References of "Genzel, R"
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See detailThe role of host galaxy for the environmental dependence of active nuclei in local galaxies
Davies, R. I.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Erwin, P. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 466

We discuss the environment of local hard X-ray selected active galaxies, with reference to two independent group catalogues. We find that the fraction of these AGN in S0 host galaxies decreases strongly ... [more ▼]

We discuss the environment of local hard X-ray selected active galaxies, with reference to two independent group catalogues. We find that the fraction of these AGN in S0 host galaxies decreases strongly as a function of galaxy group size (halo mass) - which contrasts with the increasing fraction of galaxies of S0 type in denser environments. However, there is no evidence for an environmental dependence of AGN in spiral galaxies. Because most AGN are found in spiral galaxies, this dilutes the signature of environmental dependence for the population as a whole. We argue that the differing results for AGN in disc-dominated and bulge-dominated galaxies are related to the source of the gas fuelling the AGN, and so may also impact the luminosity function, duty cycle and obscuration. We find that there is a significant difference in the luminosity function for AGN in spiral and S0 galaxies, and tentative evidence for some difference in the fraction of obscured AGN. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the relation of optical obscuration and X-ray absorption in Seyfert galaxies
Burtscher, L.; Davies, R. I.; Graciá-Carpio, J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 586

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See detailThick discs, and an outflow, of dense gas in the nuclei of nearby Seyfert galaxies
Lin, M.-Y.; Davies, R. I.; Burtscher, L. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 458

We discuss the dense molecular gas in central regions of nearby Seyfert galaxies, and report new arcsec resolution observations of HCN (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0) for three objects. In NGC 3079, the lines show ... [more ▼]

We discuss the dense molecular gas in central regions of nearby Seyfert galaxies, and report new arcsec resolution observations of HCN (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0) for three objects. In NGC 3079, the lines show complex profiles as a result of self-absorption and saturated continuum absorption. H13CN reveals the continuum absorption profile, with a peak close to the galaxy's systemic velocity that traces disc rotation, and a second feature with a blue wing extending to -350 km s-1 that most likely traces a nuclear outflow. The morphological and spectral properties of the emission lines allow us to constrain the dense gas dynamics. We combine our kinematic analysis for these three objects, as well as another with archival data, with a previous comparable analysis of four other objects, to create a sample of eight Seyferts. In seven of these, the emission line kinematics imply thick disc structures on radial scales of ˜100 pc, suggesting such structures are a common occurrence. We find a relation between the circum-nuclear LHCN and Mdyn that can be explained by a gas fraction of 10 per cent and a conversion factor αHCN ˜ 10 between gas mass and HCN luminosity. Finally, adopting a different perspective to probe the physical properties of the gas around active galactic nuclei, we report on an analysis of molecular line ratios which indicates that the clouds in this region are not self-gravitating. [less ▲]

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See detailConstraints on the broad-line region properties and extinction in local Seyferts
Schnorr-Müller, A.; Davies, R. I.; Korista, K. T. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 462

We use high-spectral resolution (R > 8000) data covering 3800-13 000 Å to study the physical conditions of the broad-line region (BLR) of nine nearby Seyfert 1 galaxies. Up to six broad H I lines are ... [more ▼]

We use high-spectral resolution (R > 8000) data covering 3800-13 000 Å to study the physical conditions of the broad-line region (BLR) of nine nearby Seyfert 1 galaxies. Up to six broad H I lines are present in each spectrum. A comparison - for the first time using simultaneous optical to near-infrared observations - to photoionization calculations with our devised simple scheme yields the extinction to the BLR at the same time as determining the density and photon flux, and hence distance from the nucleus, of the emitting gas. This points to a typical density for the H I emitting gas of 1011 cm-3 and shows that a significant amount of this gas lies at regions near the dust sublimation radius, consistent with theoretical predictions. We also confirm that in many objects, the line ratios are far from case B, the best-fitting intrinsic broad-line Hα/H β ratios being in the range 2.5-6.6 as derived with our photoionization modelling scheme. The extinction to the BLR, based on independent estimates from H I and He II lines, is AV ≤ 3 for Seyfert 1-1.5s, while Seyfert 1.8-1.9s have AV in the range 4-8. A comparison of the extinction towards the BLR and narrow-line region (NLR) indicates that the structure obscuring the BLR exists on scales smaller than the NLR. This could be the dusty torus, but dusty nuclear spirals or filaments could also be responsible. The ratios between the X-ray absorbing column NH and the extinction to the BLR are consistent with the Galactic gas-to-dust ratio if NH variations are considered. [less ▲]

