References of "Gilbert, Bernard"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMerging supercritical carbon dioxide and organocatalysis for the precision and green synthesis of poly(lactide)-based (co)polymers
Grignard, Bruno ULg; De Winter, Julien; Gerbaux, Pascal et al

in European Polymer Journal (in press)

Well-defined poly(lactide)-based block copolymers were synthesized by a heterogeneous solvent and metal-free green approach by using organocatalysts in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). We first ... [more ▼]

Well-defined poly(lactide)-based block copolymers were synthesized by a heterogeneous solvent and metal-free green approach by using organocatalysts in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). We first report on the homopolymerization of both L- and D,L- lactide by organocatalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerization (o-ROP) by using a bicomponent organocatalyst composed of a thiourea derivative and various tertiary amines as cocatalysts. Control over the molar mass and dispersity is achieved until high monomer conversion although the polylactides are insoluble in the polymerization medium. The precision synthesis of PLA-based block copolymers from various CO2-phobic hydroxyl end-capped macroinitiators such as polyethylene glycol, polycaprolactone, polybutylene succinate and polyphosphoester was then reported. Merging scCO2 with this organocatalytic system provides therefore a unique tool for the design under solvent-free conditions of poly(lactide)-based block copolymers that are insoluble in scCO2. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (11 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailMicroplastics found in the stomach contents of Squalius cephalus from the Seine River
Collard, France ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg; Eppe, Gauthier ULg et al

Poster (2017, June)

Microplastics (plastics < 5 mm) are emerging pollutants of growing concern. Since the 2000s their abundance, degradation and impacts on wildlife are more and more studied and understood. However, few data ... [more ▼]

Microplastics (plastics < 5 mm) are emerging pollutants of growing concern. Since the 2000s their abundance, degradation and impacts on wildlife are more and more studied and understood. However, few data are available particularly in freshwater ecosystems. Some fish species have plastic in their stomach contents such as: Gobio gobio, Alburnus alburnus, Leuciscus leuciscus while other species have not. In controlled conditions, microplastics were found to cause negative impacts in fish: leaching of micropollutants, endocrine disruption, hatching inhibition and decrease of growth rate of larvae. The first step in the understanding of these impacts is the quantification and the characterisation of ingested plastics by organisms in the field. Plastics and other anthropogenic particles (textile fibres) were isolated from 40 stomachs of Squalius cephalus (the European chub) collected in the Seine River (Paris) in August 2016. One station is upstream and the three others are downstream of the Paris Megacity conurbation. This megacity exerts a great pressure on the Seine River. Plastics were isolated thanks to a method using sodium hypochlorite and all particles were then analysed by Raman spectroscopy. The method consists in a degradation overnight of the organic matter in the stomach contents by sodium hypochlorite. This mixture is then filtrated and particles longer than 5 µm are resuspended into an ethanol (99%) solution for centrifugation. The precipitate, containing all particles denser than ethanol, is collected (1.3 ml) and spread on a mount for Raman spectroscopy. Several lasers were used, depending on the particle’s colour. Spectra were recorded with an accumulation ranging from 5 to 50s. Preliminary results showed that 7 individuals out of 25 already analysed (28%) had ingested at least one anthropogenic particle (AP). Eight APs were found and characterized, the majority of them (7) being dyed fibres. One of these fibres was made of a plastic polymer, the polyethylene terephthalate. The others were made of an undetermined material as Raman analyses gave only information on the dye. The eighth particle was a fragment of polypropylene. It is the first time that fish are studied as a part of plastic pollution in the Seine River. All isolated particles have been analysed leading to precise results. The percentage of occurrence is in the common range of other studies while much lower than the European flounder coming from the River Thames and higher than fish coming from Geneva Lake. It is not surprising that the majority of APs were fibres as another study in the river Seine found that the fibres concentration in water is far greater than the fragments concentration, as well as in urban runoff. It is also possible that the retention time of fibres in the gut is longer than fragments. Toxicological impacts of fibre ingestion is still unknown despite their ubiquity in many freshwater environments. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 121 (5 ULg)
See detailSimple, cheap but highly efficient organo catalysts for the fixation of CO2 on propargylic alcohols
Ngassam Tounzoua, Charlene Gabriela ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2017, May 04)

