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See detailMacroevolutionary analysis of the tempo of diversification in snappers and fusiliers (Percomorpha: Lutjanidae)
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Santini, Francesco

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (in press)

The percomorph fish family Lutjanidae (snappers and fusiliers) includes about 135 reef-dwelling species, mainly confined to tropical and subtropical marine waters. The great majority of snappers are ... [more ▼]

The percomorph fish family Lutjanidae (snappers and fusiliers) includes about 135 reef-dwelling species, mainly confined to tropical and subtropical marine waters. The great majority of snappers are active predators feeding on fishes or crustaceans, even though some species, including the fusiliers (Caesioninae), have evolved zooplanktivory. Lutjanids show a great diversity of habitat preferences, based on depth segregation and distribution across reef and associated habitats (e.g. mangroves, seagrass beds, estuaries). In spite of their great ecological and economic importance little is known about the tempo of evolution in this group. The present study provides the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny to date for lutjanids, including 70% of extant species and 19 of the 21 currently described genera. We time-calibrated our molecular tree using the oldest described lutjanid fossils, and show how this group likely originated during the Late Cretaceous to Early Paleocene. Lutjanids experienced significant radiation during the Late Eocene and Early Oligocene, in contrast to a pattern of Late Oligocene/Miocene radiation observed in many other reef-associated groups. The time-tree allows us to investigate the tempo of diversification, and our results suggest a variation in the rate of speciation during the evolution of the major clade formed by “lutjanins and caesionins”. Variation in diet and life history strategies could explain this clade-specific dynamic, even though future phylogenetic comparative studies combining additional ecological and morphological data are needed to test this hypothesis. [less ▲]

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See detailStable isotopes reveal effects of environmental changes on ecological niches of Iphimediidae amphipods
Michel, Loïc ULg; d'Udekem d'Acoz, Cédric; Frederich, Bruno ULg et al

Poster (2017, July)

When faced with environmental changes, organisms are expected to have some intrinsic ability to adapt through ecological plasticity. However, this process is still poorly understood in many Antarctic ... [more ▼]

When faced with environmental changes, organisms are expected to have some intrinsic ability to adapt through ecological plasticity. However, this process is still poorly understood in many Antarctic invertebrates. Here, we focused on Iphimediidae amphipods, as this widely distributed family shows important ecological diversity. In total, 248 amphipods (19 species) from two widely different zones (the West Antarctic Peninsula, or WAP, and Adélie Land, AL) were studied to elucidate how environment can influence ecological niche parameters. Ecological niches were explored using stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen and the SIBER approach (Jackson et al., 2011). The isotopic niche of the whole amphipod assemblage was wider in WAP than in AL. This was true for both total (proxy of the whole range of resources exploited by animals) and the core (proxy of the most commonly used resources) isotopic niches. The ratio between total and core isotopic niches was smaller in WAP than in AL (4.13 vs. 5.74), suggesting that in WAP, animals commonly use a greater relative percentage of the resources to which they have access. Niche modelling at the specific level revealed that this trend was not found in all taxa. For example, niches of Gnathiphimedia sexdentata and Iphimediella microdentata were bigger in WAP than in AL, following the general pattern. On the other hand, niches of Echiniphimedia echinata and E. hodgsoni had the same width in both areas. Moreover, relative niche overlap between these two species was much higher in WAP (42%) than in AL (20%). Our results indicate that the widely different environmental conditions encountered by the animals in these two zones clearly influence their ecology. Overall, Iphimediidae amphipods tend to exploit more resources in WAP, i.e. in the zone where impacts of global change (temperature increase, sea ice cover decrease) are the strongest. Niche overlap between some closely related (i.e. congeneric) species was also more important in WAP. Ultimately, environmental changes in this region might reinforce these trends, which might lead to competition and perturb amphipod community structure. This research was funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) in the framework of the vERSO and RECTO projects. [less ▲]