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See detailInsights on the Dusty Torus and Neutral Torus from Optical and X-Ray Obscuration in a Complete Volume Limited Hard X-Ray AGN Sample
Davies, R. I.; Burtscher, L.; Rosario, D. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2015), 806

We describe a complete volume limited sample of nearby active galaxies selected by their 14-195 keV luminosity, and outline its rationale for studying the mechanisms regulating gas inflow and outflow. We ... [more ▼]

We describe a complete volume limited sample of nearby active galaxies selected by their 14-195 keV luminosity, and outline its rationale for studying the mechanisms regulating gas inflow and outflow. We also describe a complementary sample of inactive galaxies, selected to match the host galaxy properties. The active sample appears to have no bias in terms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) type, the only difference being the neutral absorbing column, which is two orders of magnitude greater for the Seyfert 2s. In the luminosity range spanned by the sample, log {{L}14-195 keV}[erg\{{s}-1}]=42.4-43.7, the optically obscured and X-ray absorbed fractions are 50%-65%. The similarity of these fractions to more distant spectroscopic AGN samples, although over a limited luminosity range, suggests that the torus does not strongly evolve with redshift. Our sample confirms that X-ray unabsorbed Seyfert 2s are rare, comprising not more than a few percent of the Seyfert 2 population. At higher luminosities, the optically obscured fraction decreases (as expected for the increasing dust sublimation radius), but the X-ray absorbed fraction changes little. We argue that the cold X-ray absorption in these Seyfert 1s can be accounted for by neutral gas in clouds that also contribute to the broad-line region (BLR) emission, and suggest that a geometrically thick neutral gas torus co-exists with the BLR and bridges the gap to the dusty torus. [less ▲]

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See detailObscuration in active galactic nuclei: near-infrared luminosity relations and dust colors
Burtscher, L.; Orban De Xivry, Gilles ULiege; Davies, R. I. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 578

We combine two approaches to isolate the AGN luminosity at near-IR wavelengths and relate the near-IR pure AGN luminosity to other tracers of the AGN. Using integral-field spectroscopic data of an ... [more ▼]

We combine two approaches to isolate the AGN luminosity at near-IR wavelengths and relate the near-IR pure AGN luminosity to other tracers of the AGN. Using integral-field spectroscopic data of an archival sample of 51 local AGNs, we estimate the fraction of non-stellar light by comparing the nuclear equivalent width of the stellar 2.3 μm CO absorption feature with the intrinsic value for each galaxy. We compare this fraction to that derived from a spectral decomposition of the integrated light in the central arcsecond and find them to be consistent with each other. Using our estimates of the near-IR AGN light, we find a strong correlation with presumably isotropic AGN tracers. We show that a significant offset exists between type 1 and type 2 sources in the sense that type 1 sources are 7 (10) times brighter in the near-IR at log lmir{} = 42.5 (log lx{} = 42.5). These offsets only become clear when treating infrared type 1 sources as type 1 AGNs. All AGNs have very red near- to mid-IR dust colors. This, as well as the range of observed near-IR temperatures, can be explained with a simple model with only two free parameters: the obscuration to the hot dust and the ratio between the warm and hot dust areas. We find obscurations of AV^hot = 5 ldots 15 mag for infrared type 1 sources and AV^hot = 15 ldots 35 mag for type 2 sources. The ratio of hot dust to warm dust areas of about 1000 is nicely consistent with the ratio of radii of the respective regions as found by infrared interferometry. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical properties of dense molecular gas in centres of Seyfert galaxies
Sani, E.; Davies, R.; Sternberg, A. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2012)

We present new ˜1 arcsec resolution data of the dense molecular gas in the central 50-100 pc of four nearby Seyfert galaxies. Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) observations of HCN and, in two of the ... [more ▼]