In the last years, many efforts have been devoted to the valorisation of CO2 as an abundant and renewable C1 building block for cyclic carbonate synthesis. Many synthetic routes have been proposed to ... [more ▼]

In the last years, many efforts have been devoted to the valorisation of CO2 as an abundant and renewable C1 building block for cyclic carbonate synthesis. Many synthetic routes have been proposed to convert CO2 into five or six-membered cyclic carbonates finding applications as green solvent, electrolytes for Li-ion batteries, intermediates for organic synthesis, monomers for the production of polycarbonates or isocyanate-free synthesis of poly(hydroxyrethane)s, etc. Although the 100% atom economy synthesis of 5-membered cyclic carbonates from CO2 and epoxides/oxetanes has been widely reported in the literature, the carboxylative coupling of CO2 with alkynols remains unexplored. Transition metal-based complexes, organic bases (guanidine, amidine, phosphine), N-heterocyclic carbenes or olefins, and K2CO3 have been proposed as catalysts. However they generally present sufficient activity at high pressure and/or temperature or require a high catalyst loading. Additionally some of them are toxic and/or sensitive to hydrolysis or oxidation. In this work, we designed novel, cheap, easily customizable and highly efficient organocatalysts for the synthesis of cyclic α-methylene carbonates from CO2 and alkynols. Kinetics of the CO2/alkynol coupling reaction were followed by Raman spectroscopy with organocatalysts of different structures, and the best candidate was identified. The main parameters that influenced the system reactivity and selectivity have been identified and will be presented in this poster. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMorphology of the filtration apparatus of three planktivorous fishes and relation with ingested anthropogenic particles
Collard, France ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg; Eppe, Gauthier ULg et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2017)

Anthropogenic particles (APs), including microplastics, are ingested by a wide variety of marine organisms. Exposure of Clupeiformes (e.g. herrings, anchovies, sardines) is poorly studied despite their ... [more ▼]

Anthropogenic particles (APs), including microplastics, are ingested by a wide variety of marine organisms. Exposure of Clupeiformes (e.g. herrings, anchovies, sardines) is poorly studied despite their economic and ecological importance. This study aims to describe the morphology of the filtration apparatus of three wild-caught Clupeiformes (Sardina pilchardus, Clupea harengus and Engraulis encrasicolus) and to relate the results to ingested APs. Consequently, the species with the more efficient filtration apparatus will be more likely to ingest APs. We hypothesized that sardines were the most exposed species. The filtration area and particle retention threshold were determined in the three species, with sardines displaying the highest filtration area and the closest gill rakers. Sardines ingested more fibers and smaller fragments, confirming that it is the most efficient filtering species. These two results lead to the conclusion that, among the three studied, the sardine is the species most exposed to APs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 203 (8 ULg)
See detailRaman imaging for diagnostic application
Malherbe, Cédric ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg; Eppe, Gauthier ULg

Poster (2016, December 19)

Specific dynamic biochemical compositions and molecular structures characterise healthy cells and tissues. This also stands for pathologies or cellular abnormalities which are accompanied by biochemical ... [more ▼]

Specific dynamic biochemical compositions and molecular structures characterise healthy cells and tissues. This also stands for pathologies or cellular abnormalities which are accompanied by biochemical and molecular changes. Raman spectroscopy can provide unique inputs to correlate the molecular composition and its variations with the diagnosis. In addition, the presence of metal nanoparticles in the molecule vicinity induces a remarkable enhancement (up to 1000000 times) of the Raman signal of small molecules (known as SERS effect). It opens towards applications in the field of trace analysis. In preparation for clinical applications, we evaluate, by Raman mapping, the signal detected from a SERS target deposited on solid state support. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (6 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailMicroplastics Contamination in Three Planktivorous and Commercial Fish Species
Collard, France ULg; Das, Krishna ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg et al

in Fate and Impact of Microplastics in Marine Ecosystems - From the Coastline to the Open Sea (2016, December 02)

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPolyhydroxyurethane hydrogels: synthesis and characterizations
Gennen, Sandro ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in European Polymer Journal (2016), 84

Hydrogels based on polyurethane (PU) are promising (bio-) materials because of their bio- compatibility, biodegradation and excellent mechanical properties. In this publication, polyurethane hydrogels ... [more ▼]

Hydrogels based on polyurethane (PU) are promising (bio-) materials because of their bio- compatibility, biodegradation and excellent mechanical properties. In this publication, polyurethane hydrogels were produced for the first time by a non-isocyanate route by solvent-free step-growth copolymerization between a CO2-sourced hydrophilic polyethy- lene glycol bi-cyclic carbonate with diamines in the presence of a cross-linker. Kinetic of poly(hydroxyurethane) (PHU) synthesis was monitored by ATR-IR and the chemical cross-linking was confirmed by rheology and gel contents measurements. Hydrogels were obtained by immersion of PHUs in water and the influence of the diamine/cross-linker ratio and the nature of diamine on the water swelling and compression properties (compression modulus, strain and stress at break) of PHU hydrogels was evaluated. Additionally, the compression properties of the hydrogels were improved by the addition of Montmorillonite as nanofiller in the PHU formulation. This work opens new application fields for CO2-sourced PHUs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (22 ULg)
See detailSynthesis and characterization of non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) hydrogels
Gennen, Sandro ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

Poster (2016, October 13)

Due to its good biocompatibility, biodegradation and excellent mechanical properties, polyurethane (PU) is a material of choice for biomedical applications (gloves, tubing, artificial membranes…) and, as ... [more ▼]

Due to its good biocompatibility, biodegradation and excellent mechanical properties, polyurethane (PU) is a material of choice for biomedical applications (gloves, tubing, artificial membranes…) and, as hydrogels, it was used as wound dressing, soft contact lenses, drug delivery systems and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Classically, PU are synthesized by a step-growth polymerization between poly (di-)ols and poly (di-) isocyanates. Due to the toxicity of isocyanates, REACH regulations have changed and, today, there is a need to develop greener and safer route to produce isocyanate-free PUs. This contribution focus on the synthesis of NIPU hydrogels by copolymerizing a bifunctional CO2-sourced hydrophilic PEG bi-cyclic carbonate with diamines in presence of a cross- linker. The PEG bi-cyclic carbonates was prepared via a CO2/epoxide coupling reactions using a new efficient organocatalytic system based on the use of an ammonium salt (TBAI) in combination with a fluorinated alcohol. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 112 (7 ULg)
See detailSynthesis and characterizations of non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) hydrogels
Gennen, Sandro ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

Poster (2016, September 12)

Polyurethane (PU) is on of the most used polymers for the preparation of hydrogels due to its good biocompatibility, biodegradation and excellent mechanical properties. PU hydrogels are found in lot of ... [more ▼]

Polyurethane (PU) is on of the most used polymers for the preparation of hydrogels due to its good biocompatibility, biodegradation and excellent mechanical properties. PU hydrogels are found in lot of applications such as wound dressing, soft contact lenses, drug delivery and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Classicaly, PU is produced by a step-growth polymerization between diols and diisocyanates. However, in order to avoid the use of harmful isocyanates compounds and because of regulations which tend to ban the use of isocyanates, we developed hydrogels based on a non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) chemistry by valorizing CO2-sourced cyclic carbonates and amines. Precisely, NIPU hydrogels were prepared by a solvent-free copolymerization between bifunctional hydrophilic polyethylene glycol cyclic carbonates and diamines in presence of a triamine as a crosslinker, followed by a water swelling of the obtained cross-linked gel. Parameters such as the cross-linking ratio and diamine’s nature were optimized. Different clay contents (cloiste 30B) as nanofiller were dispersed in the ideal cyclic carbonate/diamine/triamine formulation prior polymerization in order to reinforce the compression properties of NIPU hydrogels. Finaly, we were able to prepare NIPU hydrogels with water content up to 80 % and good compression properties using low clay content. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 107 (9 ULg)
See detailValorization of CO2 for the preparation of advanced materials
Gennen, Sandro ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

Conference (2016, July 07)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (7 ULg)
See detailSynthesis of CO2-sourced hydrogels by using the non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) chemistry
Gennen, Sandro ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

Poster (2016, May 23)

Polyurethane (PUs) is one of the most important polymers and finds applications as elastomers, coatings, adhesives and sealants for automotive or construction. PU is also a material of choice in the ... [more ▼]

Polyurethane (PUs) is one of the most important polymers and finds applications as elastomers, coatings, adhesives and sealants for automotive or construction. PU is also a material of choice in the biomedical domain due to its good biocompatibility, biodegradation and mechanical properties. Especially, PUs hydrogels have been developed in the last years for biomedical applications such as soft contact lenses, wound dressing, drug delivery systems and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Traditionally, PUs are synthesized by a step-growth polymerization between diols and diisocyanates. Because of toxicity issues and a possible interdiction of isocyanates, we focused on developing new PU hydrogels using a non-isocyanate route (Figure 1). The polyurethanes formed by this route are called NIPU (for Non-Isocyanate PolyUrethane). Firstly, chemically cross-linked NIPU gels were synthesized by solvent-free polycondensation between a hydrophilic CO2-sourced polyethyleneglycol bi-cyclic carbonate and a diamine in the presence of a crosslinker. Then, NIPU gels were swelled in water till water equilibrium before characterization of their mechanical properties by compression tests. The influence of the cross-linking ratios (diamine/crosslinker ratio) and diamine structure on the swelling and the compression properties were studied. To reinforce the compression properties of NIPU hydrogel (increase in stress at break, strain at break and compression modulus), a nanofiller was dispersed in the cyclic carbonate/diamine/crosslinker formulation prior to polymerization. For the first time, nanocomposite NIPU hydrogels with high water contents (up to 80%) and good compression properties have been prepared by using low clay content. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 177 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMicroplastics contamination in three planktivorous and commercial fish species
Collard, France ULg; Das, Krishna ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2016, May)

In 2014, 311 million tonnes of plastics were produced worldwide while it is estimated that 10% ended up in the oceans. Plastics adsorb many pollutants, cause entanglements in many vertebrates and provoke ... [more ▼]

In 2014, 311 million tonnes of plastics were produced worldwide while it is estimated that 10% ended up in the oceans. Plastics adsorb many pollutants, cause entanglements in many vertebrates and provoke blockage of the digestive tract of marine mammals, birds and turtles. Plastics also fragment in smaller parts, forming microplastics (<5 mm). These microplastics have the same size than planktonic organisms and can thus be ingested by filter-feeders and planktivorous organisms including fish. Although planktivorous Clupeiforme species are the most fished species in the world (17 million tonnes in 2013), the possible impact of microplastic ingestion on this group has received little attention. The aim of this study was to quantify and to characterize the ingested anthropogenic particles (AP) in herrings (Clupea harengus), sardines (Sardina pilchardus) and anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus). Twenty individuals of each species were sampled. Herrings and sardines were caught in the Channel and in the North Sea in January 2013 and in January 2014. Anchovies were sampled in July 2013. The stomach contents were digested by sodium hypochlorite to isolate AP and then they were analysed by Raman spectroscopy and measured. AP were constituted of microplastics (MP) and cellulose fibres, sometimes associated with dyes. We found several plastic families: polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene, polyacrylonitrile, polyethylene terephthalate, polyamide and poly(butyl methacrylate). MP occurred in 35%, 50% and 40% of stomach contents of anchovies, sardines and herrings, respectively. Anchovies ingested bigger AP (2 mm) than the two other species. MP was in majority PE followed by PP. Our study shows that highly commercial species are exposed to MP. Further research is needed as MP are transport medium for organic pollutants and their fate once in the organism is unknown. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 256 (7 ULg)
See detailCO2-based sustainable polymers: from CO2-sourced monomers to low CO2 emission foamed materials
Grignard, Bruno ULg; Gennen, Sandro ULg; Alves, Margot ULg et al

Conference (2016, April)