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See detailBody shape convergence driven by small size optimum in marine angelfishes
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Santini, Francesco; Konow, Nicolai et al

in Biology Letters (2017), 13

Convergent evolution of small body size occurs across many vertebrate clades and may reflect an evolutionary response to shared selective press- ures. However it remains unclear if other aspects of ... [more ▼]

Convergent evolution of small body size occurs across many vertebrate clades and may reflect an evolutionary response to shared selective press- ures. However it remains unclear if other aspects of phenotype undergo convergent evolution in miniaturized lineages. Here we present a comparative analysis of body size and shape evolution in marine angelfishes (Pomacanthidae), a reef fish family characterized by repeated transitions to small body size. We ask if lineages that evolve small sizes show convergent evolution in body shape. Our results reveal that angelfish lineages evolved three different stable size optima with one corresponding to the group of pygmy angelfishes (Centropyge). Then, we test if the observed shifts in body size are associated with changes to new adaptive peaks in shape. Our data suggest that independent evolution to small size optima have induced repeated convergence upon deeper body and steeper head profile in Centropyge. These traits may favour manoeuvrability and visual aware- ness in these cryptic species living among corals, illustrating that functional demands on small size may be related to habitat specialization and predator avoidance. The absence of shape convergence in large marine angelfishes also suggests that more severe requirements exist for small than for large size optima. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution and diversity of ram-suction feeding in damselfishes (Pomacentridae)
Olivier, Damien ULg; Gajdzik, Laura ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg et al

in Organisms Diversity & Evolution (2017), 17

The cerato-mandibular (c-md) ligament is a synapomorphy within Pomacentridae that creates a tight link between the lower jaws and the hyoid bars. However, this morphological trait has been secondarily ... [more ▼]

The cerato-mandibular (c-md) ligament is a synapomorphy within Pomacentridae that creates a tight link between the lower jaws and the hyoid bars. However, this morphological trait has been secondarily lost in multiple lineages during evolution. A previous study revealed that the loss of this trait acted as a release of evolutionary constraints, leading to a cascade of morphological changes such elongated buccal jaws and a slender body. Ecomorphological interpretations suggested the loss of the c-md ligament has ultimately led to a new adaptive peak in zooplanktivory through an optimization of the ram feeding mode associated with a specialization in pelagic feeding. Here, we tested these hypotheses by comparing functional and diet diversity between damselfish species with and without the c-md ligament. Although species lacking the c-md ligament presented a conserved kinematic pattern resulting from high ram and low suction performances, our results did not support an optimization of the ram feeding mode. Indeed, some species with the c-md ligament showed the same or exceeded the ram performance of species without the c-md ligament. The species with the c-md ligament had a more diverse kinematic pattern exploring the entire ram-suction functional range in damselfishes. Finally, our results did not show any diet variations associated with the loss of the c-md ligament. Our study furthers the understanding of how a morphological trait has shaped, by its presence or absence, the ecomorpho-functional diversification of Pomacentridae. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative Feeding Ecology of Cardinalfishes (Apogonidae) at Toliara Reef, Madagascar
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Michel, Loïc ULg; Zaeytydt, Esther et al

in Zoological Studies (2017), 56(10), 1-14

Despite their importance in coral reef ecosystem function and trophodynamics, the trophic ecology of nocturnal fishes (e.g. Apogonidae, Holocentridae, Pempheridae) is by far less studied than diurnal ones ... [more ▼]

