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See detailDrivers of inorganic carbon dynamics in first-year sea ice: A model study
Moreau, S.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 16)

Sea ice is an active source or a sink for carbon dioxide (CO2), although to what extent is not clear. Here, we analyze CO2 dynamics within sea ice using a one-dimensional halo-thermodynamic sea ice model ... [more ▼]

Sea ice is an active source or a sink for carbon dioxide (CO2), although to what extent is not clear. Here, we analyze CO2 dynamics within sea ice using a one-dimensional halo-thermodynamic sea ice model including gas physics and carbon biogeochemistry. The ice-ocean fluxes, and vertical transport, of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) are represented using fluid transport equations. Carbonate chemistry, the consumption and release of CO2 by primary production and respiration, the precipitation and dissolution of ikaite (CaCO3•6H2O) and ice-air CO2 fluxes, are also included. The model is evaluated using observations from a 6-month field study at Point Barrow, Alaska and an ice-tank experiment. At Barrow, results show that the DIC budget is mainly driven by physical processes, wheras brine-air CO2 fluxes, ikaite formation, and net primary production, are secondary factors. In terms of ice-atmosphere CO 2 exchanges, sea ice is a net CO2 source and sink in winter and summer, respectively. The formulation of the ice-atmosphere CO2 flux impacts the simulated near-surface CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), but not the DIC budget. Because the simulated ice-atmosphere CO2 fluxes are limited by DIC stocks, and therefore < 2 mmol m-2 day-1, we argue that the observed much larger CO2 fluxes from eddy covariance retrievals cannot be explained by a sea ice direct source and must involve other processes or other sources of CO2. Finally, the simulations suggest that near surface TA/DIC ratios of 2, sometimes used as an indicator of calcification, would rather suggest outgassing. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of sea ice in the carbon cycle of Polar Seas: 1D to 3D modelling
Moreau, S.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

Poster (2015, May)

Sea ice participates actively in the biogeochemical cycle of carbon of Polar Oceans, yet to which extent is not clear. We investigated the processes that govern sea ice carbon dy- namics in Polar Regions ... [more ▼]

Sea ice participates actively in the biogeochemical cycle of carbon of Polar Oceans, yet to which extent is not clear. We investigated the processes that govern sea ice carbon dy- namics in Polar Regions through 1D to 3D modelling developments. First, we constrained all major physical and biogeochemical processes with respect to CO2 dynamics (carbon- ate chemistry, biological activity, ikaite (CaCO3•6H2O) precipitation and dissolution and ocean-ice-air CO2 fluxes) in a one-dimensional sea ice model. According to our model, the CO2 budget is driven by the CO2 uptake during ice growth and release by brine drainage, whereas other processes such as brine-air CO2 fluxes, despite significant, are secondary. Subsequently, based on these preliminary conclusions, we evaluated the role of sea ice in the carbon dynamics of Polar Oceans by using an ocean-ice coupled Global Earth System Model. Carbon dynamics (e.g. ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes) are driven by the contribution of sea ice growth regions in the Arctic Ocean (mainly the Siberian coast) and sea ice melt regions in the Southern Ocean (off the coast of Antarctica). In addition, the production of deep waters is low in the Arctic Ocean but significant in the Southern Ocean. Therefore, sea ice only contributes to the deep water export of carbon in the Southern Ocean. The role of sea ice in the biogeochemical cycle of carbon is significant and its representation by Global Earth System Models should be improved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of sea ice in the carbon cycle of Polar Seas: 1D to 3D modelling
Moreau, S.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

Poster (2015, March)

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See detailModelling argon dynamics in first-year sea ice
Moreau, S.; Vancoppenolle, M; Zhou, Jiayun ULg et al

in Ocean Modelling (2014), 73

Abstract: Focusing on physical processes, we aim at constraining the dynamics of argon (Ar), a biogeochemically inert gas, within first year sea ice, using observation data and a one-dimensional halo ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Focusing on physical processes, we aim at constraining the dynamics of argon (Ar), a biogeochemically inert gas, within first year sea ice, using observation data and a one-dimensional halo-thermodynamic sea ice model, including parameterization of gas physics. The incorporation and transport of dissolved Ar within sea ice and its rejection via gas-enriched brine drainage to the ocean, are modeled following fluid transport equations through sea ice. Gas bubbles nucleate within sea ice when Ar is above saturation and when the total partial pressure of all three major atmospheric gases (N2, O2 and Ar) is above the brine hydrostatic pressure. The uplift of gas bubbles due to buoyancy is allowed when the brine network is connected with a brine volume above a given threshold. Ice-atmosphere Ar fluxes are formulated as a diffusive process proportional to the differential partial pressure of Ar between brine inclusions and the atmosphere. Two simulations corresponding to two case studies that took place at Point Barrow (Alaska, 2009) and during an ice-tank experiment (INTERICE IV, Hamburg, Germany, 2009) are presented. Basal entrapment and vertical transport due to brine motion enable a qualitatively sound representation of the vertical profile of the total Ar (i.e. the Ar dissolved in brine inclusions and contained in gas bubbles; TAr). Sensitivity analyses suggest that gas bubble nucleation and rise are of most importance to describe gas dynamics within sea ice. Ice-atmosphere Ar fluxes and the associated parameters do not drastically change the simulated TAr. Ar dynamics are dominated by uptake, transport by brine dynamics and bubble nucleation in winter and early spring; and by an intense and rapid release of gas bubbles to the atmosphere in spring. Important physical processes driving gas dynamics in sea ice are identified, pointing to the need for further field and experimental studies. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling argon dynamics in first-year sea ice
Moreau, S.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Tison, J.-L. et al