We present new ˜1 arcsec resolution data of the dense molecular gas in the central 50-100 pc of four nearby Seyfert galaxies. Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) observations of HCN and, in two of the four sources, simultaneously HCO+ allow us to carefully constrain the dynamical state of the dense gas surrounding the active galactic nuclei (AGN). The analysis of the kinematics shows large line widths of 100-200 km s-1 full width at half-maximum (FWHM) that can only partially arise from beam smearing of the velocity gradient. The observed morphological and kinematic parameters (dimensions, major axis position angle, red and blue channel separation, and integrated line width) are well reproduced by a thick disc, where the emitting dense gas has a large intrinsic dispersion (20-40 km s-1), implying that it exists at significant scale heights (25-30 per cent of the disc radius). To put the observed kinematics in the context of the starburst and AGN evolution, we estimate the Toomre Q parameter. We find this is always greater than the critical value, i.e. Q is above the limit such that the gas is stable against rapid star formation. This is supported by the lack of direct evidence, in these four Seyfert galaxies, for on-going star formation close around the AGN. Instead, any current star formation tends to be located in a circumnuclear ring. We conclude that the physical conditions are indeed not suited to star formation within the central ˜100 pc. [less ▲]

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See detailARGOS: the laser guide star system for the LBT
Rabien, S.; Ageorges, N.; Barl, L. et al

in Adaptive Optics Systems II (2010)

ARGOS is the Laser Guide Star adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope. Aiming for a wide field adaptive optics correction, ARGOS will equip both sides of LBT with a multi laser beacon ... [more ▼]

ARGOS is the Laser Guide Star adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope. Aiming for a wide field adaptive optics correction, ARGOS will equip both sides of LBT with a multi laser beacon system and corresponding wavefront sensors, driving LBT's adaptive secondary mirrors. Utilizing high power pulsed green lasers the artificial beacons are generated via Rayleigh scattering in earth's atmosphere. ARGOS will project a set of three guide stars above each of LBT's mirrors in a wide constellation. The returning scattered light, sensitive particular to the turbulence close to ground, is detected in a gated wavefront sensor system. Measuring and correcting the ground layers of the optical distortions enables ARGOS to achieve a correction over a very wide field of view. Taking advantage of this wide field correction, the science that can be done with the multi object spectrographs LUCIFER will be boosted by higher spatial resolution and strongly enhanced flux for spectroscopy. Apart from the wide field correction ARGOS delivers in its ground layer mode, we foresee a diffraction limited operation with a hybrid Sodium laser Rayleigh beacon combination. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Dusty Young Universe: photometry and spectroscopy of quasars at z > 2
Meisenheimer, K.; Hutsemekers, Damien ULiege; Tacconi, L. et al

Poster (2007)

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See detailThe Dusty Young Universe
Meisenheimer, K.; Dannerbauer, H.; Klaas, U. et al

Poster (2007)

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See detailGCIRS 16SW: A massive eclipsing binary in the Galactic center
Martins, F.; Trippe, S.; Paumard, T. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2006), 649(2, Part 2), 103-106

We report on the spectroscopic monitoring of GCIRS 16SW, an Ofpe/WN9 star and LBV candidate in the central parsec of the Galaxy. SINFONI observations show strong daily spectroscopic changes in the K band ... [more ▼]

We report on the spectroscopic monitoring of GCIRS 16SW, an Ofpe/WN9 star and LBV candidate in the central parsec of the Galaxy. SINFONI observations show strong daily spectroscopic changes in the K band. Radial velocities are derived from the He I 2.112 mu m line complex and vary regularly with a period of 19.45 days, indicating that the star is most likely an eclipsing binary. Under various assumptions, we are able to derive a mass of similar to 50 M circle dot for each component. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS): the final band-merged catalogue
Rowan-Robinson, M.; Lari, C.; Perez-Fournon, I. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2004), 351

We present the final band-merged European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) Catalogue at 6.7, 15, 90 and 175 μm, and the associated data at U, g', r', i', Z, J, H, K and 20 cm. The origin of the survey ... [more ▼]

