TAC3 and TACR3 defects cause hypothalamic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans.
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in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2010), 95(5), 2287-95
CONTEXT: Missense loss-of-function mutations in TAC3 and TACR3, the genes encoding neurokinin B and its receptor NK3R, respectively, were recently discovered in kindreds with nonsyndromic normosmic ... [more ▼]
CONTEXT: Missense loss-of-function mutations in TAC3 and TACR3, the genes encoding neurokinin B and its receptor NK3R, respectively, were recently discovered in kindreds with nonsyndromic normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), thus identifying a fundamental role of this pathway in the human gonadotrope axis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the consequences on gonadotrope axis of TAC3 deletion and TACR3 truncation in adult patients with normosmic complete CHH. RESULTS: We identified three unrelated patients with the same homozygous substitution in the TAC3 intron 3 acceptor splicing site (c.209-1G>C) and three siblings who bore a homozygous mutation in the TACR3 intron 2 acceptor splicing site (c.738-1G>A). We demonstrated that these two mutations, respectively, deleted neurokinin B and truncated its receptor NK3R. We found in three patients with TAC3 mutation originating from Congo and Haiti a founding event in a more distant ancestor by means of haplotype analysis. We calculated that time to this common ancestor was approximately 21 generations. In several patients we observed a dissociation between the very low LH and normal or nearly normal FSH levels, this gonadotropin responding excessively to the GnRH challenge test. This particular hormonal profile, suggests the possibility of a specific neuroendocrine impairment in patients with alteration of neurokinin B signaling. Finally, in these patients, pulsatile GnRH administration normalized circulating sex steroids, LH release, and restored fertility in one subject. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate the hypothalamic origin of the gonadotropin deficiency in these genetic forms of normosmic CHH. Neurokinin B and NK3R therefore both play a crucial role in hypothalamic GnRH release in humans. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg)