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See detailMeasurements of the helium 584 Å airglow during the Cassini flyby of Venus
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Gustin, Jacques ULg; Hubert, Benoît ULg et al

in Planetary and Space Science (2011), 59

The helium resonance line at 584 Å has been observed with the UltraViolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) Extreme Ultraviolet channel during the flyby of Venus by Cassini at a period of high solar activity ... [more ▼]

The helium resonance line at 584 Å has been observed with the UltraViolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) Extreme Ultraviolet channel during the flyby of Venus by Cassini at a period of high solar activity. The brightness was measured along the disk from the morning terminator up to the bright limb near local noon. The mean disk intensity was ˜320 R, reaching ˜700 R at the bright limb. These values are slightly higher than those determined from previous observations. The sensitivity of the 584 Å intensity to the helium abundance is analyzed using recent cross-sections and solar irradiance measurements at 584 Å. The intensity distribution along the UVIS footprint on the disk is best reproduced using the EUVAC solar flux model and the helium density distribution from the VTS3 empirical model. It corresponds to a helium density of 8×10[SUP]6[/SUP] cm[SUP]-3[/SUP] at the level of where the CO[SUB]2[/SUB] is 2×10[SUP]10[/SUP] cm[SUP]-3[/SUP]. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) on Juno
Gladstone, G. R.; Persyn, S.; Eterno, J. et al

Poster (2011, July 11)

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See detailEUV spectroscopy of the Venus dayglow with UVIS on Cassini
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Hubert, Benoît ULg; Gustin, Jacques ULg et al

in Icarus: International Journal of Solar System Studies (2011), 211

We analyze EUV spatially-resolved dayglow spectra obtained at 0.37 nm resolution by the UVIS instrument during the Cassini flyby of Venus on 24 June 1999, a period of high solar activity level. Emissions ... [more ▼]

We analyze EUV spatially-resolved dayglow spectra obtained at 0.37 nm resolution by the UVIS instrument during the Cassini flyby of Venus on 24 June 1999, a period of high solar activity level. Emissions from OI, OII, NI, CI and CII and CO have been identified and their disc average intensity has been determined. They are generally somewhat brighter than those determined from the observations made with the HUT spectrograph at a lower activity level, We present the brightness distribution along the foot track of the UVIS slit of the OII 83.4 nm, OI 98.9 nm, Lyman-ß + OI 102.5 nm and NI 120.0 nm multiplets, and the CO C-X and B-X Hopfield-Birge bands. We make a detailed comparison of the intensities of the 834 nm, 989 nm, 120.0 nm multiplets and CO B-X band measured along the slit foot track on the disc with those predicted by an airglow model previously used to analyze Venus and Mars ultraviolet spectra. This model includes the treatment of multiple scattering for the optically thick OI, OII and NI multiplets. It is found that the observed intensity of the OII emission at 83.4 nm is higher than predicted by the model. An increase of the O[SUP]+[/SUP] ion density relative to the densities usually measured by Pioneer Venus brings the observations and the modeled values into better agreement. The calculated intensity variation of the CO B-X emission along the track of the UVIS slit is in fair agreement with the observations. The intensity of the OI 98.9 nm emission is well predicted by the model if resonance scattering of solar radiation by O atoms is included as a source. The calculated brightness of the NI 120 nm multiplet is larger than observed by a factor of ˜2-3 if photons from all sources encounter multiple scattering. The discrepancy reduces to 30-80% if the photon electron impact and photodissociation of N[SUB]2[/SUB] sources of N([SUP]4[/SUP]S) atoms are considered as optically thin. Overall, we find that the O, N[SUB]2[/SUB] and CO densities from the empirical VTS3 model provide satisfactory agreement between the calculated and the observed EUV airglow emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailUVIS observations of the FUV OI and CO 4P Venus dayglow during the Cassini flyby
Hubert, Benoît ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Gustin, Jacques ULg et al

in Icarus (2010), 207

We analyze FUV spatially-resolved dayglow spectra obtained at 0.37 nm resolution by the UVIS instrument during the Cassini flyby of Venus. We use a least-squares fit method to determine the brightness of ... [more ▼]

