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See detailThe core 2 beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucin encoded by bovine herpesvirus 4 was acquired from an ancestor of the African buffalo
Markine-Goriaynoff, N.; Georgin, J. P.; Goltz, M. et al

in Journal of Virology (2003), 77(3), 1784-1792

The Bo17 gene of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is the only viral gene known to date that encodes a homologue of the cellular core 2 beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucin type (C2GnT-M). To ... [more ▼]

The Bo17 gene of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is the only viral gene known to date that encodes a homologue of the cellular core 2 beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucin type (C2GnT-M). To investigate the origin and evolution of the Bo17 gene, we analyzed its distribution among BoHV-4 strains and determined the sequences of Bo17 from nine representative strains and of the C2GnT-M gene from six species of ruminants expected to encompass the group within which the gene acquisition occurred. Of 34 strains of BoHV-4, isolated from four different continents, all were found to contain the Bo17 gene. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that Bo17 was acquired from a recent ancestor of the African buffalo, implying that cattle subsequently acquired BoHV-4 by cross-species transmission. The rate of synonymous nucleotide substitution in Bo17 was estimated at 5 x 10(-8) to 6 x 10(-8) substitutions/site/year, consistent with previous estimates made under the assumption that herpesviruses have cospeciated with their hosts. The Bo17 gene acquisition was dated to around 1.5 million years ago. Bo17 sequences from BoHV-4 strains from African buffalo and from cattle formed two separate clades, estimated to have split about 700,000 years ago. Analysis of the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions revealed a burst of amino acid replacements subsequent to the transfer of the cellular gene to the viral genome, followed by a return to a strong constraint on nonsynonymous changes during the divergence of contemporary BoHV-4 strains. The Bo17 gene represents the most recent of the known herpesvirus gene acquisitions and provides the best opportunity for learning more about this important process of viral evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Replication in Vitro of the Gammaherpesvirus Bovine Herpesvirus 4 Is Restricted by Its DNA Synthesis Dependence on the S Phase of the Cell Cycle
Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg; Goltz, M.; Lyaku, J. et al

in Virology (1995), 213(2), 328-40

Because several observations have suggested that replication of the gammaherpesvirus bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) is influenced by the physiological state of the host cell, a study was carried out to ... [more ▼]

Because several observations have suggested that replication of the gammaherpesvirus bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) is influenced by the physiological state of the host cell, a study was carried out to determine the relationship between BHV-4 infection and the cell cycle. The temporal expression of BHV-4 late (L) proteins in unsynchronized cell cultures was first investigated by flow cytometry. Interestingly, L protein expression occurred in a limited number of cells infected with a high multiplicity of infection, and a reciprocal correlation between the percentage of positive cells and the cell density at the time of infection was demonstrated. Moreover, the finding that a BHV-4 early-late protein was expressed in nearly all the cells suggested that a blockage in the viral replication cycle occurred in some infected cells at the stage of viral DNA synthesis or L protein expression. Because this blockage could be the consequence of the dependence of one or both of these events on the cell cycle, they were investigated after infection of synchronized cell cultures. The following findings were made. (i) Cell transition through the S phase quantitatively increased the rate of BHV-4 DNA replication. (ii) BHV-4 DNA synthesis could not be detected in cells arrested in G0. (iii) Synchronization of MDBK cells with Lovastatin before infection increased the percentage of cells expressing L proteins. (iv) In contrast, infection of cells arrested in G0 led to few positive cells. Taken together these results showed that BHV-4 DNA replication and consequently the expression of L proteins are dependent on the S phase of the cell cycle. This dependence could be of importance for several biological properties of BHV-4 infection in vitro and might have implications for the biology of the virus in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailImmunological detection of beta-galactosidase-expressing cells by flow cytometry
Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg; Goltz, M.; Hanon, E.

in Biochemica (1994), 3

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