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See detailTesting the applicability of BIOME-BGC to simulate beech gross primary production in Europe using a new continental weather dataset
Chiesi, M.; Chirici, G.; Marchetti, M. et al

in Annals of Forest Science (2016), 73(3), 713-727

Key message: A daily 1-km Pan-European weather dataset can drive the BIOME-BGC model for the estimation of current and future beech gross primary production (GPP). Annual beech GPP is affected primarily ... [more ▼]

Key message: A daily 1-km Pan-European weather dataset can drive the BIOME-BGC model for the estimation of current and future beech gross primary production (GPP). Annual beech GPP is affected primarily by spring temperature and more irregularly by summer water stress. Context: The spread of beech forests in Europe enhances the importance of modelling and monitoring their growth in view of ongoing climate changes. Aims: The current paper assesses the capability of a biogeochemical model to simulate beech gross primary production (GPP) using a Pan-European 1-km weather dataset. Methods: The model BIOME-BGC is applied in four European forest ecosystems having different climatic conditions where the eddy covariance technique is used to measure water and carbon fluxes. The experiment is in three main steps. First, the accuracy of BIOME-BGC GPP simulations is assessed through comparison with flux observations. Second, the influence of two major meteorological drivers (spring minimum temperature and growing season dryness) on observed and simulated inter-annual GPP variations is analysed. Lastly, the impacts of two climate change scenarios on beech GPP are evaluated through statistical analyses of the ground data and model simulations. Results: The weather dataset can drive BIOME-BGC to simulate most of the beech GPP evolution in all four test areas. Both observed and simulated inter-annual GPP variations are mainly dependent on minimum temperature around the beginning of the growing season, while spring/summer dryness exerts a secondary role. BIOME-BGC can also reasonably predict the impacts of the examined climate change scenarios. Conclusion: The proposed modelling approach is capable of approximately reproducing spatial and temporal beech GPP variations and impacts of expected climate changes in the examined European sites. © 2016, INRA and Springer-Verlag France. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential and limitations of inferring ecosystem photosynthetic capacity from leaf functional traits
Musavi, T.; Migliavacca, M.; van de Weg, M. J. et al

in Ecology and Evolution (2016), 6(20), 7352-7366

The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the potential and limitations of using plant functional trait observations from global databases versus in situ data to improve our understanding of ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the potential and limitations of using plant functional trait observations from global databases versus in situ data to improve our understanding of vegetation impacts on ecosystem functional properties (EFPs). Using ecosystem photosynthetic capacity as an example, we first provide an objective approach to derive robust EFP estimates from gross primary productivity (GPP) obtained from eddy covariance flux measurements. Second, we investigate the impact of synchronizing EFPs and plant functional traits in time and space to evaluate their relationships, and the extent to which we can benefit from global plant trait databases to explain the variability of ecosystem photosynthetic capacity. Finally, we identify a set of plant functional traits controlling ecosystem photosynthetic capacity at selected sites. Suitable estimates of the ecosystem photosynthetic capacity can be derived from light response curve of GPP responding to radiation (photosynthetically active radiation or absorbed photosynthetically active radiation). Although the effect of climate is minimized in these calculations, the estimates indicate substantial interannual variation of the photosynthetic capacity, even after removing site-years with confounding factors like disturbance such as fire events. The relationships between foliar nitrogen concentration and ecosystem photosynthetic capacity are tighter when both of the measurements are synchronized in space and time. When using multiple plant traits simultaneously as predictors for ecosystem photosynthetic capacity variation, the combination of leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio with leaf phosphorus content explains the variance of ecosystem photosynthetic capacity best (adjusted R2 = 0.55). Overall, this study provides an objective approach to identify links between leaf level traits and canopy level processes and highlights the relevance of the dynamic nature of ecosystems. Synchronizing measurements of eddy covariance fluxes and plant traits in time and space is shown to be highly relevant to better understand the importance of intra- and interspecific trait variation on ecosystem functioning. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailForest summer albedo is sensitive to species and thinning: How should we account for this in Earth system models?
Otto, J.; Berveiller, D.; Bréon, F.-M. et al

in Biogeosciences (2014), 11(8), 2411-2427

Although forest management is one of the instruments proposed to mitigate climate change, the relationship between forest management and canopy albedo has been ignored so far by climate models. Here we ... [more ▼]