Due to concerns about the climate change combined with the decrease of fossil resources, the use of CO2 as a C1 feedstock for producing added value chemicals and materials has become a huge challenge in ... [more ▼]

Due to concerns about the climate change combined with the decrease of fossil resources, the use of CO2 as a C1 feedstock for producing added value chemicals and materials has become a huge challenge in academic laboratories and in industry. The coupling of CO2 with epoxide has emerged as one of the most promising way to convert CO2 into cyclic carbonates finding application as green solvents or electrolyte for batteries. Interestingly, these cyclic carbonates can also be valorised as monomers to produce new non-isocyanate polyurethanes by step-growth polymerization with amines. Polyurethane (PU) is one of the most important polymers in our everyday life with numerous applications such as thermosets, thermoplastics, elastomers, adhesives, sealants, coatings, rigid and flexible foams for wellness or acoustic and/or thermal insulation. In this talk, we will discuss the preparation of all green bio- and CO2-sourced non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) microcellular foams with thermal insulation properties by using an eco-efficient process based on the supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) foaming technology. This talk will be divided in three sections: The synthesis of CO2-sourced cyclic carbonates by coupling CO2 with epoxides using a new highly-efficient bicomponent homogeneous organocatalyst combining the use of an ammonium salt as the catalyst and a fluorinated hydrogen bond donor activator that allows the fast and solvent-free coupling of CO2 with (biosourced) epoxides under mild experimental conditions. The synthesis of (bio- and) CO2-sourced isocyanates-free PUs by melt step-growth copolymerization, eliminating the toxicological issues associated to the conventional synthesis of polyurethanes from diols and isocyanates. The foaming of NIPUs by exploiting the scCO2 foaming technology. By finely choosing the appropriate CO2 impregnation and foaming conditions, thermally insulating CO2-blown microcellular NIPUs foams were produced. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 199 (6 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailUn manuscrit de l’entourage de Noël Bellemare sous le microscope : analyse du ms. W 29 de l’Université de Liège
Oger, Cécile ULg; L'Estrange, Elizabeth; Gilbert, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2016, February 26)

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComprehensive study of the thermo-reversibility of Diels-Alder based PCL polymer networks
Defize, Thomas ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Alexandre, Michaël et al

in Polymer (2016), 84

Chemical crosslinking is an efficient tool to improve or impart new properties to conventional polymers. Especially, crosslinking imparts remarkable shapeememory properties to poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL ... [more ▼]

Chemical crosslinking is an efficient tool to improve or impart new properties to conventional polymers. Especially, crosslinking imparts remarkable shapeememory properties to poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) materials. Nevertheless, the processing of networks is often tricky due to infusibility and insolubility of cross-linked chains. Therefore, the synthesis of PCL networks including thermo-reversible crosslinks based on (retro)-Diels-Alder (DA) reaction were developed to allowpreserving the melt-processing while keeping the required mechanical properties below the melting point. This paper aims at studying in depth, such thermo-dependent network formation and stability. Besides conventional swelling experi- ments, Raman spectroscopy was revealed as a powerful tool to follow the formation of the DA adduct during the crosslinking. In combination with rheological measurements, we were able to determine the most appropriate temperatures to form the network (DA crosslinking) and to process it (retro-DA re- action) without degradation of the material. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (7 ULg)
See detailOrganocatalytic coupling of carbon dioxide with epoxides: the unexpected booster effect of fluoroalcohols
Grignard, Bruno ULg; Gennen, Sandro ULg; Alves, Margot ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 19)

Valorising CO2 as a C1 feedstock for producing added value building blocks is seducing as it is a free and in exhaustive waste resulting from human activity. Carbon dioxide is a thermodynamically and ... [more ▼]

