References of "Gautier, Axel"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Peer Reviewed
See detailRegulation in Practice: Choice among regulatory Tools
Bougnouch, Mehdi ULg; Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference (2014, May 28)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (4 ULg)
See detailLa collecte des déchets en Wallonie : organisation et performances
Gautier, Axel ULg

Scientific conference (2014, April 03)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMarket Power in the Credit Rating Industry: State of Play and Proposal for Reforms
Candelon, Bertrand; Gautier, Axel ULg; Petit, Nicolas ULg

in CPI Antitrust Chronicle (2014), 2

In recent years, the Credit Rating Agencies (“CRAs”) have been in the eye of the storm. Some argue that CRA rating errors—symptomatized by rating inflation or deflation—originate in excessive competition ... [more ▼]

In recent years, the Credit Rating Agencies (“CRAs”) have been in the eye of the storm. Some argue that CRA rating errors—symptomatized by rating inflation or deflation—originate in excessive competition. This paper argues that the low level of competition in credit rating is a better explanation for rating this phenomenon. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg)
See detailCurrent challenges in the economic regulation of utilities in Belgium
Gautier, Axel ULg; Bouckaert, Jan; de Streel, Alexandre

Speech (2013)

Regulation covers all the ways in which, in our markets-based economies, the public sector influences, constrains, dictates or coordinates private activities for the common good. This session will deal ... [more ▼]

Regulation covers all the ways in which, in our markets-based economies, the public sector influences, constrains, dictates or coordinates private activities for the common good. This session will deal with the question of institutional design and the role of politics in determining regulatory performance in Belgium. These themes will be explored through concrete examples of regulatory failures and successes, with an eye towards generating general principles and guidelines for improving regulatory designs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLa collecte des déchets en Wallonie : organisation et performances
Gautier, Axel ULg; Reginster, Sophie ULg

in Regards Economiques (2013), (106),

En Wallonie, la collecte des déchets est fréquemment déléguée par les communes à une intercommunale ou à un collecteur privé. Par ailleurs, de plus en plus de communes utilisent des conteneurs à puce. Cet ... [more ▼]

En Wallonie, la collecte des déchets est fréquemment déléguée par les communes à une intercommunale ou à un collecteur privé. Par ailleurs, de plus en plus de communes utilisent des conteneurs à puce. Cet article compare les performances en termes de coûts de ces différentes alternatives. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (12 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailReforming the Postal Universal Service
Gautier, Axel ULg; Poudou, Jean-Christophe

Conference (2013, August)

The postal sector has undergone dramatic changes over the recent years under the double effect of ongoing liberalization and increased competition with alternative communication channels (e-substitution ... [more ▼]

The postal sector has undergone dramatic changes over the recent years under the double effect of ongoing liberalization and increased competition with alternative communication channels (e-substitution). As a result, the mail volume handled by the historical operator has declined sharply while the latter's ability to match the same standard of universal service may be under threat. Thus, a reform of the postal universal service is on the agenda. This paper examines possible reforming options ranging from keeping universal service within the postal sector to redefining universal service as spanning postal and electronic technologies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 1 (0 ULg)
See detailAn Empirical Analysis of School Bus Lines Procurement in Wallonia
Gautier, Axel ULg; Thiry, Benjamin

Scientific conference (2013, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailReforming the Postal Universal Service
Gautier, Axel ULg; Poudou, Jean-Christophe

Conference (2013, June)

The postal sector has undergone dramatic changes over the recent years under the double effect of ongoing liberalization and increased competition with alternative communication channels (e-substitution ... [more ▼]

The postal sector has undergone dramatic changes over the recent years under the double effect of ongoing liberalization and increased competition with alternative communication channels (e-substitution). As a result, the mail volume handled by the historical operator has declined sharply while the latter's ability to match the same standard of universal service may be under threat. Thus, a reform of the postal universal service is on the agenda. This paper examines possible reforming options ranging from keeping universal service within the postal sector to redefining universal service as spanning postal and electronic technologies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 3 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEstimating The Cost of Improving Quality in Electricity Distribution: A Parametric Distance Function Approach
Coelli, Tim; Gautier, Axel ULg; Perelman, Sergio ULg et al

in Energy Policy (2013), 53

The quality of electricity distribution is being more and more scrutinized by regulatory authorities, with explicit reward and penalty schemes based on quality targets having been introduced in many ... [more ▼]