Although forest management is one of the instruments proposed to mitigate climate change, the relationship between forest management and canopy albedo has been ignored so far by climate models. Here we develop an approach that could be implemented in Earth system models. A stand-level forest gap model is combined with a canopy radiation transfer model and satellite-derived model parameters to quantify the effects of forest thinning on summertime canopy albedo. This approach reveals which parameter has the largest affect on summer canopy albedo: we examined the effects of three forest species (pine, beech, oak) and four thinning strategies with a constant forest floor albedo (light to intense thinning regimes) and five different solar zenith angles at five different sites (40° N 9° E-60° N 9° E). During stand establishment, summertime canopy albedo is driven by tree species. In the later stages of stand development, the effect of tree species on summertime canopy albedo decreases in favour of an increasing influence of forest thinning. These trends continue until the end of the rotation, where thinning explains up to 50% of the variance in near-infrared albedo and up to 70% of the variance in visible canopy albedo. <br><br> The absolute summertime canopy albedo of all species ranges from 0.03 to 0.06 (visible) and 0.20 to 0.28 (near-infrared); thus the albedo needs to be parameterised at species level. In addition, Earth system models need to account for forest management in such a way that structural changes in the canopy are described by changes in leaf area index and crown volume (maximum change of 0.02 visible and 0.05 near-infrared albedo) and that the expression of albedo depends on the solar zenith angle (maximum change of 0.02 visible and 0.05 near-infrared albedo). Earth system models taking into account these parameters would not only be able to examine the spatial effects of forest management but also the total effects of forest management on climate. © 2014 Author(s). [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial variability of soil CO 2 efflux linked to soil parameters and ecosystem characteristics in a temperate beech forest
Ngao, J.; Epron, D.; Delpierre, N. et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2012), 154-155

The aim of this study was to determine the amplitude and the driving factors of the spatial variability in soil CO 2 efflux in a young European beech forest. Soil CO 2 efflux was measured in 2003 and 2004 ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to determine the amplitude and the driving factors of the spatial variability in soil CO 2 efflux in a young European beech forest. Soil CO 2 efflux was measured in 2003 and 2004 in seven beech plots differing in terms of soil type and leaf area index. After eliminating temporal fluctuations due to soil temperature and soil water content, standardized soil CO 2 efflux varied significantly among plots over a large range given the homogeneity of the land cover type. Correlation analyses revealed that this spatial variability could not be explained by root biomass, litter C content, soil C contents, stand basal area or stem density. Conversely, very significant correlations were found with topsoil bulk density, superficial soil C/N ratio, and leaf area index. Multiple regression analysis led to a model relating standardized soil CO 2 efflux to C/N ratio and topsoil bulk density, thus explaining 87% of observed inter-plot spatial variability. This study highlighted the need to consider spatially varying soil factors such as C/N ratio and bulk density when experimental schemes are elaborated to estimate mean soil CO 2 efflux at forest scale. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based Network of NDVI measurements for tracking temporal dynamics of canopy structure and vegetation phenology in different biomes
Soudani, K.; Hmimina, K.; Delpierre, N. et al

in Remote Sensing of Environment (2012), 123

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See detailDetecting the critical periods that underpin interannual fluctuations in the carbon balance of European forests
Le Maire, G.; Delpierre, N.; Jung, M. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences (2010), 115(4),

The interannual variability of CO<inf>2</inf> exchange by forest ecosystems in Europe was analyzed at site and regional scales by identifying critical periods that contributed to interannual flux ... [more ▼]

The interannual variability of CO<inf>2</inf> exchange by forest ecosystems in Europe was analyzed at site and regional scales by identifying critical periods that contributed to interannual flux anomalies. Critical periods were defined as periods in which monthly and annual flux anomalies were correlated. The analysis was first conducted at seven European forest flux tower sites with contrasting species and climatic conditions. Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE), a generic process-based model, represented fairly well most features of the critical period patterns and their climate drivers at the site scale. Simulations at the scale of European forests were performed with ORCHIDEE integrated at a 0.25° spatial resolution. The spatial and temporal distributions of critical periods for canopy photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) as well as their underlying climate drivers were analyzed. The interannual variability in gross primary productivity (GPP) was explained by critical periods during spring and summer months. In contrast, the interannual variability in total ecosystem respiration (TER) was explained by critical periods occurring throughout the year. A latitudinal contrast between southern and northern Europe was observed in the distributions of critical periods for GPP and TER. The critical periods were positively controlled by temperature in northern Europe and by soil water availability in southern Europe. More importantly, the latitudinal transition between temperature-driven and water-driven critical periods for GPP varied from early spring to late summer. Such a distinct seasonal regime of critical periods was less clearly defined for TER and NEE. Overall, the critical periods associated with NEE variations and their meteorological drivers followed those associated with GPP. Copyright © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union. [less ▲]

