References of "Gautier, Axel"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA Theory of Soft Capture
Agrell, Per; Gautier, Axel ULg

in Scandinavian Journal of Economics (in press)

n this paper, wee propose a model for regulatory capture that is based on information transmission and asymmetric information. In a three-tier model, a regulator is charged by a political principal to ... [more ▼]

n this paper, wee propose a model for regulatory capture that is based on information transmission and asymmetric information. In a three-tier model, a regulator is charged by a political principal to provide a signal for the type of a regulated firm. Only the firm can observe his type and the production of a correlated signal with a given accuracy is costly for the regulator. The firm can costlessly provide an alternative signal of lower accuracy that is presented to the regulator. In a self-enforcing equilibrium, the regulator transmits the firm-produced signal, internalizes its own savings in information cost and the firm enjoys higher information rents. The main feature of soft capture is that it is not based on a reciprocity of favors but on a congruence of interests between the firm and the regulator. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPromoting Competition at the Digital Age with an Application to Belgium
Copée, Pierre ULg; Gautier, Axel ULg; Lefevre, Mélanie ULg

in Crew, Michael; Brennan, Timothy (Eds.) The Future of the Postal Sector in a Digital World (in press)

In this paper, we develop a fully-fledged postal market model to assess the extent of competition in the mail market in a context of declining mail volumes due to e-substitution. Our focus will be on the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we develop a fully-fledged postal market model to assess the extent of competition in the mail market in a context of declining mail volumes due to e-substitution. Our focus will be on the Belgian market situation that is interesting for at least two reasons. First, the homogenous nature of the country implies that the extent of the entrant's market coverage will be either limited to the few very densely populated areas or large covering the whole country at the exception of the few very sparely populated areas. Second, because strong licensing requirements -including coverage constraints- are imposed on competing postal operators and they may constitute barrier to entry. Our model allows us to estimate the extent of entry, the cost of meeting the licensing requirements for potential entrants and the impact of entry on the cost of the universal service. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (19 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailReforming the Postal Universal Service
Gautier, Axel ULg; Poudou, Jean-Christophe

in Review of Network Economics (in press)

The postal sector has undergone dramatic changes over the recent years under the double effect of ongoing liberalization and increased competition with alternative communication channels (e-substitution ... [more ▼]

The postal sector has undergone dramatic changes over the recent years under the double effect of ongoing liberalization and increased competition with alternative communication channels (e-substitution). As a result, the mail volume handled by the historical operator has declined sharply while the latter's ability to match the same standard of universal service may be under threat. Thus, a reform of the postal universal service is on the agenda. This paper examines possible reforming options ranging from keeping universal service within the postal sector to redefining universal service as spanning postal and electronic technologies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 99 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRepenser la tarifaction de l'énergie
Gautier, Axel ULg

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2015), LIV(1-2), 175-184

The distribution tariff is for historical reasons connected to the consumption level. Maintaining a tariff per KWh is in our view problematic for two reasons. First, it induces inefficient consumption or ... [more ▼]

The distribution tariff is for historical reasons connected to the consumption level. Maintaining a tariff per KWh is in our view problematic for two reasons. First, it induces inefficient consumption or production choices by consumers. Second, because of scale economies, a decrease in energy consumption leads to both a cost and a revenue decline with the latter being stronger than the former, thereby necessitating an increase in the tariff to compensate for the revenue losses and reinforcing the first effect. The distribution tariff should therefore be re-designed and de-connected, at least partially, from the consumption level. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMarchés énergétiques en transition : le cas de la Belgique
Agrell, Per; Gautier, Axel ULg

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2015), LIV(1-2), 5-6

Foreword by Per Agrell and Axel Gautier

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe coût de l'énergie verte en Wallonie 2003-2012
Boccard, Nicolas; Gautier, Axel ULg

in Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique (2015), LIV(1-2), 71-85

In 2003, the Walloon region has installed a tradable green certificate mechanism to support the production of ‘green’ electricity. In this paper, we estimate that the total cost of the mechanism amounts ... [more ▼]

In 2003, the Walloon region has installed a tradable green certificate mechanism to support the production of ‘green’ electricity. In this paper, we estimate that the total cost of the mechanism amounts to 1,871 billion € for the period 2003-2012, corresponding to a support of 107 €/MWh produced, with important differences between production technologies, the solar photovoltaic receiving up to 588 €/MWh. International comparisons indicate that the Walloon mechanism is particularly generous. We also show that the induced carbon savings are extremely costly with an implicit price of avoided CO2 of 425 € per ton. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 542 (54 ULg)
See detailOptimal Enforcement of Competition Policy: The Commitments Procedure under Uncertainty
Gautier, Axel ULg