We analyze FUV spatially-resolved dayglow spectra obtained at 0.37 nm resolution by the UVIS instrument during the Cassini flyby of Venus. We use a least-squares fit method to determine the brightness of the OI emissions at 130.4 and OI 135.6 nm, and of the bands of the CO fourth positive system which are dominated by fluorescence scattering. We compare the brightness observed along the UVIS foot track of the two OI multiplets with that deduced from a model of the excitation of these emissions by photoelectron impact on O atoms and resonance scattering of the solar 130.4 nm emission. The large optical thickness 130.4 nm emission is accounted for using a radiative transfer model. The airglow intensities are calculated along the foot track and found to agree with the observed 130.4 nm brightness within ˜10%. The modeled OI 135.6 nm brightness is also well reproduced by the model. The oxygen density profile of the VTS3 model is found to be consistent with the observations. We find that self-absorption of the (0, v″) bands of the fourth positive emission of CO is important and we derive a CO vertical column of about 6.4 × 10[SUP]15[/SUP] cm[SUP]‑2[/SUP] in close agreement with the value provided by the VTS3 empirical atmospheric model. [less ▲]

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See detailResponse of Jupiter's and Saturn's auroral activity to the solar wind
Clarke, J. T.; Nichols, J.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2009), 114

While the terrestrial aurorae are known to be driven primarily by the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind, there is considerable evidence that auroral emissions on Jupiter and ... [more ▼]

While the terrestrial aurorae are known to be driven primarily by the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind, there is considerable evidence that auroral emissions on Jupiter and Saturn are driven primarily by internal processes, with the main energy source being the planets' rapid rotation. Prior observations have suggested there might be some influence of the solar wind on Jupiter's aurorae and indicated that auroral storms on Saturn can occur at times of solar wind pressure increases. To investigate in detail the dependence of auroral processes on solar wind conditions, a large campaign of observations of these planets has been undertaken using the Hubble Space Telescope, in association with measurements from planetary spacecraft and solar wind conditions both propagated from 1 AU and measured near each planet. The data indicate a brightening of both the auroral emissions and Saturn kilometric radiation at Saturn close in time to the arrival of solar wind shocks and pressure increases, consistent with a direct physical relationship between Saturnian auroral processes and solar wind conditions. At Jupiter the correlation is less strong, with increases in total auroral power seen near the arrival of solar wind forward shocks but little increase observed near reverse shocks. In addition, auroral dawn storms have been observed when there was little change in solar wind conditions. The data are consistent with some solar wind influence on some Jovian auroral processes, while the auroral activity also varies independently of the solar wind. This extensive data set will serve to constrain theoretical models for the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) on Juno
Gladstone, G. R.; Persyn, S.; Eterno, J. et al

Conference (2008, December 01)

Juno, a NASA New Frontiers mission, plans for launch in August 2011, a 5-year cruise (including a flyby of Earth in October 2013 for a gravity boost), and 14 months around Jupiter after arriving in August ... [more ▼]