Poster (2012, July)

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See detailASsessment of modelling uncertainties in long-TERm climate and sea level change projections"Aster" : final report
Fichefet, T; Loutre, M.-F.; Goosse, H. et al

Report (2012)

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See detailEvaluating climate model performance with various parameter sets using observations over the recent past
Loutre, M.-F.; Mouchet, Anne ULg; Fichefet, T. et al

in Climate of the Past (2011), 7

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See detailImpact of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet interactions on climate sensitivity
Goelzer, H.; Huybrechts, P.; Loutre, M.-F. et al

in Climate Dynamics (2011), 37(5-6), 1005-1018

We use the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM to show the effect of coupling interactive ice sheets on the climate sensitivity of the model on a millennial time scale. We compare the ... [more ▼]

We use the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM to show the effect of coupling interactive ice sheets on the climate sensitivity of the model on a millennial time scale. We compare the response to a 2xCO2 warming scenario between fully coupled model versions including interactive Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet models and model versions with fixed ice sheets. For this purpose an ensemble of different parameter sets have been defined for LOVECLIM, covering a wide range of the model's sensitivity to greenhouse warming, while still simulating the present-day climate and the climate evolution over the last millennium within observational uncertainties. Additional freshwater fluxes from the melting ice sheets have a mitigating effect on the model's temperature response, leading to generally lower climate sensitivities of the fully coupled model versions. The mitigation is effectuated by changes in heat exchange within the ocean and at the sea-air interface, driven by freshening of the surface ocean and amplified by sea-ice-related feedbacks. The strength of the effect depends on the response of the ice sheets to the warming and on the model's climate sensitivity itself. With the ensemble approach in this study we cover a wide range of possible model responses. [less ▲]

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See detailIce and sea level change projections with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM
Goelzer, H.; Huybrechts, P.; Loutre, M. F. et al

Conference (2010, October)

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See detailAssessment of modelling uncertainties in long-term climate projections: the ASTER project
Loutre, M. F.; Mouchet, Anne ULg; Fichefet, T. et al

Conference (2010, October)

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See detailImpact of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet interactions on model climate sensitivity
Goelzer, H; Huybrechts, P; Loutre, M-F et al

Conference (2010, May 07)

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See detailEarth and sea-level change projections with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM
Goelzer, H.; Huybrechts, P.; Loutre, M. F. et al

Conference (2010, May)

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See detailDescription of the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM version 1.2
Goosse, H.; Brovkin, V.; Fichefet, T. et al

in Geoscientific Model Development (2010), 3(2), 603-633

The main characteristics of the new version 1.2 of the three-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM are briefly described. LOVECLIM 1.2 includes representations of the ... [more ▼]

The main characteristics of the new version 1.2 of the three-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM are briefly described. LOVECLIM 1.2 includes representations of the atmosphere, the ocean and sea ice, the land surface (including vegetation), the ice sheets, the icebergs and the carbon cycle. The atmospheric component is ECBilt2, a T21, 3-level quasi-geostrophic model. The ocean component is CLIO3, which consists of an ocean general circulation model coupled to a comprehensive thermodynamic-dynamic sea-ice model. Its horizontal resolution is of 3° by 3°, and there are 20 levels in the ocean. ECBilt-CLIO is coupled to VECODE, a vegetation model that simulates the dynamics of two main terrestrial plant functional types, trees and grasses, as well as desert. VECODE also simulates the evolution of the carbon cycle over land while the ocean carbon cycle is represented by LOCH, a comprehensive model that takes into account both the solubility and biological pumps. The ice sheet component AGISM is made up of a three-dimensional thermomechanical model of the ice sheet flow, a visco-elastic bedrock model and a model of the mass balance at the ice-atmosphere and ice-ocean interfaces. For both the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, calculations are made on a 10 km by 10 km resolution grid with 31 sigma levels. LOVECLIM1.2 reproduces well the major characteristics of the observed climate both for present-day conditions and for key past periods such as the last millennium, the mid-Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum. However, despite some improvements compared to earlier versions, some biases are still present in the model. The most serious ones are mainly located at low latitudes with an overestimation of the temperature there, a too symmetric distribution of precipitation between the two hemispheres, and an overestimation of precipitation and vegetation cover in the subtropics. In addition, the atmospheric circulation is too weak. The model also tends to underestimate the surface temperature changes (mainly at low latitudes) and to overestimate the ocean heat uptake observed over the last decades. [less ▲]

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See detailModel sensitivities and carbon cycle - climate feedbacks: a study with an Earth System Model
Mouchet, Anne ULg; Loutre, M. F.; Goelzer, H. et al

Poster (2009, November)