Despite their importance in coral reef ecosystem function and trophodynamics, the trophic ecology of nocturnal fishes (e.g. Apogonidae, Holocentridae, Pempheridae) is by far less studied than diurnal ones. The Apogonidae (cardinalfishes) include mostly carnivorous species and evidence of trophic niche partitioning among sympatric cardinalfishes is still limited. The present study combines stomach contents and stable isotope analyses to investigate the feeding ecology of an assemblage of eight cardinalfishes from the Great Reef of Toliara (SW Madagascar). δ13C and δ15N of fishes ranged between -17.49‰ and -10.03‰ and between 6.28‰ and 10.74‰, respectively. Both stomach contents and stable isotopes showed that they feed on planktonic and benthic animal prey in various proportions. Previous studies were able to group apogonids in different trophic categories but such a discrimination is not obvious here. Large intra-specific variation in the stomach contents and temporal variation in the relative contribution of prey to diet support that all apogonids should be considered as generalist, carnivorous fishes. However the exploration of the isotopic space revealed a clear segregation of isotopic niches among species, suggesting a high level of resource partitioning within the assemblage. According to low inter-specific variation in stomach content compositions, we argue that the differences in isotopic niches could be driven by variation in foraging locations (i.e. microhabitat segregation) and physiology among species. Our temporal datasets demonstrate that the trophic niche partitioning among cardinalfishes and the breadth of their isotopic niches are dynamic and change across time. Factors driving this temporal variation need to be investigated in further studies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of stable isotopes in marine animal trophic ecology
Sturaro, Nicolas ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg et al

Conference (2017, May 05)

Stable isotope analysis has been recognised as a useful tool for studying animal diet, identifying trophic relationships, and delineating food web structures as well as their alteration by human ... [more ▼]

Stable isotope analysis has been recognised as a useful tool for studying animal diet, identifying trophic relationships, and delineating food web structures as well as their alteration by human activities. Over the past decade, the number of studies using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in marine trophic ecology has increased rapidly as technological advancements greatly facilitate their use. This tool is now among the most popular in ecology and several fields of investigations have developed, including the extension of analyses to more ‘difficult’ stable isotope ratio measurements such as sulfur, the use of isotope mixing models, and the creation of compound-specific stable isotope analysis. Here, we present three case studies taken from our own investigations and previously published literature. The first investigates seagrass detritus ecosystem in which the coexistence of a rich number of species of crustacean raises the question of whether trophic diversity exist among these species. The second examines the feeding habits of coral reef fish and explores whether habitat choice on the reef and their behaviour emerges as good predictors of diet. The third presents the potential use of stable isotope analysis in studying the nutrition of scleractinian corals, which are complex symbiotic organisms that usually present both autotrophic and heterotrophic pathways. This tool has enhanced our understanding of coral species biology, yet it remains underused. Overall, we aim to provide initial insights into stable isotope analysis for illustrating their utility and potential applications to better understand food web structures and species diet in the waters around Taiwan. [less ▲]

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See detailSize and shape variations of the bony components of sperm whale cochleae
Schnitzler, Joseph ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg; Früchtnicht, Sven et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

Several mass strandings of sperm whales occurred in the North Sea during January and February 2016. Twelve animals were necropsied and sampled around 48h after their discovery on German coasts of ... [more ▼]

Several mass strandings of sperm whales occurred in the North Sea during January and February 2016. Twelve animals were necropsied and sampled around 48h after their discovery on German coasts of Schleswig Holstein. The present study aims to explore the morphological variation of the primary sensory organ of sperm whales, the left and right auditory system, using high-resolution computerised tomography imaging. We performed a quantitative analysis of size and shape of cochleae using landmark-based geometric morphometrics to reveal inter-individual anatomical variations. A hierarchical cluster analysis based on thirty-one external morphometric characters classified these 12 individuals in two stranding clusters. A relative amount of shape variation could be attributable to geographical differences among stranding locations and clusters. Our geometric data allowed the discrimination of distinct bachelor schools among sperm whales that stranded on German coasts. We argue that the cochleae are individually shaped, varying greatly in dimensions and that the intra-specific variation observed in the morphology of the cochleae may partially reflect their affiliation to their bachelor school. There are increasing concerns about the impact of noise on cetaceans and describing the auditory periphery of odontocetes is a key conservation issue to further assess the effect of noise pollution. [less ▲]

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See detailMacroevolutionary patterns in sea breams, emperors and allies (Sparoidea, Acanthomorpha)
Santini, Francesco; Olivier, Damien ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg

Poster (2017, January 07)

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See detailPatterns of body size and shape diversification in marine angelfishes (Pomacanthidae)
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Santini, Francesco; Konow, Nicolai et al

Conference (2017, January 06)

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See detailHabitat selection by marine larvae in changing chemical environments
Lecchini, David; Dixson, Danielle L.; Lecellier, Gael et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2017), 114

The replenishment and persistence of marine species is contingent on dispersing larvae locating suitable habitat and surviving to a reproductive stage. Pelagic larvae rely on environmental cues to make ... [more ▼]

The replenishment and persistence of marine species is contingent on dispersing larvae locating suitable habitat and surviving to a reproductive stage. Pelagic larvae rely on environmental cues to make behavioural decisions with chemical information being important for habitat selection at settlement. We explored the sensory world of crustaceans and fishes focusing on the impact anthropogenic alterations (ocean acidification, red soil, pesticide) have on conspecific chemical signals used by larvae for habitat selection. Crustacean (Stenopus hispidus) and fish (Chromis viridis) larvae recognized their conspecifics via chemical signals under control conditions. In the presence of acidified water, red soil or pesticide, the ability of larvae to chemically recognize conspecific cues was altered. Our study highlights that recruitment potential on coral reefs may decrease due to anthropogenic stressors. If so, populations of fishes and crustaceans will continue their rapid decline; larval recruitment will not replace and sustain the adult populations on degraded reefs. [less ▲]

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See detailPost-embryonic development of sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus: a staging tool based on externally visible anatomical traits
Schnitzler, Joseph ULg; Dussenne, Mélanie ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg et al

in Ichthyological Research (2017), 64

The sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus has become a favoured model for laboratory studies because of their small size, rapid development, and tolerance of laboratory conditions. Here, we analyse ... [more ▼]

The sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus has become a favoured model for laboratory studies because of their small size, rapid development, and tolerance of laboratory conditions. Here, we analyse sheepshead minnow post-embryonic development with the goal of providing a generally useful method for staging fish after embryogenesis. Groups of three females and two males were placed in breeding chambers designed for this experiment. More than 100 eggs were collected and maintained in seawater. Embryos were selected under a dissection microscope and placed in incubation dishes (50 per dish) at 26 °C. On day six, embryos hatched and larvae were transferred to 1 L beakers. To define a simplified normalization table for sheepshead minnow development, we measured each fish for its standard length and examined the fish for four externally evident traits: pigmentation pattern, caudal fin morphology, anal fin morphology, and dorsal fin morphology. The four traits were chosen, because they are easily visualized with standard laboratory equipment such as the stereomicroscope and camera. We have provided criteria for staging sheepshead minnows in studies of post-embryonic development. Our data suggest that dorsal and anal fin morphology may serve as a useful phenotype for defining metamorphic climax stages throughout post-embryonic development in C. variegatus. The staging systems we propose should facilitate detailed anatomical and developmental analyses in relation to ecotoxicological studies on potential disruption of the thyroid axis by xenobiotics and endocrine-disrupting compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailHead shape disparity of the cod icefishes Trematominae (Notothenioidei, Teleostei)
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Heindler, Franz M.; Dettai, Agnès et al

Poster (2016, December 16)

The suborder Notothenioidei (Teleostei) has undergone a remarkable adaptive radiation in the Southern Ocean. Within this suborder, the subfamily Trematominae is endemic to Antarctic waters and represents ... [more ▼]