Juno, a NASA New Frontiers mission, plans for launch in August 2011, a 5-year cruise (including a flyby of Earth in October 2013 for a gravity boost), and 14 months around Jupiter after arriving in August 2016. The spinning (2 RPM), solar-powered Juno will study Jupiter from a highly elliptical orbit, in which the spacecraft (for about 6 hours once every 11 days) dives down over the north pole, skims the outermost atmosphere, and rises back up over the south pole. This orbit allows Juno avoid most of the intense particle radiation surrounding the planet and provides an excellent platform for investigating Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. Part of the exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere will involve remote sensing of the far-ultraviolet H and H2 auroral emissions, plus gases such as methane and acetylene which add their absorption signature to the H2 emissions. This hydrocarbon absorption can be used to estimate the energy of the precipitating electrons; since more energetic electrons penetrate deeper into the atmosphere and the UV emissions they produce will show more absorption. Juno will carry an Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) to make spectral images of Jupiter's aurora. UVS is a UV imaging spectrograph sensitive to both extreme and far ultraviolet emissions in the 70-205~nm range that will characterize the morphology and spectral nature of Jupiter's auroral emissions. Juno UVS consists of two separate sections: a dedicated telescope/spectrograph assembly and a vault electronics box. The telescope/spectrograph assembly contains a telescope which feeds a 0.15-m Rowland circle spectrograph. The telescope has an input aperture 40à 40~mm2 and uses an off-axis parabolic primary mirror. A flat scan mirror situated at the front end of the telescope (used to target specific auroral features at up to ±30° perpendicular to the Juno spin plane) directs incoming light to the primary. The light is then focused onto the spectrograph entrance slit, which has a 'dog- bone' shape 6° long, in three 2° sections of 0.2°, 0.05°, and 0.2° width (projected onto the sky). Light entering the slit is dispersed by a toroidal grating which focuses the UV bandpass onto a curved microchannel plate (MCP) cross delay line (XDL) detector with a solar blind UV- sensitive CsI photocathode, which makes up the instrument's focal plane. Tantalum shielding surrounds the detector assembly to protect the detector and the adjacent detector electronics from high-energy electrons. The main electronics box is located in the Juno vault. Inside are two redundant high-voltage power supplies (HVPS), two redundant low-voltage power supplies, the command and data handling (C&DH) electronics, heater/actuator activation electronics, scan mirror electronics, and event processing electronics. An overview of the UVS design and scientific performance will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Venus ultraviolet oxygen dayglow and aurora: Model comparison with observations
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Hubert, Benoît ULg; Shematovich, V. I. et al

in Planetary and Space Science (2008), 56

We compare the intensity of the OI 130.4 and 135.6 nm emissions calculated using the soft electron precipitation measured on board the Pioneer Venus (PV) Orbiter with the auroral brightness observed with ... [more ▼]

We compare the intensity of the OI 130.4 and 135.6 nm emissions calculated using the soft electron precipitation measured on board the Pioneer Venus (PV) Orbiter with the auroral brightness observed with the ultraviolet spectrometer (OUVS) on board the PV. For this purpose, we use a new electron transport model based on a Monte Carlo implementation of the Boltzmann equation and a multi-stream radiative transfer model to calculate the effects of multiple scattering on the intensity field of the 130.4-nm triplet. We show that the consideration of the enhancement of the emergent 130.4-nm to the 135.6-nm intensity by multiple scattering in the optically thick Venus atmosphere increases the auroral 130.4/135.6 ratio by a factor of about 3. We find agreement with the mean 130.4/135.6 ratio observed with PV-OUVS using the typical suprathermal electron energy spectrum reported from PV in situ measurements showing a characteristic energy of about 14 eV. To account for the average OI auroral emissions, the required precipitated energy flux is 2×10[SUP]-3[/SUP] mW m[SUP]-2[/SUP], that is about 30% of the measured suprathermal night-side soft electron spectrum used as a reference. The calculated brightness of the CO Cameron bands is about twice as large as the weak observed emission, but within the error bars of the observations and the uncertainties of the dissociative excitation cross-section of CO[SUB]2[/SUB]. The electron transport model, coupled with calculations of excitation processes is also applied to an analysis of the FUV oxygen day airglow observations made with PV-OUVS and the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) spectrograph. Comparisons indicate that the model accounts for both the disc-averaged intensities observed with the HUT spectrograph, the limb scans and the 130.4-nm images obtained with PV-OUVS. The relative contribution of resonance scattering of the solar line and photoelectron impact to the excitation of the 130.4-nm triplet depends on the altitude, but is globally dominated by resonance scattering. The intensity of the 130.4-nm dayglow emission does not vary proportionally with the O density in the lower thermosphere, but provides nevertheless a useful tool to remotely probe the atomic oxygen density and its variations. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectral morphology of the X-ray emission from Jupiter's aurorae
Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Galand, M. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2008), 113(A2),

Simultaneous Chandra X-ray and Hubble Space Telescope FUV observations of Jupiter's aurorae carried out in February 2003 have been re-examined to investigate the spatial morphology of the X-ray events in ... [more ▼]

