References of "Garigliany, Mutien-Marie"
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See detailNatural intrauterine infection with Schmallenberg virus in malformed newborn calves: pathology and distribution of viral RNA
Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Sarlet, Michaël ULg et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2014), 20(8),

We comprehensively surveyed morphologic alterations in calves naturally infected in utero by Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and born deformed. SBV-specific RNA was distributed unevenly in different tissues ... [more ▼]

We comprehensively surveyed morphologic alterations in calves naturally infected in utero by Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and born deformed. SBV-specific RNA was distributed unevenly in different tissues. Implications for diagnosic procedures are highlighted. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Usutu virus in a bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) and a great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) in north-west Europe
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Marlier, Didier ULg; Tenner-Racz, Klara et al

in Veterinary Journal (2014), 199

In October 2012, a 3-year-old bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) held in captivity for its entire lifespan and a wild adult great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), both with neurological signs, were ... [more ▼]

In October 2012, a 3-year-old bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) held in captivity for its entire lifespan and a wild adult great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), both with neurological signs, were found 4 km from each other and 5 days apart in the Meuse Valley, Belgium. Non-suppurative encephalitis and mild degeneration and necrosis were identified in the brain and cerebellum, and Usutu virus antigen and RNA were detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, respectively. The two cases reported here represent the most western distribution of clinical disease in birds due to Usutu virus. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Usutu virus in a bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) and a great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) in north-west Europe
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Marlier, Didier ULg; Tenner-Racz, Klara et al

in Veterinary Journal (2014), 199

In October 2012, a 3-year-old bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) held in captivity for its entire lifespan and a wild adult great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), both with neurological signs, were ... [more ▼]

In October 2012, a 3-year-old bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) held in captivity for its entire lifespan and a wild adult great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), both with neurological signs, were found 4 km from each other and 5 days apart in the Meuse Valley, Belgium. Non-suppurative encephalitis and mild degeneration and necrosis were identified in the brain and cerebellum, and Usutu virus antigen and RNA were detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, respectively. The two cases reported here represent the most western distribution of clinical disease in birds due to Usutu virus. [less ▲]

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See detailBluetongue Virus RNA Detection by Real-Time RT-PCR in Post-Vaccination Samples from Cattle
De Leeuw, Ilse; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Bertels, Guido et al

Conference (2013, October 02)

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See detailNo serologic evidence for emerging Schmallenberg virus infection in dogs (Canis domesticus)
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg et al

in Vector Borne & Zoonotic Diseases (2013), 13(11), 1-4

Schmallenberg virus, a novel orthobunyavirus, is spreading among ruminants, especially sheep and cattle throughout Europe. To determine the risk for domestic dog infection, we conducted a survey among ... [more ▼]

Schmallenberg virus, a novel orthobunyavirus, is spreading among ruminants, especially sheep and cattle throughout Europe. To determine the risk for domestic dog infection, we conducted a survey among cases referred to the university Companion Animal Clinic to assess possible seroconversion. No evidence of transmission to dogs was detected. [less ▲]

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See detailSchmallenberg virus circulation among red and roe deer populations in Belgium
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Volpe, Rosario ULg; Paternostre, Julien ULg et al

in 31th Congress of the International Union of Game Biologists, Abstract Book (2013, August 27)

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently discovered vector-borne Orthobunyavirus targeting ruminants. It is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and caused a large outbreak in European sheep and cattle ... [more ▼]

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently discovered vector-borne Orthobunyavirus targeting ruminants. It is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and caused a large outbreak in European sheep and cattle populations in 2011 and 2012. The infection of adults was associated with a drop in milk production, fever and diarrhea. But the virus was further shown to cross the placental barrier and to be responsible for a hydrocephaly/arthrogryposis syndrome in calves and lambs. After its occurrence in 2011 in Germany, SBV quickly spread across Europe and in spring 2012 more than 90% of Belgian domestic cattle had seroconverted. To assess the susceptibility of wild ruminants to the infection, a total number of 547 and 494 sera, from red (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), respectively, were collected during the hunting seasons 2010 to 2012 and tested for the presence of anti-SBV antibodies. While no samples from 2010 revealed to be positive, about two-thirds of red deer and half of roe deer sampled in 2011 were seropositive. In 2012, the seroprevalence dropped to 33% in red deer and remained stable in roe deer. The high seroprevalence rates found in both species in Belgium shows that wild ruminants are susceptible to the infection by SBV. If the infection of deer was associated to a hydrocephaly/arthrogryposis syndrome similar to that observed in domestic ruminants is still unknown. There is currently no evidence of such a transplacental passage in red or roe deer. The decrease in the seroprevalence observed in red deer in 2012 might be the result of the turn-over in the red deer population and reflect an absence of virus circulation in 2012. Further investigations in the upcoming years will help to enlighten this point. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of antibodies against Schmallenberg virus in wild boars, Belgium, 2010-2012
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Beer, Martin et al

