References of "Fulton, T"
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See detailHerschel/HIFI observations of Mars: First detection of O2 at submillimetre wavelengths and upper limits on HCl and H2O2
Hartogh, P.; Jarchow, C.; Lellouch, E. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 521

We report on an initial analysis of Herschel/HIFI observations of hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen peroxide (H[SUB]2[/SUB]O[SUB]2[/SUB]), and molecular oxygen (O[SUB]2[/SUB]) in the Martian atmosphere ... [more ▼]

We report on an initial analysis of Herschel/HIFI observations of hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen peroxide (H[SUB]2[/SUB]O[SUB]2[/SUB]), and molecular oxygen (O[SUB]2[/SUB]) in the Martian atmosphere performed on 13 and 16 April 2010 (L[SUB]s[/SUB] ~ 77°). We derived a constant volume mixing ratio of 1400 ± 120 ppm for O[SUB]2[/SUB] and determined upper limits of 200 ppt for HCl and 2 ppb for H[SUB]2[/SUB]O[SUB]2[/SUB]. Radiative transfer model calculations indicate that the vertical profile of O[SUB]2[/SUB] may not be constant. Photochemical models determine the lowest values of H[SUB]2[/SUB]O[SUB]2[/SUB] to be around L[SUB]s[/SUB] ~ 75° but overestimate the volume mixing ratio compared to our measurements. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst results on Martian carbon monoxide from Herschel/HIFI observations
Hartogh, P.; Błecka, M. I.; Jarchow, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 521

We report on the initial analysis of Herschel/HIFI carbon monoxide (CO) observations of the Martian atmosphere performed between 11 and 16 April 2010. We selected the (7-6) rotational transitions of the ... [more ▼]

We report on the initial analysis of Herschel/HIFI carbon monoxide (CO) observations of the Martian atmosphere performed between 11 and 16 April 2010. We selected the (7-6) rotational transitions of the isotopes [SUP]13[/SUP]CO at 771 GHz and C[SUP]18[/SUP]O and 768 GHz in order to retrieve the mean vertical profile of temperature and the mean volume mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. The derived temperature profile agrees within less than 5 K with general circulation model (GCM) predictions up to an altitude of 45 km, however, show about 12-15 K lower values at 60 km. The CO mixing ratio was determined as 980 ± 150 ppm, in agreement with the 900 ppm derived from Herschel/SPIRE observations in November 2009. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. [less ▲]

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See detailComet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann Observed with the Herschel Space Observatory: Detection of Water Vapour and Dust Far-IR Thermal Emission
Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Biver, N.; Crovisier, J. et al

in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (2010, October 01), 42

The distant comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann was observed with the HIFI, PACS and SPIRE instruments aboard the Herschel Space Observatory, as part of the guaranteed time key programme "Water and related ... [more ▼]

The distant comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann was observed with the HIFI, PACS and SPIRE instruments aboard the Herschel Space Observatory, as part of the guaranteed time key programme "Water and related chemistry in the Solar System" (KP-GT HssO). Supporting observations of the 230 GHz CO line were carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. The HIFI observations of the 557 GHz H2O line were performed on 19.05 April 2010, about 2 days after a major outburst, and on 11.02 May 2010, when 29P was in a more quiescent phase. H2O was detected on both dates with a production rate corresponding to about 1/10th the CO production, assuming near-nucleus production. The H2O line shape is consistent with release of water vapour from icy grains. PACS and SPIRE imaging data from 70 to 500 micrometers were acquired mid-June 2010 when the comet was in a quiescent phase. The continuum emission detected in the 70-μm and 160-μm PACS images is weakly extended with respect to the PSF, suggesting a major contribution from the nucleus or from slowly moving large grains. [less ▲]

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See detailA study of the distant activity of comet C/2006 W3 (Christensen) with Herschel and ground-based radio telescopes
Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Hartogh, P.; Crovisier, J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 518(Letters), 1491-6

Comet C/2006 W3 (Christensen) was observed in November 2009 at 3.3 AU from the Sun with Herschel.The PACS instrument acquired images of the dust coma in 70-μm and 160-μm filters and spectra covering ... [more ▼]