Simultaneous Chandra X-ray and Hubble Space Telescope FUV observations of Jupiter's aurorae carried out in February 2003 have been re-examined to investigate the spatial morphology of the X-ray events in different energy bands. The data clearly show that in the Northern auroral region (in the main auroral oval and the polar cap) events with energy > 2 keV are located at the periphery of those with energy < 2 keV and coincide with FUV bright features. In addition, X-ray spectra extracted from the areas where the two event distributions are concentrated possess different shapes. We associate the > 2 keV events (similar to 45 MW emitted power) with the electron bremsstrahlung component recently revealed by XMM-Newton in the spectra of Jupiter's aurorae, and the < 2 keV emission (similar to 230 MW) with the product of ion charge exchange, now established as the likely mechanism responsible for the soft X-ray Jovian aurora. We suggest that the same population of energetic electrons may be responsible for both, the X-ray bremsstrahlung and the FUV emission of Jupiter's aurorae. Comparison of the > 2 keV X-ray and FUV (340 GW) powers measured during the observations shows that they are broadly consistent with the predicted emissions from a population of energetic electrons precipitating in the planet's atmosphere, thus supporting our interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe morphology of the X-ray emission above 2 keV from Jupiter's aurorae
Elsner, R. F.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Galand, M. et al

Conference (2007, June 25)

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See detailVenus' ultraviolet airglow and aurora: Monte Carlo simulations and comparison with observations
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V. et al

in European Planetary Science Congress 2006 (2006)

The Venus airglow has been observed from spectrometers on board rockets probes and satellites such as OUVS on Pioneer Venus Venera Galileo HUT on the Space Shuttle and quite recently SPICAV on Venus ... [more ▼]

The Venus airglow has been observed from spectrometers on board rockets probes and satellites such as OUVS on Pioneer Venus Venera Galileo HUT on the Space Shuttle and quite recently SPICAV on Venus Express The spectrum is dominated by emissions from helium hydrogen oxygen and carbon lines and CO bands Localized emissions of OI at 1304 and 1356 A have been sporadically observed on the nightside and are likely caused by precipitation of auroral electrons in the wake of the planet We have developed a Monte Carlo code solving the Boltzmann equation for energetic electrons to calculate the energy distribution function and fluxes of primary and secondary auroral electrons and for photoelectrons The model is used to calculate the vertical distribution of the excitation rate of various excited states For optically thick transitions such as the 3P-3S triplet at 1304 A a radiative transfert code is used to calculate the emergent emission rate We find that the relative intensity of the oxygen and CO Cameron band emissions is a sensitive indicator of the energy of auroral electrons The observed values indicate that the mean energy is on the order of 10-50 eV Dayglow intensity and distributions are also compared with observed characteristics [less ▲]

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See detailSpectral Analysis of HST-STIS Observations of Jovian UV Auroral Emissions
Gladstone, G. R.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Gustin, Jacques ULg et al

Conference (2005, August 01)

Spectral observations of Jupiter's far-ultraviolet (FUV) auroral emissions are commonly used to determine a ``color ratio, - defined as I(155-162nm) / I(123-130nm), which provides an estimate for the peak ... [more ▼]

