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See detailAvis n°44 du 23 juin 2008 relatif à l'inhibition de la croissance d'enfants très sévèrement handicapés mentalement
Hiele, M.; Genicot, G.; Mortier, F. et al

Report (2008)

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See detailSet up of a serum-free culture system for bovine embryos: embryo development and quality before and after transient transfer
George, F.; Daniaux, C.; Génicot, G. et al

in Theriogenology (2008), 69

It is well known that serum in culture medium negatively affects blastocyst quality. The objective of this work was to develop and test a serum-free culture medium which could improve embryo quality ... [more ▼]

It is well known that serum in culture medium negatively affects blastocyst quality. The objective of this work was to develop and test a serum-free culture medium which could improve embryo quality, measured by the resistance to freezing, lipid and glutathione content of the resulting blastocysts, as well as the ability of the blastocysts to elongate after transient transfer to recipient cows. In a first experiment we showed that adding a mixture of insulin, transferrin and selenium to serum-free Synthetic Oviduct Fluid medium (SOF–ITS) improved embryo development and quality. In the second experiment, the addition of BSA to SOF–ITS further improved blastocyst development. Moreover, a reduction in lipid content of morulae was observed in SOF–ITS–BSA by comparison with morulae cultured with serum (SOF–FCS). The resistance to freezing measured by hatching rates 24 h postthawing was also improved for blastocysts with a diameter between 160 and 180 mm cultured in SOF–ITS–BSA by comparison to those produced with serum. In order to evaluate the redox potential of the embryos, reduced glutathione content (GSH) was evaluated both before and after cryopreservation. A significant decrease in glutathione was observed after freezing, whatever the culture medium, but no difference was observed between culture conditions. Transient transfers were performed and elongated D- 13 embryos were recovered. Elongation was more pronounced and the embryonic disk more often visible in embryos cultured in SOF–ITS–BSA than in embryos cultured with FCS. In conclusion, the serum-free system we developed to produce in vitro bovine embryos meets the developmental and qualitative requirements for a large-scale use. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of ovum pick-up frequency and FSH stimulation: a retrospective study on seven years of beef cattle in vitro embryo production.
De Roover, R.; Feugang, J. M.; Bols, P. E. J. et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2008), 43(2), 239-245

The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the number of follicles, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and cultured In Vitro Produced (IVP) embryos obtained from 1396 non-stimulated Ovum Pick-up (OPU ... [more ▼]

The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the number of follicles, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and cultured In Vitro Produced (IVP) embryos obtained from 1396 non-stimulated Ovum Pick-up (OPU) sessions on 81 donor animals in a twice weekly OPU scheme. Results were obtained from 640 sessions following FSH-LH superstimulation, on 112 donors subjected to OPU once every 2 weeks. The stimulation protocol started with the insertion of an ear implant containing 3 mg norgestomet (Crestar, Intervet, Belgium) 8 days before puncture (day -8). The dominant follicle was ablated by ultrasound-guided follicle puncture on day -6. On day -3 and day -2, cows were injected with FSH (Ovagen, ICP) twice daily (8 am to 8 pm), i.e. a total dose of 160 mug FSH and 40 mug LG per donor per stimulation cycle. Animals were punctured 48 h after the last FSH injection (day 0). Progesterone implants were removed the next day. Stimulated donor cows were treated with this protocol at 14-day intervals. Follicles were visualized with a Dynamic Imaging ultrasound scanner, equipped with a 6.5 MHz sectorial probe. Follicles were punctured with 55 cm long, 18 gauge needles at an aspiration pressure corresponding to a flow rate of 15 ml/min. Cumulus oocyte complexes were recovered and processed in a routine IVF set-up. Results demonstrate that, expressed per session, FSH stimulation prior to OPU increases production efficiency with significantly more follicles punctured and oocytes retrieved. However, when overall results during comparable 2-week periods are considered (four non-stimulated sessions vs one stimulated), more follicles are punctured and more oocytes are retrieved using the non-stimulated protocol. No significant differences in the number of cultured embryos could be detected, indicating that FSH/LH stimulation prior to OPU might have a positive effect on in vitro oocyte developmental competence as more embryos are cultured with less, presumably better-quality, oocytes [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of low, medium and high responders following FSH stimulation prior to ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval in cows
De Roover, R.; Bols, P. E. J.; Genicot, G. et al

in Theriogenology (2005), 63

In human IVF, the concept of 'low responders' is well known and generally defined as women with poor-response to gonadotrophin stimulation in a previous induction cycle. The objective of this ... [more ▼]

In human IVF, the concept of 'low responders' is well known and generally defined as women with poor-response to gonadotrophin stimulation in a previous induction cycle. The objective of this retrospective study is to describe and characterise the concepts of 'low-, medium-, and high-response' and 'low, medium, and high responders' in bovine-assisted reproduction by analysing the OPU-IVF results obtained following 665 gonadotrophin-stimulated sessions conducted in 112 animals, nearly all of which were previously unsuccessful in traditional multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) programs. They were submitted to OPU and IVP between 1999 and 2003. In reference to these 665 OPU sessions, categories of response were defined based on the overall mean+/-S.D. follicles aspirated and COC obtained i.e., for follicles 14.7+/-9.8 and for COCs 11.7+/-8.1. So arbitrary cut-off values to define the categories of sessions were for follicles 5 and 25, and for COC 4 and 20. The three categories for follicles punctured in one session were therefore follicle low-response (FLR)<or=5 follicles, follicle medium-response (FMR) 6-24 follicles or follicle high-response (FHR)>or=25 follicles and for COCs recovered in one session COC low-response (CLR)<or=4 COC, COC medium-response (CMR) 5-19 COC or COC high-response (CHR)>or=20 COC. In addition, four categories of animals were also defined: (1) a low responder animal (LRA) had at least one OPU session in which FLR and CLR were observed (genuine low-response, see Section ); these animals did not have any high-response sessions, (2) a medium responder animal (MeRA) had only medium-responses, (3) a high responder animal (HRA) had at least one OPU session in which FHR and CHR were observed; these animals did not have any low-response sessions, and (4) mixed responder animals (MiRA) had both low and high-responses. Finally, we distinguished biological (animals) and technical (recovery rate and ultrasound resolution) causes of response differences. In 'low, high, medium and mixed reponders,' different results were obtained (p<0.05): mean follicle numbers (8.8+/-4.8a, 22.4+/-10.5c, 13.2+/-5.2b,15.1+/-10.2d), COC numbers (6.3+/-3.9a, 18.5+/-8.2c, 10.4+/-4b, 12.0+/-8.3d), embryo numbers (1.8+/-2.1a, 5.6+/-4.9c, 2.5+/-2.7b, 3.5+/-3.8d) and also for recovery rate (72%a, 83%b,79%, 79%) and percentage embryo development (29%, 30%a, 24%b, 29%). In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that variability in OPU results has technical (ultrasound resolution and recovery rate) as well as biological (animal) aspects. Selection of animals with extreme (high or low) follicle and COC production results allows us to distinguish three populations: 'low, medium, and high responders' to FSH stimulation. [less ▲]

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