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See detailExceptional Carbon Uptake In European Forests During The Warm Spring Of 2007: A Data-Model Analysis
Delpierre, N.; Soudani, K.; Kostner, B. et al

in Global Change Biology (2009), 15(6), 1455-1474

Temperate and boreal forests undergo drastic functional changes in the springtime, shifting within a few weeks from net carbon (C) sources to net C sinks. Most of these changes are mediated by temperature ... [more ▼]

Temperate and boreal forests undergo drastic functional changes in the springtime, shifting within a few weeks from net carbon (C) sources to net C sinks. Most of these changes are mediated by temperature. The autumn 2006-winter 2007 record warm period was followed by an exceptionally warm spring in Europe, making spring 2007 a good candidate for advances in the onset of the photosynthetically active period. An analysis of a decade of eddy covariance data from six European forests stands, which encompass a wide range of functional types (broadleaf evergreen, broadleaf deciduous, needleleaf evergreen) and a wide latitudinal band (from 44 degrees to 62 degrees N), revealed exceptional fluxes during spring 2007. Gross primary productivity (GPP) of spring 2007 was the maximum recorded in the decade examined for all sites but a Mediterranean evergreen forest (with a +40 to +130 gC m(-2) anomaly compared with the decadal mean over the January-May period). Total ecosystem respiration (TER) was also promoted during spring 2007, though less anomalous than GPP (with a +17 to +93 gC m(-2) anomaly over 5 months), leading to higher net uptake than the long-term mean at all sites (+12 to +79 gC m(-2) anomaly over 5 months). A correlative analysis relating springtime C fluxes to simple phenological indices suggested spring C uptake and temperatures to be related. The CASTANEA process-based model was used to disentangle the seasonality of climatic drivers (incoming radiation, air and soil temperatures) and biological drivers (canopy dynamics, thermal acclimation of photosynthesis to low temperatures) on spring C fluxes along the latitudinal gradient. A sensitivity analysis of model simulations evidenced the roles of (i) an exceptional early budburst combined with elevated air temperature in deciduous sites, and (ii) an early relief of winter thermal acclimation in coniferous sites for the promotion of 2007 spring assimilation. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple quality tests for analysing CO2 fluxes in a beech temperate forest
Longdoz, Bernard ULiege; Gross, P.; Granier, A.

in Biogeosciences (2008), 5(3), 719-729

Eddy covariance (EC) measurements are widely used to estimate the amount of carbon sequestrated by terrestrial biomes. The decision to exclude an EC flux from a database (bad quality records, turbulence ... [more ▼]

Eddy covariance (EC) measurements are widely used to estimate the amount of carbon sequestrated by terrestrial biomes. The decision to exclude an EC flux from a database (bad quality records, turbulence regime not adequate, footprint problem,...) becomes an important step in the CO2 flux determination procedure. In this paper an innovative combination of existing assessment tests is used to give a relatively complete evaluation of the net ecosystem exchange measurements. For the 2005 full-leaf season at the Hesse site, the percentage of rejected half-hours is relatively high (59.7%) especially during night-time (68.9%). This result strengthens the importance of the data gap filling method. The data rejection does not lead to a real improvement of the accuracy of the relationship between the CO2 fluxes and the climatic factors especially during the nights. The spatial heterogeneity of the soil respiration (on a site with relatively homogenous vegetation pattern) seems large enough to mask an increase of the goodness of the fit of the ecosystem respiration measurements with a dependence on soil temperature and water content when the tests are used to reject EC data. However, the data rejected present some common characteristics. Their removal lead to an increase in the total amount of CO2 respired (24%) and photosynthesised (16%) during the 2005 full-leaf season. Consequently the application of our combination of multiple quality tests is able improve the inter-annual analysis. The systematic application on the large database like the CarboEurope and FLUXNET appears to be necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of severe dry season on net ecosystem exchange in the Neotropical rainforest of French Guiana
Bonal, D.; Bosc, A.; Ponton, S. et al

in Global Change Biology (2008), 14(8), 1917-1933

The lack of information on the ways seasonal drought modifies the CO2 exchange between Neotropical rainforest ecosystems and the atmosphere and the resulting carbon balance hinders our ability to ... [more ▼]