Spectral observations of Jupiter's far-ultraviolet (FUV) auroral emissions are commonly used to determine a ``color ratio, - defined as I(155-162nm) / I(123-130nm), which provides an estimate for the peak emission altitude of the aurora and thus, assuming an accurate model atmosphere, for the mean energy of precipitating electrons. This is because the nascent emission spectrum resulting from electron impact on H[SUB]2[/SUB] is relatively unchanging over a wide range of energy, so that differential absorption by overlying CH[SUB]4[/SUB] is the primary modifier of the spectral shape of the emergent FUV emissions. This method is analogous to that used at Earth, with N[SUB]2[/SUB] LBH auroral emissions instead of H[SUB]2[/SUB] Lyman and Werner bands and differential absorption by O[SUB]2[/SUB] rather than methane. More detailed simulations of Jupiter's FUV auroral spectra can be used to place useful constraints on higher hydrocarbons, such as acetylene and ethane. Here we present a spectral analysis of HST-STIS G140L observations taken in September 1999, which include a region with the largest color ratio yet observed (i.e., the deepest aurora). A non-linear least squares model fit to the data is used to search for the presence of several important overlying hydrocarbons with strong and distinctive FUV absorption cross sections, e.g., CH[SUB]4[/SUB], C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB], C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]4[/SUB], C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]6[/SUB], CH[SUB]3[/SUB]C[SUB]2[/SUB]H, C[SUB]3[/SUB]H[SUB]8[/SUB], C[SUB]4[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB], C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB], and C[SUB]4[/SUB]H[SUB]10[/SUB]. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA through grant NNG05GG97G. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous Chandra X-ray, HST UV, and Ulysses Radio Observations of Jupiter's Aurora
Elsner, R. F.; Bhardwaj, A.; Waite, J. H. et al

Poster (2004)

Observations of Jupiter carried out by the Chandra ACIS-S instrument over 24-26 February, 2003, show that the auroral X-ray spectrum consists of line emission consistent with high-charge states of ... [more ▼]

Observations of Jupiter carried out by the Chandra ACIS-S instrument over 24-26 February, 2003, show that the auroral X-ray spectrum consists of line emission consistent with high-charge states of precipitating ions, and not a continuum as might be expected from bremsstrahlung. The part of the spectrum due to oxygen peaks around 650 eV, which indicates a high fraction of fully-stripped oxygen in the precipitating ion flux. The OVIII emission lines at 653 eV and 774 eV, as well as the OVII emission lines at 561 eV and 666 eV, are clearly identified. There is also line emission at lower energies in the spectral region extending from 250 to 350 eV for which sulfur and carbon lines are possible candidates. The Jovian auroral spectra differ significantly from measured cometary X-ray spectra. The charge state distribution of the oxygen ion emission evident in the measured auroral spectra strongly suggests that, independent of the source of the energetic ions (magnetospheric or solar wind) the ions have undergone additional acceleration. For the magnetospheric case, acceleration to energies exceeding 10 MeV is apparently required. The ion acceleration also helps to explain the high intensities of the X-rays observed. The phase space densities of unaccelerated source populations of either solar wind or magnetospheric ions are orders of magnitude too small to explain the observed emissions. The Chandra X-ray observations were executed simultaneously with observations at ultraviolet wavelengths by the Hubble Space Telescope and at radio wavelengths by the Ulysses spacecraft. These additional data sets provide interesting hints as to the location of the source region and the acceleration characteristics of the generation mechanism. The combined observations suggest that the source of the X rays is magnetospheric in origin, and that strong field-aligned electric fields are present which simultaneously create both the several-MeV energetic ion population and the relativistic electrons believed to be responsible for the generation of 40 minute quasi-periodic radio outbursts. [less ▲]

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See detailSummary of quantitative interpretation of IMAGE far ultraviolet auroral data
Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Immel, T. J. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2003), 109

Direct imaging of the magnetosphere by instruments on the IMAGE spacecraft is supplemented by simultaneous observations of the global aurora in three far ultraviolet (FUV) wavelength bands. The purpose of ... [more ▼]

Direct imaging of the magnetosphere by instruments on the IMAGE spacecraft is supplemented by simultaneous observations of the global aurora in three far ultraviolet (FUV) wavelength bands. The purpose of the multi-wavelength imaging is to study the global auroral particle and energy input from the magnetosphere into the atmosphere. This paper describes the method for quantitative interpretation of FUV measurements. The Wide-Band Imaging Camera (WIC) provides broad band ultraviolet images of the aurora with maximum spatial resolution by imaging the nitrogen lines and bands between 140 and 180 nm wavelength. The Spectrographic Imager (SI), a dual wavelength monochromatic instrument, images both Doppler-shifted Lyman-alpha emissions produced by precipitating protons, in the SI-12 channel and OI 135.6 nm emissions in the SI-13 channel. From the SI-12 Doppler shifted Lyman-alpha images it is possible to obtain the precipitating proton flux provided assumptions are made regarding the mean energy of the protons. Knowledge of the proton (flux and energy) component allows the calculation of the contribution produced by protons in the WIC and SI-13 instruments. Comparison of the corrected WIC and SI-13 signals provides a measure of the electron mean energy, which can then be used to determine the electron energy flux. To accomplish this, reliable emission modeling and instrument calibrations are required. In-flight calibration using early-type stars was used to validate the pre-flight laboratory calibrations and determine long-term trends in sensitivity. In general, very reasonable agreement is found between in-situ measurements and remote quantitative determinations. [less ▲]