Scientific conference (2015, April 09)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailOptimal Enforcement of Competition Policy: The Commitments Procedure under Uncertainty
Gautier, Axel ULg; Petit, Nicolas ULg

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Since the introduction of a commitments procedure in EU antitrust policy (Article 9 of Council Regulation 1/2003), the European Commission has extensively settled cases of alleged anticompetitive ... [more ▼]

Since the introduction of a commitments procedure in EU antitrust policy (Article 9 of Council Regulation 1/2003), the European Commission has extensively settled cases of alleged anticompetitive practices. In this paper, we use a formal model of law enforcement (Bebchuk, 1984; Shavell, 1988) to identify the optimal procedure to resolve cases in a context of uncertainty related to the law (L-uncertainty) and to the facts (F-uncertainty). We show that commitments are suboptimal when L-uncertainty is high. Furthermore, the generalized use of commitments creates an additional risk of under-enforcement when F-uncertainty is significant. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 ULg)
See detailInvestir et gérer le transport public urbain ?
Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailFaut-il payer le train plus cher à l'heure de pointe ?
Gautier, Axel ULg

Article for general public (2015)

La semaine dernière, la presse faisait écho du projet de la SNCB d'introduire des tarifs plus élevés pour les voyages effectués à l'heure de pointe. Concrètement, celui qui prendrait le train dans les ... [more ▼]

La semaine dernière, la presse faisait écho du projet de la SNCB d'introduire des tarifs plus élevés pour les voyages effectués à l'heure de pointe. Concrètement, celui qui prendrait le train dans les tranches 6h-9h et 15h-18h paierait un supplément. La SNCB motive son projet par le fait que le prix actuel est un des plus faible d'Europe. La proposition a –comme on s'en doute- reçu un accueil glacial de la part des usagers du rail. Dans ce focus de Regards économiques, Axel Gautier livre les réflexions d'un économiste (qui est aussi navetteur) à propos de ce projet de la SNCB. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (11 ULg)
See detailOptimal Enforcement of Competition Policy: The Commitments Procedure under Uncertainty
Gautier, Axel ULg

Scientific conference (2015, January 08)

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailNot on my network! App exclusion and the net neutrality debate
Broos, Sébastien ULg; Gautier, Axel ULg

in LCII Policy Brief (2015), (2015/1),

The net neutrality debate is at its peak. On January 27, the Dutch Authority for Competition and Markets (DACM) fined KPN and Vodafone for the first violation of the Dutch net neutrality law ever.i On ... [more ▼]

The net neutrality debate is at its peak. On January 27, the Dutch Authority for Competition and Markets (DACM) fined KPN and Vodafone for the first violation of the Dutch net neutrality law ever.i On February 26, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved new regulations for broadband internet, preserving the net neutrality.ii In brief, the net neutrality proponents seem to be winning the debate. In a recent economic paper, Sébastien Broos and Axel Gautier analyze whether this toughened stance of regulatory authorities is the best way forward. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (7 ULg)
Full Text
See detail“Settle ‘em all”: Generalized Commitments and the Under and Over Enforcement of Antitrust Law
Gautier, Axel ULg; Petit, Nicolas

in LCII Policy Brief (2014), (2014/2),

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (5 ULg)
See detailLes services publics: Organisation et performance
Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailCompeting One-Way Essential Complements : the Forgotten Side of the Net Neutrality Story
Broos, Sébastien ULg; Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference (2014, July 11)

We examine the incentives of an internet service provider (ISP) to break net neutrality by excluding internet applications competing with its own products, a typical example being the exclusion of VoIP ... [more ▼]

We examine the incentives of an internet service provider (ISP) to break net neutrality by excluding internet applications competing with its own products, a typical example being the exclusion of VoIP applications by a telecom company offering internet and voice services. We show that exclusion is not a concern when the ISP is a monopoly because it can extract the additional surplus created by the application through price rebalancing. By contrast, when ISP’s compete, in an attempt to differentiate, only one ISP will offer the app. Applying a no-exclusion rule in this case can lead to monopoly. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (10 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailCompeting One-Way Essential Complements : the Forgotten Side of the Net Neutrality Story}
Broos, Sébastien ULg; Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference (2014, June 12)

We examine the incentives of an internet service provider (ISP) to break net neutrality by excluding internet applications competing with its own products, a typical example being the exclusion of VoIP ... [more ▼]

We examine the incentives of an internet service provider (ISP) to break net neutrality by excluding internet applications competing with its own products, a typical example being the exclusion of VoIP applications by a telecom company offering internet and voice services. We show that exclusion is not a concern when the ISP is a monopoly because it can extract the additional surplus created by the application through price rebalancing. By contrast, when ISP’s compete, in an attempt to differentiate, only one ISP will offer the app. Applying a no-exclusion rule in this case can lead to monopoly. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (4 ULg)