The lack of information on the ways seasonal drought modifies the CO2 exchange between Neotropical rainforest ecosystems and the atmosphere and the resulting carbon balance hinders our ability to precisely predict how these ecosystems will respond as global environmental changes force them to face increasingly contrasting conditions in the future. To address this issue, seasonal variations in daily net ecosystem productivity (NEPd) and two main components of this productivity, daily total ecosystem respiration (REd) and daily gross ecosystem productivity (GEPd), were estimated over 2 years at a flux tower site in French Guiana, South America (5°16′54″N, 52°54′44″W). We compared seasonal variations between wet and dry periods and between dry periods of contrasting levels of intensity (i.e. mild vs. severe) during equivalent 93-day periods. During the wet periods, the ecosystem was almost in balance with the atmosphere (storage of 9.0 g Cm-2). Seasonal dry periods, regardless of their severity, are associated with higher incident radiation and lower REd combined with reduced soil respiration associated with low soil water availability. During the mild dry period, as is normally the case in this region, the amount of carbon stored in the ecosystem was 32.7 g Cm-2. Severe drought conditions resulted in even lower REd, whereas the photosynthetic activity was only moderately reduced and no change in canopy structure was observed. Thus, the severe dry period was characterized by greater carbon storage (64.6 g C m-2), emphasizing that environmental conditions, such as during a severe drought, modify the CO2 exchange between Neotropical rainforest ecosystems and the atmosphere and potentially the resulting carbon balance. © 2008 The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing. [less ▲]

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See detailTen years of fluxes and stand growth in a young beech forest at Hesse, North-eastern France
Granier, A.; Bréda, N.; Longdoz, Bernard ULiege et al

in Annals of Forest Science (2008), 64(7),

• Water and carbon fluxes, as measured by eddy covariance, climate, soil water content, leaf area index, tree biomass, biomass increment (BI), litter fall and mortality were monitored for 10 successive ... [more ▼]

• Water and carbon fluxes, as measured by eddy covariance, climate, soil water content, leaf area index, tree biomass, biomass increment (BI), litter fall and mortality were monitored for 10 successive years in a young beech stand in Hesse forest (north-eastern France) under contrasting climatic and management conditions. • Large year-to-year variability of net carbon fluxes (NEE) and to a lesser extent, of tree growth was observed. The variability in NEE (coefficient of variation, CV = 44%) was related to both gross primary production (GPP) and to variations in total ecosystem respiration (TER), each term showing similar and lower interannual variability (CV = 14%) than NEE. Variation in the annual GPP was related to: (i) the water deficit duration and intensity cumulated over the growing season, and (ii) the growing season length, i.e. the period of carbon uptake by the stand. Two thinnings occurring during the observation period did not provoke a reduction in either GPP, water fluxes, or in tree growth. Interannual variation of TER could not be explained by any annual climatic variables, or LAI, and only water deficit duration showed a poor correlation. Annual biomass increment was well correlated to water shortage duration and was significantly influenced by drought in the previous year. • The relationship between annual NEE and biomass increment (BI) was poor: in some years, the annual carbon uptake was much higher and in others much lower than tree growth. However this relationship was much stronger and linear (r2 = 0.93) on a weekly to monthly time-scale from budburst to the date of radial growth cessation, indicating a strong link between net carbon uptake and tree growth, while carbon losses by respiration occurring after this date upset this relationship. • Despite the lack of correlation between annual data, the NEE and BI cumulated over the 10 years of observations were very close. • On the annual time-scale, net primary productivity calculated from eddy fluxes and from biological measurements showed a good correlation. © 2008 INRA EDP Sciences. [less ▲]

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See detailPartitioning forest carbon fluxes with overstory and understory eddy-covariance measurements: A synthesis based on FLUXNET data
Misson, L.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Black, T. A. et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2007), 144(1-2), 14-31