in Lecoq, Yves (Ed.) 31th Congress of the International Union of Game Biologists (2013, August 27)

In the summer/fall of 2011, a nonspecific febrile syndrome characterized by hyperthermia and drop in milk production with occasional reports of watery diarrhea and abortion was reported among dairy cows ... [more ▼]

In the summer/fall of 2011, a nonspecific febrile syndrome characterized by hyperthermia and drop in milk production with occasional reports of watery diarrhea and abortion was reported among dairy cows on farms in northwestern Europe. Further, in November 2011, an enzootic outbreak of malformed neonates emerged in several European countries, with stillbirth and birth at term of lambs, kids and calves with neurological signs or malformations of the head, spine, or limbs. Both syndromes were associated with the presence in the blood (adults) or in the central nervous system (newborns) of a new Shamonda/Sathuperi-like orthobunyavirus, provisionally named Schmallenberg virus (SBV) after the town in Germany where the first positive clinical samples were identified. Defining as precisely as possible the host range of the newcomer is a key point to predict the outcome of the emergence of SBV disease in Europe. In this respect, it must be pointed out that orthobunyaviruses infect more animal species than those in which the foetus is damaged. Recently, serological evidence for SBV infection in wild ruminant species (Cervus elaphus and Capreolus capreolus) was reported (Linden et al., 2012). In the present study, the objective was to seek after serological evidence of SBV infection among wild boars living in a geographical area where exposure to infected insect vectors was high in 2011, as judged from the very high seroprevalence reported among cattle in that region. About 700 animals were sampled during the 2010-2012 hunting seasons. All serum samples collected during the fall of 2010 were seronegative. On the contrary, apparent seroprevalence among wild boars in 2011 was ~27% and started to decline in 2012 (~11%). Acquired immunity against the new virus was thus already very high in the wild boar populations sampled in the fall 2011, suggesting that the new virus had quickly spread throughout the region since its emergence about 250 km northeast in the late summer 2011. The drop in seroprevalence recorded in 2012 suggests that the virus was no more circulating in the region. [less ▲]

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See detailBovine lymphotropic herpesvirus detected in Belgium
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Cassart, Dominique ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2013), 172

The bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus was detected for the first time outside the US, Canada and UK in a cow with nonresponsive chronic metritis.

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See detailSchmallenberg virus circulation in Belgium in 2012
Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Cassart, Dominique ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2013), 172

Field and laboratory observations suggest that Schmallenberg virus was circulating in Belgium during the summer 2012 despite a very high herd immunity. Further studies will be conducted to determine ... [more ▼]

Field and laboratory observations suggest that Schmallenberg virus was circulating in Belgium during the summer 2012 despite a very high herd immunity. Further studies will be conducted to determine whether we are observing the last cases of this epizootic or if the above calves announce a transition to endemicity. [less ▲]

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See detailBluetongue Virus RNA Detection by Real-Time RT-PCR in Post-Vaccination Samples from Cattle.
De Leeuw, I.; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Bertels, G. et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2013)

Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) was responsible for a large outbreak among European ruminant populations in 2006-2009. In spring 2008, a massive vaccination campaign was undertaken, leading to the ... [more ▼]

Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) was responsible for a large outbreak among European ruminant populations in 2006-2009. In spring 2008, a massive vaccination campaign was undertaken, leading to the progressive disappearance of the virus. During surveillance programmes in Western Europe in 2010-2011, a low but significant number of animals were found weakly positive using BTV-specific real-time RT-PCR, raising questions about a possible low level of virus circulation. An interference of the BTV-8 inactivated vaccine on the result of the real-time RT-PCR was also hypothesized. Several studies specifically addressed the potential association between a recent vaccination and BTV-8 RNA detection in the blood of sheep. Results were contradictory and cattles were not investigated. To enlighten this point, a large study was performed to determine the risks of detection of bluetongue vaccine-associated RNA in the blood and spleen of cattle using real-time RT-PCR. Overall, the results presented clearly demonstrate that vaccine viral RNA can reach the blood circulation in sufficient amounts to be detected by real-time RT-PCR in cattle. This BTV-8 vaccine RNA carriage appears as short lasting. [less ▲]