The quality of electricity distribution is being more and more scrutinized by regulatory authorities, with explicit reward and penalty schemes based on quality targets having been introduced in many countries (France, Germany, Italy, UK,...). It is then of prime importance to know the cost of improving the quality for a distribution system operator. In this paper, we focus on one dimension of quality, the continuity of supply, and we estimated the cost of preventing power outages. For that, we make use of the parametric distance function approach, assuming that outages enter in the firm production set as an input, an imperfect substitute for maintenance activities and capital investment. This allows us to identify the sources of technical inefficiency and the underlying trade-­‐off faced by operators between quality and other inputs and costs. For this purpose, we use panel data on 92 electricity distribution units operated by ERDF (Electricité de France - Réseau Distribution) in the 2003–2005 financial years. Assuming a multi-output multi-input translog technology, we estimate that the cost of preventing one interruption varies substantily among the distribution units from 2.7 € to 15.7 €. Furthermore, as one would expect, marginal quality improvements tend to be more expensive as quality itself improves. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 133 (22 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe postal sector as a vector of financial inclusion
Gautier, Axel ULg; d'Alcantara, Gonzales

in Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics (2013), 84(2), 119-137

Access to finance has become a major policy issue under the term Financial Inclusion. In this paper, we focus on the role of postal operators in financial inclusion policies. In developing countries ... [more ▼]

Access to finance has become a major policy issue under the term Financial Inclusion. In this paper, we focus on the role of postal operators in financial inclusion policies. In developing countries, postal firms typically manage a dense network of counters with a unique coverage of rural areas where the banking sector is totally absent. We use a formal location model for postal counters and bank agencies to show that in rural areas a post-bank partnership can be a vector of financial inclusion and that this can be done profitably. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailReforming the Postal Universal Service
Gautier, Axel ULg; Poudou, Jean-Christophe

E-print/Working paper (2013)

The postal sector has undergone dramatic changes over the recent years under the double effect of ongoing liberalization and increased competition with alternative communication channels (e-substitution ... [more ▼]

The postal sector has undergone dramatic changes over the recent years under the double effect of ongoing liberalization and increased competition with alternative communication channels (e-substitution). As a result, the mail volume handled by the historical operator has declined sharply while the latter's ability to match the same standard of universal service may be under threat. Thus, a reform of the postal universal service is on the agenda. This paper examines possible reforming options ranging from keeping universal service within the postal sector to redefining universal service as spanning postal and electronic technologies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailContract Renewal as an Incentive Device. An Application to the French Urban Public Transport Sector
Gautier, Axel ULg; Yvrande-Billon, Anne

in Review of Economics and Institutions (2013), 4(Winter), 2

In the French urban public transport industry, operations are often delegated and periodically put out for tender. Thus, operators’ incentives to reduce costs come from both profit maximization during the ... [more ▼]

In the French urban public transport industry, operations are often delegated and periodically put out for tender. Thus, operators’ incentives to reduce costs come from both profit maximization during the current contract and from the perspective of contract renewal. We construct a dynamic incentive regulation model that captures these features and we show that both the level of cost-reducing effort and its repartition during the contracting period depend on the contract type (cost-plus, gross cost or net cost contract). We then estimate a cost frontier model for an eight-year panel of French bus companies (664 company-year observations) to test our predictions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 87 (11 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailStrategic bypass deterrence
Bloch, Francis; Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference (2012, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailVers un service universel 2.0?
Gautier, Axel ULg

Article for general public (2012)

La révolution numérique a radicalement changé notre façon de communiquer. Il faut repenser le service universel des communications en intégrant les changements technologiques.

Detailed reference viewed: 91 (2 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailReforming the Postal Universal Service
Gautier, Axel ULg; Poudou, Jean-Christophe

Conference (2012, March 22)

The postal sector has dramatically changed in the recent years with the ongoing liberalization process and the increased competitive pressures from alternative communication channels (e-substitution ... [more ▼]

The postal sector has dramatically changed in the recent years with the ongoing liberalization process and the increased competitive pressures from alternative communication channels (e-substitution). These two effects concur to decrease the mail volume handled by the historical operator which in turn may threaten the financial viability of the universal service and may call for a reform of the universal service. This paper examines the question of reforming the postal universal service, first by considering that the universal service remains confined in the postal word and, latter, by defining a universal service that includes postal and electronic technologies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (5 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailStrategic Bypass Deterrence
Bloch, Francis; Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference (2012, March 17)