Forests are complex ecosystems characterized by several distinctive vertical layers with different functional properties. Measurements of CO2 fluxes by the eddy-covariance method at different heights can ... [more ▼]

Forests are complex ecosystems characterized by several distinctive vertical layers with different functional properties. Measurements of CO2 fluxes by the eddy-covariance method at different heights can be used to separate sources and sinks in these layers. We used meteorological and eddy-covariance flux data gathered at 10 sites in the FLUXNET network across a wide range of forest type, structure and climate. We showed that eddy-covariance flux measurements made in the understory are problematic at night in open forests because of the build up of a strong inversion layer, but are more reliable during the day. Denser forests have higher turbulence at night in the understory because the inversion is weaker. However, the flux footprint above and below canopy is less similar than in more open forests, partly because wind direction is more deflected while entering the canopy. We showed that gross primary productivity (GPP) of the understory can reach 39% of the total canopy GPP, with an average of 14% across the studied sites. Both understory leaf area index (LAI) and light penetration through the canopy are important for understory GPP. We found that understory respiration contributed an average of 55% to ecosystem respiration, with a range of 32-79%. Understory in deciduous forests (62%) had higher contributions to ecosystem respiration than in evergreen forests (49%). Boreal and temperate forests had a mean understory respiration contribution of 61%, while semi-arid forests showed lower values (44%). The normalized understory respiration fluxes at 20 °C were negatively related to soil temperature, when differences in soil moisture across sites are taken into account. We showed evidence that drought limited the efficiency of microbial metabolic activity. Understory respiration fluxes were positively correlated with gross ecosystem primary productivity. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation of autotrophic and heterotrophic components of soil respiration by trenching is sensitive to corrections for root decomposition and changes in soil water content
Ngao, J.; Longdoz, Bernard ULiege; Granier, A. et al

in Plant and Soil (2007), 301(1-2), 99-110

This study aims to assess the effects of corrections for disturbances such as an increased amount of dead roots and an increase in volumetric soil water content on the calculation of soil CO2 efflux ... [more ▼]

This study aims to assess the effects of corrections for disturbances such as an increased amount of dead roots and an increase in volumetric soil water content on the calculation of soil CO2 efflux partitioning. Soil CO2 efflux, soil temperature and superficial soil water content were monitored in two young beech sites (H1 and H2) during a trenching experiment. Trenching induced a significant input of dead root mass that participated in soil CO2 efflux and reduced the soil dissolved organic carbon content, while it increased superficial soil water content within the trenched plot. Annual soil CO2 efflux in control plots was 528 g C m -2 year-1 at H1 and 527 g C m-2 year -1 at H2. The annual soil CO2 efflux in trenched plots was 353 g C m-2 year-1 at H1 and 425 g C m-2 year-1 at H2. By taking into account annual CO2 efflux from decaying trenched roots, the autotrophic contribution to total soil CO 2 efflux reached 69% at H1 and 54% at H2. The partitioning calculation was highly sensitive to the initial root mass estimated within the trenched plots. Uncertainties in the remaining root mass, the fraction of root C that is incorporated into soil organic matter during root decomposition, and the root decomposition rate constant had a limited impact on the partitioning calculation. Corrections for differences in superficial soil water content had a significant impact on annual respired CO2 despite a limited effect on partitioning. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence For Soil Water Control On Carbon And Water Dynamics In European Forests During The Extremely Dry Year: 2003
Granier, A.; Reichstein, M.; Breda, N. et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2007), 143(1-2),

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See detailCO2 balance of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests derived from a global database
Luyssaert, S.; Inglima, I.; Jung, M. et al

in Global Change Biology (2007), 13(12), 2509-2537

Terrestrial ecosystems sequester 2.1 Pg of atmospheric carbon annually. A large amount of the terrestrial sink is realized by forests. However, considerable uncertainties remain regarding the fate of this ... [more ▼]