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See detailEpizootic spread of emerging Schmallenberg virus in wild cervids, Belgium, fall 2011
Linden, Annick ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Volpe, Rosario ULg et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2012), 18(12), 2006-2008

The Schmallenberg virus emerged in summer-fall 2011 in North-West Europe. During the fall of 2011, the virus widely spread in red and roe deer populations living about 250 km from the emergence location.

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See detailPreliminary results on in vitro murine norovirus susceptibility to Mx-mediated innate immunity
Mauroy, Axel ULg; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg et al

Poster (2012, September)

Objectives Murine norovirus (MuNoV) belongs to the family Caliciviridae, genus Norovirus and is currently used as study model for human noroviruses, major aetiologic agents of gastroenteritis worldwide ... [more ▼]

Objectives Murine norovirus (MuNoV) belongs to the family Caliciviridae, genus Norovirus and is currently used as study model for human noroviruses, major aetiologic agents of gastroenteritis worldwide. Myxovirus (Mx) protein is an interferon-induced protein that host cell can oppose virus infection and was detected in several species including human being. In mice, two genes encoding Mx1 and 2 proteins are present but it was evidenced that these genes were inactivated by deletions in several laboratory mouse strains. Mx antiviral activity was detected on several negative stranded RNA viruses but information are still lacking for most of positive stranded RNA viruses. In this study, the susceptibility of the MuNoV to specific and interspecific Mx proteins was investigated. Methods RAW264.7 cells (murine macrophages) were first tested for constitutive expression of Mx1 proteins. Plasmids containing the murine Mx1, bovine Mx1 and human MxA genes under the CMV immediate early promotor were then used to transfect RAW264.7 cells for transient Mx expression. Negative control consisted in a plasmid expressing eGFP. Four hours after transfection, cells were infected at low MOI with the CW1 MuNoV strain. Cells and supernatants were harvested 24h post infection. RNA was extracted and viral genomic copies were measured by real time RT-PCR. Results An effect was confirmed on CW1 replication for both specific and interspecific Mx proteins. The highest effect was obtained with the bovine Mx1 protein. Conclusion In conclusion, we showed in these preliminary in vitro studies the MuNoV susceptibility to specific and interspecific Mx proteins. Bovine Mx1 protein was already demonstrated to have important antiviral activity on negative stranded RNA viruses (influenza- and paramyxoviruses) and co-evolution with the host could explain a higher susceptibility to interspecific Mx proteins. Important implications of this adaptation could be expected on zoonotic concerns associated to NoV. Moreover, even if several control studies are still be conducted to validate these preliminary results, they could drive several pertaining questions on the MuNoV model used with laboratory mice. Perspectives of this work consist to validate the susceptibility in vivo and also to test the murine Mx2 antiviral activity on MuNoV. [less ▲]

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See detailSchmallenberg virus in domestic cattle, Belgium, 2012
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Kleijnen, Déborah ULg et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2012), 18(9), 1512-1514

The Schmallenberg virus emerged in summer-fall 2011 in North-West Europe. Nine months later, 91% of adult cattle living about 250 km from the emergence location tested positive for IgGs targeting the new ... [more ▼]

The Schmallenberg virus emerged in summer-fall 2011 in North-West Europe. Nine months later, 91% of adult cattle living about 250 km from the emergence location tested positive for IgGs targeting the new virus nucleoprotein. Further, the risk of infection of the fetus in an immunologically naive herd is 28%. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman/bovine chimeric MxA-like GTPases reveal a contribution of N-terminal domains to the magnitude of anti-influenza A activity
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Cornet, Anne ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research (2012), 32(7), 326-331

Type I interferons (IFN-) provide powerful and universal innate intracellular defence mechanisms against viruses. Among the antiviral effectors induced by IFN-, Mx proteins of some species appear as ... [more ▼]