In liberalized network industries, entrants can either compete for service using the existing infrastructure (access) or deploy their own infrastructure capacity (bypass). In this paper, we demonstrate ... [more ▼]

In liberalized network industries, entrants can either compete for service using the existing infrastructure (access) or deploy their own infrastructure capacity (bypass). In this paper, we demonstrate that, under the threat of bypass, the access price set by an unregulated and vertically integrated incumbent is compatible with productive efficiency. This means that the entrant bypasses the existing infrastructure only if it can produces the network input more efficiently. The incumbent lowers the access price compared to the ex-post efficient level to strategically deter inefficient bypass by the entrant. Accordingly, from a productive efficiency point of view, there is no need to regulate access prices when the entrant has the option to bypass. Despite that, we show that restricting the possibilities of access might be profitable for consumers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailEnergie et environnement
Gautier, Axel ULg

Speech (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 75 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStrategic bypass deterrence
Bloch, Francis; Gautier, Axel ULg

E-print/Working paper (2012)

In liberalized network industries, entrants can either compete for service using the existing infrastructure (access) or deploy their own infrastructure capacity (bypass). In this paper, we demonstrate ... [more ▼]

In liberalized network industries, entrants can either compete for service using the existing infrastructure (access) or deploy their own infrastructure capacity (bypass). In this paper, we demonstrate that, under the threat of bypass, the access price set by an unregulated and vertically integrated incumbent is compatible with productive efficiency. This means that the entrant bypasses the existing infrastructure only if it can produce the network input more efficiently. We show that the incumbent lowers the access price compared to the ex-post efficient level to strategically deter inefficient bypass by the entrant. Accordingly, from a productive efficiency point of view, there is no need to regulate access prices when the entrant has the option to bypass. Despite that, we show that restricting the possibilities of access might be profitable for consumers and welfare because competition is fiercer under bypass. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCompetitively Neutral Universal Service Obligations
Gautier, Axel ULg; Wauthy, Xavier

in Information Economics and Policy (2012), 24

Universal service obligations impose specific costs on the universal service provider and the latter may call for an appropriate compensation. Most often, a two-step procedure is put forward to finance ... [more ▼]

Universal service obligations impose specific costs on the universal service provider and the latter may call for an appropriate compensation. Most often, a two-step procedure is put forward to finance the universal service in a competitive environment. Firstly, the cost of the universal service is assessed; secondly, the provider must be compensated for this cost. We argue that this procedure is problematic because the implementation of a compensation scheme affects the behavior of market participants and leads to an overcompensation of the universal service provider. We put forward an alternative approach to this problem that fully acknowledges the distortions that result from the compensation mechanism. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 79 (12 ULg)
Full Text
See detailRethinking Regulatory Capture
Agrell, Per; Gautier, Axel ULg

in Harrington, Joseph; Katsoulacos, Yannis (Eds.) Recent Advances in the Analysis of Competition Policy and Regulation (2012)

Conventional capture models rely on the idea that regulator is induced to lenient behavior by the regulated firm through offers of monetary transfers, the bribery model, or future employment, the ... [more ▼]

Conventional capture models rely on the idea that regulator is induced to lenient behavior by the regulated firm through offers of monetary transfers, the bribery model, or future employment, the revolving doors model. To avoid socially costly capture, the political principal should then either implement collusion-proof mechanisms through the delegation of welfare gains, or severely restrict the career paths of regulatory staff. The paradox of capture is that neither the two modes of capture, nor the remedy are commonly found in practice. This paper proposes to rethink capture based on the widespread use of industry-commissioned consultants, experts and lobbyists that produce information for regulatory and policy use. A small model (Agrell and Gautier, 2010) introduces a 'soft capture' concept based on a self-enforced collusion between the firm and regulator, linked to the role of the regulator as information-processing intermediate for the political principal. The firm puts processed but biased information at the free disposal of the regulator, 'no strings attached', who can then either use the submitted information or produce a more accurate information by a costly process. Under a set of mild conditions, the equilibrium involves soft capture and the regulator uses the submitted information, leading to some distortions in welfare. A case study of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in USA serves to motivate and illustrate the model. As shown by the case, the soft capture model may have a stronger positive potential than the conventional models, also implying that policy advice based on it may be valuable. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (7 ULg)