The suborder Notothenioidei (Teleostei) has undergone a remarkable adaptive radiation in the Southern Ocean. Within this suborder, the subfamily Trematominae is endemic to Antarctic waters and represents a dominant component of the shelf fish fauna. After recent advances in molecular phylogenetics, 14 species of Trematomus are currently recognized (including Pagothenia and Cryothenia spp.) comprising both considerable morphological and ecological diversity. Here, we aim to illustrate the main axes of shape variation in Trematomus and explore the evolution of their morphology. A dataset of 96 specimens representing 10 species of Trematomus from the collection of the Natural History Museum of Paris was assembled, and landmark-based geometric morphometrics was applied to quantify head shape disparity. Regular regression analysis revealed significant interspecific allometry while a low percentage of shape variation was explained by size (R2 = 0.11; P < 0.001). Main shape variation across species was explored using a principal component (PC) analysis on shape variables. Two groups diverged along PC1: (1) T. bernacchii, T. hansoni, T. pennellii and T. tokarevi have short cephalic profiles with larger cheeks (lowest values along PC1); and (2) T. lepidorhinus, T. eulepidotus and T. newnesi show lengthened cephalic profiles with larger eyes (highest values along PC1). Trematomus scotti differed from all other species mainly along PC3 indicating more elongated cheeks. Phenogram based on Procrustes shape distances will be compared to molecular phylogenetic trees and morphometric data will be mapped onto phylogenetic trees in order to illustrate the mode of phenotypic diversification of Trematomus during evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailBroadening of acoustic repertoire in Pomacentridae: tonal sounds in the Ambon damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg

in Journal of Zoology (2016), 300(4), 241-246

Damselfish are prolific callers, identified as being able to produce different kinds of sounds (pops and chirps) associated with various behaviors. During courtship and chase behaviors, the coral reef ... [more ▼]

Damselfish are prolific callers, identified as being able to produce different kinds of sounds (pops and chirps) associated with various behaviors. During courtship and chase behaviors, the coral reef damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis produces a previously unknown additional kind of call that we have named the wiping sound. These calls have two to three long (54 ± 13 ms) units that do not show the usual percussive aspect of the pomacentrid sounds. Calls consist of a high-pitched (from 550 to 775 Hz) tonal sound in which the cycle repetition rate corresponds to the peak frequency. The high frequency of this tonal sound can be excluded as coming from the contraction of sound producing muscles. These sounds could be the result of a mechanism that drives the merging of successive pops. In the noisy environment of coral reefs and the resulting competition for acoustic space, the wiping sounds appear to be a good way to increase signal distinctiveness and opportunities for correct signal discrimination. This new kind of sound supports that acoustic communication is highly important in the biology of damselfishes and their diversification. [less ▲]

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See detailWorkshop: Comparative methods in evolutionary biology
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Santini, Francesco

Conference (2016, December)

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See detailTrophic specializations of damselfishes are tightly associated with reef habitats and social behaviours
Gajdzik, Laura ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg; Sturaro, Nicolas ULg et al

in Marine Biology (2016), 163

Despite the increasing need to understand factors shaping community assembly, few studies have simultaneously explored the influence of niche-based and phylogenetic processes. Here, we investigate the ... [more ▼]

Despite the increasing need to understand factors shaping community assembly, few studies have simultaneously explored the influence of niche-based and phylogenetic processes. Here, we investigate the relationships between diet, habitat and social behaviour in damselfishes (Pomacentridae) collected in 2014 at Moorea Island (17°30′S, 149°50′W), French Polynesia. Isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen, in association with stomach contents, delineate three trophic groups: pelagic feeders consuming zooplankton, benthic feeders mainly grazing on algae and an intermediate group feeding on prey from the whole bentho-pelagic compartment. Sulphur isotope ratios indicate segregation between species of the outer reef mostly depending on oceanic input of zooplankton and the lagoonal species relying on locally produced resources or even on terrestrial supply. We demonstrate a tight association between dietary specializations, habitat characteristics and social behaviours, and these correlations are further confirmed by integrating the phylogeny of Pomacentridae. We also provide evidence of phylogenetic conservatism for the stomach content and the habitat–behaviour characters. However, the isotopic trait is evolutionarily more labile probably because it thoroughly depicts the ecological niche of species. To summarize, pelagic feeders (mainly from the Chrominae) usually form shoals in areas close to the open ocean at a maximum depth of 20 m. Benthic feeders (well represented in the Stegastinae) are ubiquitous, solitary and mostly territorial species found at various depths. The intermediate group includes gregarious species from three subfamilies that forage in the lagoon usually above 12 m depth. Overall, we give insight into processes that have structured the damselfish community in Moorea. [less ▲]