Terrestrial ecosystems sequester 2.1 Pg of atmospheric carbon annually. A large amount of the terrestrial sink is realized by forests. However, considerable uncertainties remain regarding the fate of this carbon over both short and long timescales. Relevant data to address these uncertainties are being collected at many sites around the world, but syntheses of these data are still sparse. To facilitate future synthesis activities, we have assembled a comprehensive global database for forest ecosystems, which includes carbon budget variables (fluxes and stocks), ecosystem traits (e.g. leaf area index, age), as well as ancillary site information such as management regime, climate, and soil characteristics. This publicly available database can be used to quantify global, regional or biome-specific carbon budgets; to re-examine established relationships; to test emerging hypotheses about ecosystem functioning [e.g. a constant net ecosystem production (NEP) to gross primary production (GPP) ratio]; and as benchmarks for model evaluations. In this paper, we present the first analysis of this database. We discuss the climatic influences on GPP, net primary production (NPP) and NEP and present the CO2 balances for boreal, temperate, and tropical forest biomes based on micrometeorological, ecophysiological, and biometric flux and inventory estimates. Globally, GPP of forests benefited from higher temperatures and precipitation whereas NPP saturated above either a threshold of 1500 mm precipitation or a mean annual temperature of 10 degrees C. The global pattern in NEP was insensitive to climate and is hypothesized to be mainly determined by nonclimatic conditions such as successional stage, management, site history, and site disturbance. In all biomes, closing the CO2 balance required the introduction of substantial biome-specific closure terms. Nonclosure was taken as an indication that respiratory processes, advection, and non-CO2 carbon fluxes are not presently being adequately accounted for. [less ▲]

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See detailReduction Of Ecosystem Productivity And Respiration During The European Summer 2003 Climate Anomaly: A Joint Flux Tower, Remote Sensing And Modelling Analysis
Reichstein, M.; Ciais, P.; Papale, D. et al

in Global Change Biology (2007), 13(3),

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See detailQuality Analysis Applied On Eddy Covariance Measurements At Complex Forest Sites Using Footprint Modelling
Rebmann, C.; Gockede, M.; Foken, T. et al

in Theoretical and Applied Climatology (2005), 80(2-4),

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See detailComparing CO2 storage and advection conditions at night at different carboeuroflux sites
Aubinet, Marc ULiege; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, C. H. et al

in Boundary-Layer Meteorology (2005), 116(1), 63-94

Anemometer and CO2 concentration data from temporary campaigns performed at six CARBOEUROFLUX forest sites were used to estimate the importance of non-turbulent fluxes in nighttime conditions. While ... [more ▼]

Anemometer and CO2 concentration data from temporary campaigns performed at six CARBOEUROFLUX forest sites were used to estimate the importance of non-turbulent fluxes in nighttime conditions. While storage was observed to be significant only during periods of both low turbulence and low advection, the advective fluxes strongly influence the nocturnal CO2 balance, with the exception of almost flat and highly homogeneous sites. On the basis of the main factors determining the onset of advective fluxes, the 'advection velocity', which takes net radiation and local topography into account, was introduced as a criterion to characterise the conditions of storage enrichment/depletion. Comparative analyses of the six sites showed several common features of the advective fluxes but also some substantial differences. In particular, all sites where advection occurs show the onset of a boundary layer characterised by a downslope flow, negative vertical velocities and negative vertical CO2 concentration gradients during nighttime. As a consequence, vertical advection was observed to be positive at all sites, which corresponds to a removal of CO2 from the ecosystem. The main differences between sites are the distance from the ridge, which influences the boundary-layer depth, and the sign of the mean horizontal CO2 concentration gradients, which is probably determined by the source/sink distribution. As a consequence, both positive and negative horizontal advective fluxes (corresponding respectively to CO2 removal from the ecosystem and to CO2 supply to the ecosystem) were observed. Conclusive results on the importance of non-turbulent components in the mass balance require, however, further experimental investigations at sites with different topographies, slopes, different land covers, which would allow a more comprehensive analysis of the processes underlying the occurrence of advective fluxes. The quantification of these processes would help to better quantify nocturnal CO2 exchange rates. [less ▲]

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See detailEurope-Wide Reduction In Primary Productivity Caused By The Heat And Drought In 2003
Ciais, P.; Reichstein, M.; Viovy, N. et al

in Nature (2005), 437(7058),

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See detailDeciduous forests: carbon and water fluxes balances, ecological and ecophysiological determinants
Granier, A.; Aubinet, Marc ULiege; Epron, D. et al

in Valentini, Riccardo (Ed.) Fluxes of Carbon, Water and Energy of European Forests (2003)

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