Comet C/2006 W3 (Christensen) was observed in November 2009 at 3.3 AU from the Sun with Herschel.The PACS instrument acquired images of the dust coma in 70-μm and 160-μm filters and spectra covering several H[SUB]2[/SUB]O rotational lines. Spectra in the range 450-1550 GHz were acquired with SPIRE. The comet emission continuum from 70 to 672 μm was measured, but no lines were detected. The spectral energy distribution indicates thermal emission from large particles and provides a measure of the size distribution index and dust production rate. The upper limit to the water production rate is compared to the production rates of other species (CO, CH[SUB]3[/SUB]OH, HCN, H[SUB]2[/SUB]S, OH) measured with the IRAM 30-m and Nançay telescopes. The coma is found to be strongly enriched in species more volatile than water, in comparison to comets observed closer to the Sun. The CO to H[SUB]2[/SUB]O production rate ratio exceeds 220%. The dust-to-gas production rate ratio is on the order of 1. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Figures 2, 5, 6 are only available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailFirst results of Herschel-PACS observations of Neptune
Lellouch, E.; Hartogh, P.; Feuchtgruber, H. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 518

We report on the initial analysis of a Herschel-PACS full range spectrum of Neptune, covering the 51-220 μm range with a mean resolving power of ~3000, and complemented by a dedicated observation of CH ... [more ▼]

We report on the initial analysis of a Herschel-PACS full range spectrum of Neptune, covering the 51-220 μm range with a mean resolving power of ~3000, and complemented by a dedicated observation of CH[SUB]4[/SUB] at 120 μm. Numerous spectral features due to HD (R(0) and R(1)), H[SUB]2[/SUB]O, CH[SUB]4[/SUB], and CO are present, but so far no new species have been found. Our results indicate that (i) Neptune's mean thermal profile is warmer by ~3 K than inferred from the Voyager radio-occultation; (ii) the D/H mixing ratio is (4.5 ± 1) × 10[SUP]-5[/SUP], confirming the enrichment of Neptune in deuterium over the protosolar value (~2.1 × 10[SUP]-5[/SUP]); (iii) the CH[SUB]4[/SUB] mixing ratio in the mid stratosphere is (1.5 ± 0.2) × 10[SUP]-3[/SUP], and CH[SUB]4[/SUB] appears to decrease in the lower stratosphere at a rate consistent with local saturation, in agreement with the scenario of CH[SUB]4[/SUB] stratospheric injection from Neptune's warm south polar region; (iv) the H[SUB]2[/SUB]O stratospheric column is (2.1 ± 0.5) × 10[SUP]14[/SUP] cm[SUP]-2[/SUP] but its vertical distribution is still to be determined, so the H[SUB]2[/SUB]O external flux remains uncertain by over an order of magnitude; and (v) the CO stratospheric abundance is about twice the tropospheric value, confirming the dual origin of CO suspected from ground-based millimeter/submillimeter observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Herschel-SPIRE submillimetre spectrum of Mars
Swinyard, B. M.; Hartogh, P.; Sidher, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 518

We have obtained the first continuous disk averaged spectrum of Mars from 450 to 1550 Ghz using the Herschel-SPIRE Fourier-transform spectrometer. The spectrum was obtained at a constant resolution of 1.4 ... [more ▼]

We have obtained the first continuous disk averaged spectrum of Mars from 450 to 1550 Ghz using the Herschel-SPIRE Fourier-transform spectrometer. The spectrum was obtained at a constant resolution of 1.4 GHz across the whole band. The flux from the planet is such that the instrument was operated in “bright source” mode to prevent saturation of the detectors. This was the first successful use of this mode and in this work we describe the method used for observing Mars together with a detailed discussion of the data reduction techniques required to calibrate the spectrum. We discuss the calibration accuracy obtained and describe the first comparison with surface and atmospheric models. In addition to a direct photometric measurement of the planet the spectrum contains the characteristic transitions of [SUP]12[/SUP]CO from J 5-4 to J 13-12 as well as numerous H[SUB]2[/SUB]O transitions. Together these allow the comparison to global atmospheric models allowing the mean mixing ratios of water and [SUP]12[/SUP]CO to be investigated. We find that it is possible to match the observed depth of the absorption features in the spectrum with a fixed water mixing ratio of 1×10[SUP]-4[/SUP] and a [SUP]12[/SUP]CO mixing ratio of 9×10[SUP]-4[/SUP]. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. [less ▲]

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See detailA study of the distant activity of comet C/2006 W3 (Christensen) using Herschel and ground-based radio telescopes
Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Hartogh, P.; Crovisier, J. et al

Poster (2010)

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