References of "Freeman, M. P"
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See detailA superposed epoch investigation of the relation between magnetospheric solar wind driving and substorm dynamics with geosynchronous particle injection signatures
Boakes, P. D.; Milan, S. E.; Abel, G. A. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2011), 116

We report a superposed epoch analysis of the hemispheric open magnetic flux, maximum nightside auroral intensity, geomagnetic activity, and solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field conditions around ... [more ▼]

We report a superposed epoch analysis of the hemispheric open magnetic flux, maximum nightside auroral intensity, geomagnetic activity, and solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field conditions around the time of substorm onset for three distinct categories of substorms defined by their energetic particle injection signatures. Substorms identified from global auroral imagery are classified into one of three categories based on their energetic particle injection signatures as seen at geosynchronous orbit by the Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft. Category 1 events are associated with a “classic” substorm injection, category 2 events show varied activity (i.e., energetic enhancements not following the evolution expected for classic substorms), and category 3 events show no apparent injection activity. The superposed epoch analysis reveals that the three distinct particle injection categories exhibit distinct differences in the level and continuity of magnetospheric driving by the solar wind, such that category 1 events can be described as classic substorm events, category 2 as continuously driven events, and category 3 as weak events. The results of this study suggest that the level and continuity of the dayside solar wind driving of the magnetosphere during substorms have a direct impact on the injection of energetic particles to geosynchronous orbit at substorm onset. These results could have considerable value in empirical predictions of the space weather environment. [less ▲]

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See detailA statistical study of the open magnetic flux content of the magnetosphere at the time of substorm onset
Boakes, P. D.; Milan, S. E.; Abel, G. A. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2009), 36

In this paper we determine the probability of substorm onset as a function of open magnetic flux in the magnetosphere by comparing the occurrence distribution of open flux observed at all times with that ... [more ▼]

In this paper we determine the probability of substorm onset as a function of open magnetic flux in the magnetosphere by comparing the occurrence distribution of open flux observed at all times with that observed at the time of substorm onset. The open magnetic flux is measured in 12735 auroral images of the ionospheric polar cap from the IMAGE WIC detector. The probability of substorm onset is found to be negligible for fluxes below ~0.3 GWb, increases almost linearly until ~0.9 GWb, and is undefined above this. We also demonstrate that those substorms which show a clear particle injection signature at geosynchronous orbit, as measured by the LANL spacecraft, occur, on average, with higher values of open flux than those showing no activity. We discuss these results in the context of various hypotheses for substorm onset. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the use of IMAGE FUV for estimating the latitude of the open/closed magnetic field line boundary in the ionosphere
Boakes, P. D.; Milan, S. E.; Abel, G. A. et al

in Annales Geophysicae (2008), 26

A statistical comparison of the latitude of the open/closed magnetic field line boundary (OCB) as estimated from the three far ultraviolet (FUV) detectors onboard the IMAGE spacecraft (the Wideband ... [more ▼]

A statistical comparison of the latitude of the open/closed magnetic field line boundary (OCB) as estimated from the three far ultraviolet (FUV) detectors onboard the IMAGE spacecraft (the Wideband Imaging camera, WIC, and the Spectrographic Imagers, SI-12 and SI-13) has been carried out over all magnetic local times. A total of over 400 000 OCB estimations were compared from December 2000 and January and December of 2001 2002. The modal latitude difference between the FUV OCB proxies from the three detectors is small, <1°, except in the predawn and evening sectors, where the SI-12 OCB proxy is found to be displaced from both the SI-13 and WIC OCB proxies by up to 2° poleward in the predawn sector and by up to 2° equatorward in the evening sector. Comparing the IMAGE FUV OCB proxies with that determined from particle precipitation measurements by the Defense Meteorological Satellites Program (DMSP) also shows systematic differences. The SI-12 OCB proxy is found to be at higher latitude in the predawn sector, in better agreement with the DMSP OCB proxy. The WIC and SI-13 OCB proxies are found to be in better agreement with the DMSP OCB proxy at most other magnetic local times. These systematic offsets may be used to correct FUV OCB proxies to give a more accurate estimate of the OCB latitude. [less ▲]

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