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See detailTriclosan exposure results in alterations of thyroid hormone status and retarded early development and metamorphosis in Cyprinodon variegatus
Schnitzler, Joseph ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg; Dussenne, Mélanie ULg et al

in Aquatic Toxicology (2016), 181

Thyroid hormones are critically involved in somatic growth, development and metamorphosis of vertebrates. The structural similarity between thyroid hormones and triclosan, an antimicrobial compound widely ... [more ▼]

Thyroid hormones are critically involved in somatic growth, development and metamorphosis of vertebrates. The structural similarity between thyroid hormones and triclosan, an antimicrobial compound widely employed in consumer personal care products, suggests triclosan can have adverse effects on the thyroid system. The sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus, is now used in ecotoxicological studies that have recently begun to focus on potential disruption of the thyroid axis by endocrine disrupting compounds. Here, we investigate the in vivo effects of exposure to triclosan (20, 50, and 100 μg L−1) on the thyroid system and the embryonic and larval development of C. variegatus. Triclosan exposure did not affect hatching success, but delayed hatching time by 6–13 h compared to control embryos. Triclosan exposure affected the ontogenetic variations of whole body thyroid hormone concentrations during the larval phase. The T3 peak around 12–15 dph, described to be indicative for the metamorphosis climax in C. variegatus, was absent in triclosan-exposed larvae. Triclosan exposure did not produce any deformity or allometric repatterning, but a delayed development of 18–32 h was observed. We conclude that the triclosan-induced disruption of the thyroid system delays in vivo the start of metamorphosis in our experimental model. We observed a global developmental delay of 24–45 h, equivalent to 4–7% prolongation of the developmental time in C. variegatus. The costs of delayed metamorphosis can lead to reduction of juvenile fitness and could be a determining factor in the outcome of competitive interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-reef environments impact the diversification of extant jacks, remoras and allies (Carangoidei, Percomorpha)
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Marrama, Giuseppe; Carnevale, Giorgio et al

in Proceedings of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences (2016), 283

Various factors may impact the processes of diversification of a clade. In the marine realm, it has been shown that coral reef environments have promoted diversification in various fish groups. With the ... [more ▼]

Various factors may impact the processes of diversification of a clade. In the marine realm, it has been shown that coral reef environments have promoted diversification in various fish groups. With the exception of requiem sharks, all the groups showing a higher level of diversity in reefs than in non-reef habitats have diets based predominantly on plankton, algae or benthic invert- ebrates. Here we explore the pattern of diversification of carangoid fishes, a clade that includes numerous piscivorous species (e.g. trevallies, jacks and dolphinfishes), using time-calibrated phylogenies as well as ecological and morphological data from both extant and fossil species. The study of caran- goid morphospace suggests that reef environments played a role in their early radiation during the Eocene. However, contrary to the hypothesis of a reef-association-promoting effect, we show that habitat shifts to non-reef environments have increased the rates of morphological diversification (i.e. size and body shape) in extant carangoids. Piscivory did not have a major impact on the tempo of diversification of this group. Through the ecological radiation of carangoid fishes, we demonstrate that non-reef environments may sustain and promote processes of diversification of different marine fish groups, at least those including a large proportion of piscivorous species. [less ▲]

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See detailEcomorphology and Iterative Ecological Radiation of Damselfishes
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Cooper, W. James; Aguilar-Medrano, Rosalia

in Frederich, Bruno; Parmentier, Eric (Eds.) Biology of Damselfishes (2016)

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See detailTrophic Ecology of Damselfishes
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Olivier, Damien ULg; Gajdzik, Laura ULg et al

in Frederich, Bruno; Parmentier, Eric (Eds.) Biology of Damselfishes (2016)

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