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See detailA new FUV auroral feature on Jupiter
Grodent, Denis ULg; Gladstone, G. R.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2003, April 01)

In December 2000, a series of HST/STIS FUV images of Jupiter's north auroral region displayed bright transient spots located near local midnight. In the images taken at CML Ë 220[SUP]o[/SUP] the spots ... [more ▼]

In December 2000, a series of HST/STIS FUV images of Jupiter's north auroral region displayed bright transient spots located near local midnight. In the images taken at CML Ë 220[SUP]o[/SUP] the spots (one or two) appear near the limb, poleward and equatorward of the main auroral oval, at latitude Ë 73[SUP]o[/SUP] and λ[SUB]III[/SUB] longitude Ë 145[SUP]o[/SUP]. The dimensions of each spot are very small, about 1[SUP]o[/SUP] in latitude and 5[SUP]o[/SUP] in longitude, which is about the size of the footprint of the Io satellite. However, the analysis of the position of the Galilean satellites and of known small-bodies (comets, asteroids) shows that these spots are not magnetically associated with any of these objects. The emitted power of the spots is variable and can reach several GW (more than the power emitted at the Io footprint). The lightcurves derived from multiple images are consistent with spots disappearing behind the planetary limb as the planet rotates. In addition, one short time-tagged image undoubtedly shows a bright double--spot feature pulsating with a period of 300 s. According to the VIP4 magnetic model, the auroral spots map along field lines down to the jovian magnetosphere in a small region roughly located near midnight at distances larger than 60~R_J. At these distances, a 1[SUP]o[/SUP] by 5[SUP]o[/SUP] auroral spot subtends an equatorial region smaller than 10~R_J by 10~R_J . Consequently, the auroral spots cannot be directly associated with large scale process involving the whole magnetotail but rather with localized events. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary Results from Recent Simultaneous Chandra/HST Observations of Jupiter Auroral Zones
Elsner, R. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H. et al

Poster (2003)

Jupiter was observed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in late February, 2003, for 144 ks, using both the ACIS-S and HRC-I imaging x-ray cameras. Five orbits of HST STIS observations of the planet's ... [more ▼]

Jupiter was observed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in late February, 2003, for 144 ks, using both the ACIS-S and HRC-I imaging x-ray cameras. Five orbits of HST STIS observations of the planet's northern auroral zone were obtained during the ACIS-S observations. These data are providing a wealth of information about Jupiter's auroral activity, including the first x-ray spectra from the x-ray hot spots inside the auroral ovals. We will also discuss time variability in the auroral x-ray emission and a possible phase relation between the emission from the northern and southern x-ray aurora. [less ▲]

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See detailThe HST Campaign on Jupiter's Aurora during the Cassini Flyby
Clarke, J. T.; Grodent, Denis ULg; Waite, J. H. et al

Conference (2002, July 29)

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See detailThe HST Campaign on Jupiter's Aurora during the Cassini Flyby
Clarke, J. T.; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2002, June 17)

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See detailIMAGE and FAST observations of substorm recovery phase aurora
Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald U; Carlson, Charles W et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2002), 29

Images from the IMAGE Wide-band Imaging Camera (WIC) and Spectrographic Imager (SI) channel SI12, were compared to in situ data taken by FAST. The IMAGE data segment began during the expansive phase of a ... [more ▼]