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See detailModelling uncertainties in the climate of the last millennium : The ASTER project
Loutre, M. F.; Mouchet, Anne ULg; Fichefet, T. et al

Poster (2009, April 21)

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
See detailAssessment of modelling uncertainties in long-term climate and sea level change projections "Aster"
Fichefet, T.; Loutre, M.-F.; Goosse, H. et al

Report (2009)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (4 ULg)
See detailModelling Uncertainties in the Climate of the Last Millennium: the ASTER Project
Loutre, M.; Mouchet, Anne ULg; Fichefet, T. et al

Poster (2008, December 01)

The LOVECLIM model (Driesschaert et al., 2007; Goosse et al., 2007) is used to simulate the climate of the last millennium with several 'climate' parameter sets yielding different sensitivities of the ... [more ▼]

The LOVECLIM model (Driesschaert et al., 2007; Goosse et al., 2007) is used to simulate the climate of the last millennium with several 'climate' parameter sets yielding different sensitivities of the climate and the carbon cycle model. The purpose of these simulations is twofold. We intend to assess first the role of the carbon cycle on the climate, and second, the ability of the different selected parameter sets to drive the model within the range of the observed climate, and further to assess the uncertainty related to these parameters. The high frequency variability of the forcings is taken into account. For each set of parameters, LOVECLIM is driven by the natural evolution of insolation, solar irradiance and stratospheric aerosol concentrations due to volcanic activity as well as by changes caused by human activities such as deforestation, CO2 emission or concentration changes, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases other than CO2 (including ozone) and in sulphate aerosol load. Several transient experiments are conducted for each parameter set. A first transient simulation (CONC) is forced with reconstructed atmospheric CO2 concentration. In the next two simulations, the emissions of carbon are taken into account, the model computing the corresponding atmospheric CO2 concentration. First (EMIS), the emissions due both to the land use changes and the fossil fuel burning are provided. Second (EFOR), only the emissions from fossil fuel burning are provided in addition to the vegetation change related to deforestation. The Northern Hemisphere annual mean temperatures simulated by the model according to the different parameter sets and carbon cycle sensitivities do not show striking differences. The general pattern shows slightly warmer conditions in the early part of the simulation and cooler ones during the Little Ice Age. At last, the global warming of the last century is also clearly simulated. The response of the carbon cycle to the evolution of forcings over the last millennium does not differ much among experiments although there is a much larger spread when considering different emission scenarios (e.g. EFOR and EMIS). Sensitivity tests to the amplitude of the variation of the total solar irradiance (TSI) are performed; a very first quick look at the simulations does not show significant differences in the pattern of the simulated climate in response to modification in the TSI amplitude. Further analysis must be conducted. Climate response to different schemes of deforestation will also be presented. Driesschaert E., Fichefet T., Goosse H., Huybrechts P., Janssens I., Mouchet A., Munhoven G., Brovkin V., and Weber S. L., 2007. Modelling the influence of Greenland ice sheet melting on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the next millennia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34:L1070, 2007. Goosse H., Driesschaert E., Fichefet T., and Loutre M.F., 2007. Information on the early Holocene climate constrains the summer sea ice projections for the 21st century Clim. Past 3, 683-692. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon Cycle and Climate Sensitivity in an Earth System Model
Mouchet, Anne ULg; Loutre, M.; Fichefet, T. et al

Poster (2008, December)

The sensitivity of the potential feedbacks between climate and biogeochemical cycles (BGC) is adressed with the help of LOVECLIM, a global three-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity ... [more ▼]

The sensitivity of the potential feedbacks between climate and biogeochemical cycles (BGC) is adressed with the help of LOVECLIM, a global three-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity. Key physical or biogeochemical parameters of LOVECLIM are varied within their range of uncertainty in order to provide an ensemble of parameter sets resulting in contrasted climate and global carbon cycle sensitivities. The selected climate parameter sets lead to a climate sensitivity ranging from 2 to 4°C and a reduction of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) ranging from 20 to 60% after 1 kyr in response to identical external forcings. The key parameters for the carbon cycle were chosen among those with the largest impact on the marine biogeochemical cycle and on the response of atmospheric CO2 to emission scenario. We then analyze the results of freshwater hosing experiments in which both the climate parameters and the BGC parameters are modified. These experiments allow to examine the impact of changes in climate sensitivity and of MOC reduction over the biogeochemical cycles as well as to assess the potential feedback from the carbon cycle onto the climate. A decreasing MOC directly impacts the ocean biogeochemistry. Most of the model setups show a decline in export production although some parameter sets yield reorganisation of the large scale ocean circulation, which leads to different behaviour of the ocean biogeochemistry. The atmospheric carbon is also affected by a decrease of the MOC. While most parameter sets cause a modest increase in atmospheric CO2, consecutive to the decrease of the continental vegetation, some model versions exhibit an amplification of the atmospheric CO2 response to the forcing. The mechanisms leading to the different responses for the different parameter sets are examined and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailOcean biogeochemical cycles and climate sensitivity in an Earth system model
Mouchet, Anne ULg; Loutre, M. F.; Fichefet, T. et al

Conference (2008, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)