We present the final band-merged European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) Catalogue at 6.7, 15, 90 and 175 μm, and the associated data at U, g', r', i', Z, J, H, K and 20 cm. The origin of the survey, infrared and radio observations, data-reduction and optical identifications are briefly reviewed, and a summary of the area covered and the completeness limit for each infrared band is given. A detailed discussion of the band-merging and optical association strategy is given. The total Catalogue consists of 3762 sources. 23 per cent of the 15-μm sources and 75 per cent of the 6.7-μm sources are stars. For extragalactic sources observed in three or more infrared bands, colour-colour diagrams are presented and discussed in terms of the contributing infrared populations. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are shown for selected sources and compared with cirrus, M82 and Arp220 starburst, and active galactic nuclei (AGN) dust torus models. Spectroscopic redshifts are tabulated, where available. For the N1 and N2 areas, the Isaac Newton Telescope ugriz Wide Field Survey permits photometric redshifts to be estimated for galaxies and quasars. These agree well with the spectroscopic redshifts, within the uncertainty of the photometric method [~10 per cent in (1 +z) for galaxies]. The redshift distribution is given for selected ELAIS bands and colour-redshift diagrams are discussed. There is a high proportion of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (log[SUB]10[/SUB] of 1-1000 μm luminosity L[SUB]ir[/SUB] > 12.22) in the ELAIS Catalogue (14 per cent of 15-μm galaxies with known z), many with Arp220-like SEDs. 10 per cent of the 15-μm sources are genuine optically blank fields to r'= 24: these must have very high infrared-to-optical ratios and probably have z > 0.6, so are high-luminosity dusty starbursts or Type 2 AGN. Nine hyperluminous infrared galaxies (L[SUB]ir[/SUB] > 13.22) and nine extremely red objects (EROs) (r-K > 6) are found in the survey. The latter are interpreted as ultraluminous dusty infrared galaxies at z~ 1. The large numbers of ultraluminous galaxies imply very strong evolution in the star formation rate between z= 0 and 1. There is also a surprisingly large population of luminous (L[SUB]ir[/SUB] > 11.5), cool (cirrus-type SEDs) galaxies, with L[SUB]ir[/SUB]-L[SUB]opt[/SUB] > 0, implying A[SUB]V[/SUB] > 1. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Large Area ISO Survey - I. Goals, definition and observations
Oliver, Seb; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Alexander, D. M. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2000), 316

We describe the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). ELAIS was the largest single Open Time project conducted by ISO, mapping an area of 12deg[SUP]2[/SUP] at 15μm with ISOCAM and at 90μm with ISOPHOT ... [more ▼]

We describe the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). ELAIS was the largest single Open Time project conducted by ISO, mapping an area of 12deg[SUP]2[/SUP] at 15μm with ISOCAM and at 90μm with ISOPHOT. Secondary surveys in other ISO bands were undertaken by the ELAIS team within the fields of the primary survey, with 6deg[SUP]2[/SUP] being covered at 6.7μm and 1deg[SUP]2[/SUP] at 175μm. This paper discusses the goals of the project and the techniques employed in its construction, as well as presenting details of the observations carried out, the data from which are now in the public domain. We outline the ELAIS `preliminary analysis' which led to the detection of over 1000 sources from the 15 and 90-μm surveys (the majority selected at 15μm with a flux limit of ~3mJy), to be fed into a ground-based follow-up campaign, as well as a programme of photometric observations of detected sources using both ISOCAM and ISOPHOT. We detail how the ELAIS survey complements other ISO surveys in terms of depth and areal coverage, and show that the extensive multi-wavelength coverage of the ELAIS fields resulting from our concerted and on-going follow-up programme has made these regions amongst the best studied areas of their size in the entire sky, and, therefore, natural targets for future surveys. This paper accompanies the release of extremely reliable subsets of the `preliminary analysis' products. Subsequent papers in this series will give further details of our data reduction techniques, reliability and completeness estimates and present the 15- and 90-μm number counts from the `preliminary analysis', while a further series of papers will discuss in detail the results from the ELAIS `final analysis', as well as from the follow-up programme. [less ▲]

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