Images from the IMAGE Wide-band Imaging Camera (WIC) and Spectrographic Imager (SI) channel SI12, were compared to in situ data taken by FAST. The IMAGE data segment began during the expansive phase of a substorm and a double oval configuration evolved, consisting of a set of discrete poleward auroral forms and a separate more diffuse oval. The FAST data showed that a narrow (~1.5° latitude) region of downward currents separated the two ovals. The SI-12 optical observations showed a single oval of precipitating protons located on the equatorward side within the diffuse aurora. In agreement with IMAGE, the highest intensity proton flux measured by FAST was concentrated on the equatorward region although low flux protons were present throughout the entire double oval. In the lower latitude diffuse oval occasional structured auroras were embedded. These structured auroras were mostly created by inverted V type electrons but there were narrow regions in which intense beams of accelerated electrons were seen whose energy/pitch angle distribution and accompanying electric field data were consistent with Alfven wave acceleration. The poleward oval consisted of an intense inverted V precipitation event poleward of which a weak region of Alfven wave accelerated electrons was located. From the images it appears that the Alfven wave accelerated electron event in the diffuse auroral regions and the poleward features were part of short lived or rapidly moving auroral forms. [less ▲]

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See detailChandra X-ray Observations of the Jovian System
Elsner, R. F.; Waite, J. H.; Crary, F. et al

Conference (2002)

High-spatial resolution Chandra x-ray obsrvations have demonstrated that most of Jupiter's northern auroral x-rays come from a hot spot located significantly poleward of the latitudes connected to the ... [more ▼]

High-spatial resolution Chandra x-ray obsrvations have demonstrated that most of Jupiter's northern auroral x-rays come from a hot spot located significantly poleward of the latitudes connected to the inner magnetosphere. This hot spot appears fixed in magnetic latitude and longitude and coincides with a region exhibiting anomalous ultraviolet and infrared emissions. The hot spot also exhibited approximately 45 minute quasi-periodic oscillations, a period similar to those reported for high-latitude radio and energetic electron bursts observed by near-Jupiter spacecraft. These results invalidate the idea that jovian auroral x-ray emissions are mainly excited by steady precipitation of energetic heavy ions from the inner magnetosphere. Instead, the x-rays appear to result from currently unexplained processes in the outer magnetosphere that produce highly localized and highly variable emissions over an extremely wide range of wavelengths. The Chandra observations also revealed for the first time x-ray emission (about 0.1 GW) from the Io Plasma Torus, as well as very faint x-ray emission (about 1-2 MW) from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from the moons is almost certainly due to Kalpha emission of surface atoms (and possibly impact atoms) excited by the impact of highly energetic protons, oxygen, and sulfur atoms and ions from the Torus. The Torus emission is less well understood at present, although bremsstrahlung from the non-thermal tail of the electron distribution may provide a significant fraction. In any case, further observations, already accepted and in the process of being planned, with Chandra, some with the moderate energy resolution of the CCD camera, together with simultaneous Hubble Space Telescope observations and hopefully ground-based IRTF observations should soon provide greater insight into these various processes. [less ▲]

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See detailSoft X-ray emissions from planets, moons, and comets
Bhardwaj, A.; Gladstone, G. R.; Elsner, R. F. et al

Conference (2002)

A wide variety of solar system bodies are now known to radiate in the soft X-ray energy (<5 keV) regime. These include planets (Earth, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Mars): bodies having thick atmospheres, with ... [more ▼]

A wide variety of solar system bodies are now known to radiate in the soft X-ray energy (<5 keV) regime. These include planets (Earth, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Mars): bodies having thick atmospheres, with or without intrinsic magnetic field; planetary satellites (Moon, Io, Europa, Ganymede): bodies with thin or no atmospheres; and comets and Io plasma torus: bodies having extended tenuous atmospheres. Several different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the generation of soft X-rays from these objects, whereas in the hard X-ray energy range (>10 keV) X-rays mainly result from the electron bremsstrahlung process. In this paper we present a brief review of the X-ray observations on each of the planetary bodies and discuss their characteristics and proposed source mechanisms. [less ▲]

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