Type I interferons (IFN-) provide powerful and universal innate intracellular defence mechanisms against viruses. Among the antiviral effectors induced by IFN-, Mx proteins of some species appear as key components of defence against influenza A viruses. The body of work published to date suggests that to exert anti-influenza activity, an Mx protein must possess a GTP-binding site, structural bases allowing multimerisation, and a specific C-terminal GTPase effector domain (GED). The human MxA and bovine Mx1 proteins both meet these minimal requirements, but the bovine protein is more active against influenza viruses. Here we measured the anti-influenza activity exerted by two human/bovine chimeric Mx proteins. We show that substituting the bovine GED for the human one in human MxA does not affect the magnitude of anti-influenza activity. Strikingly, however, substituting the human GED for the bovine one in bovine Mx1 yields a chimeric protein with much higher anti-influenza activity than the human protein. We conclude, in contradiction to the hypothesis currently in vogue in the literature, that the GED is not the sole determinant controlling the magnitude of the anti-influenza activity exercised by an Mx protein that can bind GTP and multimerise. Our results suggest that one or several motifs that remain to be discovered, located N-terminally with respect to the GED, may interact with a viral component or a cellular factor so as to alter the viral cycle. Identifying, in the N-terminal portion of bovine Mx1, the motif(s) responsible for its higher anti-influenza activity could contribute to the development of new anti-influenza molecules. [less ▲]

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See detailSchmallenberg virus: a new Shamonda/Sathuperi-like virus on the rise in Europe
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Kleijnen, Déborah ULg et al

in Antiviral Research (2012), 95

In the summer-fall of 2011, a nonspecific febrile syndrome characterized by hyperthermia, drop in milk production and watery diarrhea was reported in adult dairy cows from a series of farms located in ... [more ▼]

In the summer-fall of 2011, a nonspecific febrile syndrome characterized by hyperthermia, drop in milk production and watery diarrhea was reported in adult dairy cows from a series of farms located in North-West Europe. Further, in November 2011, an enzootic outbreak of abortion, stillbirth and birth at term of lambs, kids and calves with neurologic signs and/or head, spine or limb malformations emerged throughout several European countries. Both syndromes were associated with the presence in the blood (adults) or in the central nervous system (newborns) of the genome of a new Shamonda-like orthobunyavirus provisionally named Schmallenberg virus after the place where the first positive samples were collected. The clinical, pathological, virological and epidemiological facts that were made publicly available during the first 6 months after the emergence are presented here. Current knowledge of the epidemiology of the phylogenetically closest relatives of the newcomer (Shamonda, Aino and Akabane viruses) is not exhaustive enough to predict whether the current outbreak of Schmallenberg virus is the prelude to endemicity or to a 2 years long outbreak before the infection burns out when serologically naïve animals are no longer available. In the future, cyclic epizootic reemergences are a possibility too, either synchronized with a global decrease of herd immunity or due to antigenic variants escaping the immunity acquired against their predecessors. The latter hypothesis seems unlikely because of the wide array of biologic constraints acting on the genome of viruses whose life cycle requires transmission by a vector, which represses genetic drift. The remarkable stability of the Shamonda virus genome over the last forty years is reassuring in this regard. [less ▲]

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See detailSchmallenberg virus in calf born at term with porencephaly, Belgium
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Hoffmann, Bernd; Dive, Marc et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2012), 18(6), 1005-1006

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See detailThe presence of bluetongue virus serotype 8 RNA in Belgian cattle since 2008.
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; De Clercq, Kris

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2011), 58(6), 503-509

After a short winter break, bluetongue virus serotype 8 was responsible in 2007 for a large-scale epidemic among ruminant populations in Western Europe. Little is known about the mechanisms allowing the ... [more ▼]

After a short winter break, bluetongue virus serotype 8 was responsible in 2007 for a large-scale epidemic among ruminant populations in Western Europe. Little is known about the mechanisms allowing the virus to survive winter conditions. A yearly mass vaccination of cattle and sheep started in spring 2008, which was recognized as successful in terms of clinical protection, but occult circulation of the bluetongue virus has not been adequately addressed. We studied the carriage of bluetongue RNA in the spleen of cattle in the vector-free period and the circulation of bluetongue virus in cattle populations in Belgium since the introduction of vaccination programmes. Overall, the results presented here show evidence for the long-term carriage of bluetongue virus RNA in the spleen of cattle and demonstrated a low but significant circulation and transplacental transmission of bluetongue virus in Belgian cattle in 2009, with apparent disappearance in 2010. [less ▲]

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