Valorising CO2 as a C1 feedstock for producing added value building blocks is seducing as it is a free and in exhaustive waste resulting from human activity. Carbon dioxide is a thermodynamically and kinetically stable molecule that can be converted into cyclic carbonates by coupling with epoxides. Cyclic carbonates are valuable products that find applications as solvents, electrolytes or as monomers for polyurethanes synthesis. Although the CO2/epoxide coupling reaction has been extensively studied, the development of organocatalysts that are highly efficient under mild experimental conditions still remains a challenge. Onium salts are the most common catalysts that show reasonable catalytic activity at high pressure (> 100 bars) and high temperature (> 100°C) only. Fortunately, the efficiency of these organocatalysts can be improved by addition of appropriate hydrogen bond donors activators (HBD). In this talk, we will report the development of a new highly efficient catalytic platform consisting in an onium halide salt combined with HBD activators for the fast and solvent-free synthesis of cyclic carbonates by coupling CO2 with epoxides. The cocatalytic effect of series of HBDs will be demonstrated by detailed online kinetics studies under pressure using Raman or IR spectroscopy. We will show that our new organocatalytic platform facilitates the fast conversion of epoxy groups into cyclic carbonates under mild experimental conditions, and can be easily implemented to the modification of epoxidized vegetable oils. The synergistic effects between HBDs and onium salt will be highlighted by a detailed mechanistic study of the reaction through DFT calculations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (4 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailAnthropogenic particles in stomachs of anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) related to gill rakers morphology
Collard, France ULg; Das, Krishna ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2015, October)

Anthropogenic debris (AD) contaminate oceans and affect marine organisms in several ways. Plastic production is constantly increasing and it is estimated that 10% of this production end in the seas. As a ... [more ▼]

Anthropogenic debris (AD) contaminate oceans and affect marine organisms in several ways. Plastic production is constantly increasing and it is estimated that 10% of this production end in the seas. As a consequence, plastic is considered as an emerging contaminant and ingestions by organisms are increasingly reported. Microdebris (< 5mm) are available for a high range of organisms, including planktivorous fish, such as the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus). Planktivorous fish have a particular gill basket, with long and tight gill rakers, related to their diet. Upon these gill rakers, small structures called denticles are present. These gill rakers act as a net to trap organic particles and AD. The aim of our study was to correlate sizes of AD ingested with the mesh constituted by the gill rakers and associated structures. Fifteen stomach contents were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and particles were measured. Five gill arches were observed with a scanning electron microscope. Cellulose fibers and microplastics were the most AD ingested. Comparing to other Clupeiformes (pilchard and Atlantic herring), anchovies have more denticles on each gill rakers (personal data). AD ingestion by fish is poorly studied and impacts of AD are not much understood. Clupeiformes play a major role in marine ecosystems and is the most consumed order by humans. As the branchial basket constitutes a food selective apparatus, more morphological studies dealing with AD ingestion on Clupeiformes are needed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAnthropogenic particles in stomachs of anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) related to gill rakers morphology
Collard, France ULg; Das, Krishna ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg et al

in Proceedings of In the Wake of Plastics, Venice, October 13-15, 2015 (2015, October)

Anthropogenic debris (AB) contaminate oceans and affect marine organisms in several ways. Plastic production is constantly increasing and it is estimated that 10% of this production end in the seas. As a ... [more ▼]

Anthropogenic debris (AB) contaminate oceans and affect marine organisms in several ways. Plastic production is constantly increasing and it is estimated that 10% of this production end in the seas. As a consequence, plastic is considered as an emerging contaminant and ingestions by organisms are increasingly reported. Microdebris (< 5mm) are available for a high range of organisms, including planktivorous fish, such as the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus). Planktivorous fish have a particular gill basket, with long and tight gill rakers, related to their diet. Upon these gill rakers, small structures called denticles are present. These gill rakers act as a net to trap organic particles and AB. The aim of our study was to correlate sizes of AB ingested with the mesh constituted by the gill rakers and associated structures. Fifteen stomach contents were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and particles were measured. Five gill arches were observed with a scanning electron microscope. Cellulose fibers and microplastics were the most AB ingested. Comparing to other Clupeiformes (pilchard and Atlantic herring), anchovies have more denticles on each gill rakers (personal data). AB ingestion by fish is poorly studied and impacts of AB are not much understood. Clupeiformes play a major role in marine ecosystems and is the most consumed order by humans. As the branchial basket constitutes a food selective apparatus, more morphological studies dealing with AB ingestion on Clupeiformes are needed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 131 (8 ULg)