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See detailSeasonal, Kp, solar wind, and solar flux variations in long-term singlepass satellite estimates of electron and ion auroral hemispheric power
Emery, Barbara A; Coumans, Valérie ULg; Evans, David S et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2008), 113(A6),

Electron auroral energy flux is characterized by electron hemispheric power (Hpe) estimated since 1978 from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Defense Meteorological Satellite ... [more ▼]

Electron auroral energy flux is characterized by electron hemispheric power (Hpe) estimated since 1978 from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites after the estimates were corrected for instrumental problems and adjusted to a common baseline. Similarly, intersatellite adjusted ion hemispheric power (Hpi) estimates come from one MetOp and four NOAA satellites beginning in 1998. The hemispheric power (Hp) estimates are very crude, coming from single satellite passes referenced to 10 global activity levels, where the Hpi estimates are the difference between the total and the electron Hp (Hpi = Hpt-Hpe). However, hourly averaged NOAA/DMSP Hpe and Hpi estimates correlate well with hourly Polar Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) Hpt and Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) far ultraviolet (FUV) Hpe and Hpi estimates. Hpe winter values were larger than summer values similar to 65% of the time (when geomagnetic activity was moderate or higher), and Hpe were larger in the summer similar to 35% of the time (typically for low geomagnetic activity). Hpe was similar to 40% larger at winter solstice than summer solstice for the largest Hp from mostly nightside increases, and Hpe was similar to 35% larger in summer than winter for the smallest Hp owing to dayside auroral enhancements. Ion precipitation differed from electron precipitation because it was almost always larger in summer than winter. Hpe and Hpi increased with Kp, solar wind speed (Vsw), and negative Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) B-z, similar to previous studies. Hpi also increased strongly with positive Bz. For quiet conditions, Hpe increased with increasing 10.7-cm solar flux (Sa), while Hpi increased with Sa up to Sa similar to 115 for all conditions. [less ▲]

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