... [less ▲]

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See detailSeismic hazard assessment of the Kivu rift segment based on a new sismo-tectonic zonation model (Western Branch of the East African Rift system)
Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Delvaux, Damien

in EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (2015, April)

In the frame of the Belgian GeoRisCA multi-risk assessment project focused on the Kivu and Northern Tanganyika Region, a seismic hazard map has been produced for this area. It is based on a on a recently ... [more ▼]

In the frame of the Belgian GeoRisCA multi-risk assessment project focused on the Kivu and Northern Tanganyika Region, a seismic hazard map has been produced for this area. It is based on a on a recently re-compiled catalogue using various local and global earthquake catalogues. The use of macroseismic epicenters determined from felt earthquakes allowed to extend the time-range back to the beginning of the 20th century, thus spanning about 100 years. The magnitudes have been homogenized to Mw and the coherence of the catalogue has been checked and validated. The seismo-tectonic zonation includes 10 seismic source areas that have been defined on the basis of the regional geological structure, neotectonic fault systems, basin architecture and distribution of earthquake epicenters... [less ▲]

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See detailLandslide Susceptibility Mapping with Data Mining Methods—a Case Study from Maily-Say, Kyrgyzstan
Braun, A.; Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg et al

in Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 2: Landslide Processes (2015)

Abstract: Multiple factors, such as geology, high mountain topography, seismic activity, climatic conditions and mining activities cause significant landslide hazard in the region around Maily-Say ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Multiple factors, such as geology, high mountain topography, seismic activity, climatic conditions and mining activities cause significant landslide hazard in the region around Maily-Say, Kyrgyzstan. To assess the landslide susceptibility a database containing landslide information and geological, morphological and hydrological parameters associated with landslide occurrence was established and analyzed with different data mining algorithms. The most promising results were achieved with an Artificial Neural ... [less ▲]

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See detailGIS-Based Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in the Great Lakes Region of Africa, Case Study of Bujumbura Burundi
Nibigira, Léonidas ULg; Draidia, Salah ULg; Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg

in Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 2: Landslide Processes (2015)

Abstract: Landslides in Central Africa represent a constant threat to the population. The present work took its motivation from the increasing number of recorded incidents in recent times. It is focused ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Landslides in Central Africa represent a constant threat to the population. The present work took its motivation from the increasing number of recorded incidents in recent times. It is focused on the analysis of mass movements in a regional context. Remote sensing based on the use of satellite images (Pleiades images of 2011) and aerial photographs (1957, 1958 and 1981) allowed us to identify instabilities at different scales. The study of these mass movements and the characterization of the processes governing ... [less ▲]

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See detailHazard and Risk Related to Earthquake-Triggered Landslides
Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Fan, X.; Torgoev, A.

in Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 2: Landslide Processes (2015)

Abstract This paper first analyses how important earthquake-induced landslide hazards are compared to other geohazards at world-wide scale. Further, we will outline where these hazards may have the ... [more ▼]

Abstract This paper first analyses how important earthquake-induced landslide hazards are compared to other geohazards at world-wide scale. Further, we will outline where these hazards may have the strongest impacts—at regional and local scale. In this regard, we consider the short-and long-term effects of geological, tectonic, climatic and morphological conditions. Hazard and risk related to these processes will also be analysed on the basis of a series of case histories: eg, the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake-landslide disaster in China. A ... [less ▲]

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See detailTien Shan geohazards database: Earthquakes and landslides
Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Strom, Alexander; Torgoev, Isakbek et al

in Geomorphology (2015), 249

In this paper we present new and review already existing landslide and earthquake data for a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia. For the same area, only partial databases for sub-regions have been ... [more ▼]

In this paper we present new and review already existing landslide and earthquake data for a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia. For the same area, only partial databases for sub-regions have been presented previously. They were compiled and new data were added to fill the gaps between the databases. Major new inputs are products of the Central Asia Seismic Risk Initiative (CASRI): a tentative digital map of active faults (even with indication of characteristic or possible maximum magnitude) and the earthquake catalogue of Central Asia until 2009 that was now updated with USGS data (to May 2014). The new compiled landslide inventory contains existing records of 1600 previously mapped mass movements and more than 1800 new landslide data. Considering presently available seismo-tectonic and landslide data, a target region of 1200 km (E–W) by 600 km (N–S) was defined for the production of more or less continuous geohazards information. This target region includes the entire Kyrgyz Tien Shan, the South-Western Tien Shan in Tajikistan, the Fergana Basin (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) as well as the Western part in Uzbekistan, the North-Easternmost part in Kazakhstan and a small part of the Eastern Chinese Tien Shan (for the zones outside Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, only limited information was available and compiled)... [less ▲]

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See detailTien Shan Geohazards Database: Landslide susceptibility analysis
Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Torgoev, Almazbek ULg; Schlögel, Romy et al

in Geomorphology (2015), 249

This paper is the second part of a new geohazards analysis applied to a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia, focused on landslide susceptibility computations that are based on recently compiled ... [more ▼]

This paper is the second part of a new geohazards analysis applied to a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia, focused on landslide susceptibility computations that are based on recently compiled geographic, geological and geomorphological data. The core data are a digital elevation model, an updated earthquake catalogue, an active fault map as well as a new landslide inventory. The most recently added digital data are a new simplified geological map, an annual precipitation map, as well as river and road network maps that were produced for the Kyrgyz and Tajik parts of the Tien Shan. On the basis of these records we determine landslide densities with respect to morphological (M), geological (G), river distance (R), precipitation (P), earthquake (E) and fault (F) distance factors. Correlations were also established between scarp locations and the slope angle, distance to rivers, curvature. These correlations show that scarps tend to be located on steeper slopes, farther from rivers and on more convex terrain than the entire landslides. On the basis of the landslide density values computed for each class of the aforementioned factors, two landslide susceptibility maps are created according to the Landslide Factor analysis: ... [less ▲]

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See detailA preliminary regional assessment of earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility for Vrancea Seismic Region
Micu, Mihai; Balteanu, Dan; Iunescu, Constantin et al

in EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (2015)

In seismically-active regions, earthquakes may trigger landslides enhancing the short-to-long term slope denudation and sediment delivery and conditioning the general landscape evolution. Co-seismic slope ... [more ▼]

In seismically-active regions, earthquakes may trigger landslides enhancing the short-to-long term slope denudation and sediment delivery and conditioning the general landscape evolution. Co-seismic slope failures present in general a low frequency - high magnitude pattern which should be addressed accordingly by landslide hazard assessment, with respect to the generally more frequent precipitation-triggered landslides. The Vrancea Seismic Region, corresponding to the curvature sector of the Eastern Romanian Carpathians, represents the most active sub-crustal (focal depth > 50 km) earthquake province of Europe. It represents the main seismic energy source throughout Romania with significant transboundary effects recorded as far as Ukraine and Bulgaria. During the last 300 years, the region featured 14 earthquakes with M>7, among which seven events with magnitude above 7.5 and three between 7.7 and 7.9. Apart from the direct damages, the Vrancea earthquakes are also responsible for causing numerous other geohazards, such as ground fracturing, groundwater level disturbances and possible deep-seated landslide occurrences (rock slumps, rock-block slides, rock falls, rock avalanches). ... [less ▲]

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See detailGeophysical investigation of the Hockai Fault Zone, Eastern Belgium
Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg; Halleux, Lucien ULg et al

in EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (2015)

In the frame of a regional project evaluating the geothermal potential of the Wallonian Region of Belgium, the Hockai Fault Zone has been identified as one of the most interesting targets. It is a ... [more ▼]

In the frame of a regional project evaluating the geothermal potential of the Wallonian Region of Belgium, the Hockai Fault Zone has been identified as one of the most interesting targets. It is a seismically active fault zone that hosted the largest historical earthquake in Northwestern Europe, the M6-6.5 Verviers event in 1692 as well as a swarm of small earthquakes that was recorded in 1989-90. On the surface, the presence of the fault zones is marked by a series of geomorphic features, such as several landslides near the borders in the northern part, repeated NW-SE oriented scarps all along the Eastern border (over a distance of 40 km), river diversions and captures with formation of paleo-valleys.... [less ▲]

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See detailSlope instabilities in the north-eastern Algeria: Triggering factors and evolution's mecahnisms
Draidia, Salah ULg; Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Ahcene, Bourefis et al

Scientific conference (2014, June)

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See detailGeophysical Monitoring of Artificial Landslide Dam of Kambarata Hydro Power Plant-2 (Kyrgyzstan)
Torgoev, Isakbek; Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Torgoev, Almaz

in Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment (2014, January 01)

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See detailHazard and risk related to earthquake-triggered landslide events
Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg

in Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment (2014, January 01)

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See detailIntroduction: Natural Dams and Landslides in Reservoirs
Strom, A.; Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Wang, F.

in Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment (2014, January)

Abstract: Introduction describes briefly main problems that are highlighted in the papers selected for the C9 session of the WLF3 “Natural dams and landslides in reservoirs”. Various aspects of ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Introduction describes briefly main problems that are highlighted in the papers selected for the C9 session of the WLF3 “Natural dams and landslides in reservoirs”. Various aspects of interaction between water bodies and surrounding slopes and of the stability of natural and artificial dams are discussed... [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of mass movements affecting the region of Constantine
Draidia, Salah ULg; Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Benabbas, C.

in EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (2014)

Abstract: Mass movements are a very frequent phenomenon in the North-Eastern Algeria, causing a lot of damages among the population and on the infrastructures and representing the most important geohazard ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Mass movements are a very frequent phenomenon in the North-Eastern Algeria, causing a lot of damages among the population and on the infrastructures and representing the most important geohazard. This paper presents some results of the analysis of slope instabilities in many places in the region and especially along the East-West highway. The work show many types of failures characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity. It is clear that the landslides in this area are very complex, in the most cases a combination of ... [less ▲]

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See detailA Conceptual Event-Tree Model for Coseismic Landslide Dam Hazard Assessment
Fan, X.; Huang, R.; van Westen, C. et al

in Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment (2014)

Abstract Earthquakes may trigger a series of multiple cascading geohazard phenomena. For example, coseismic landslides may block rivers and form landslide dams, which occur frequently in tectonically ... [more ▼]

Abstract Earthquakes may trigger a series of multiple cascading geohazard phenomena. For example, coseismic landslides may block rivers and form landslide dams, which occur frequently in tectonically active mountains with narrow and steep valleys. The catastrophic release of water masses from landslide-impounded lakes is capable to produce outburst floods and debris flows, causing loss of lives, housing and infrastructure. Quantifying the probability of these cascading phenomena following a triggering event has been a main ... [less ▲]

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