References of "Fortier, Guillaume"
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See detailAssessing fitness in endurance horses
Fraipont, Audrey ULg; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve ULg et al

in Canadian Veterinary Journal = Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne (2012), 53

A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120km and more ... [more ▼]

A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocities at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels. [less ▲]

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See detailSerum concentration of surfactant protein D in horses with lower airway inflammation
Richard, Eric; Pitel, Pierre-Hugues; Christmann, Undine et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2012), 44

Reasons for performing study: Surfactant protein D (SP-D), mainly synthesised by alveolar type II cells and nonciliated bronchiolar cells, is one important component of innate pulmonary immunity. In man ... [more ▼]

Reasons for performing study: Surfactant protein D (SP-D), mainly synthesised by alveolar type II cells and nonciliated bronchiolar cells, is one important component of innate pulmonary immunity. In man, circulating concentrations of SP-D are routinely used as biomarkers for pulmonary injury. To date, serum SP-D levels have only been investigated in horses in an experimental model of bacterial airway infection. Objectives: To compare serum SP-D concentrations at rest and after exercise in horses with and without inflammatory airway disease (IAD). Methods: Venous blood samples were collected from 42 Standardbred racehorses at rest and 60 min after performing a standardised treadmill exercise test. Tracheal wash and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were collected after exercise. Based on BALF cytology, 22 horses were defined as IAD-affected and 20 classified as controls. Serum SP-D concentrations were assessed using a commercially available ELISA kit and statistically compared between groups of horses and sampling times. Results: Serum concentrations of SP-D in IAD-affected horses were significantly higher than those of control horses, both at rest and after exercise. Within the IAD-affected group, no significant correlation was found between serum SP-D concentrations and BALF cytology. Within each group of horses (IAD and control), no significant influence of exercise was found on serum SP-D levels. Conclusions: This is the first study determining serum SP-D concentrations in a noninfectious, naturally occurring form of lower airway inflammation in horses. The results highlight that IAD is associated with a detectable, though moderate, increase of circulating SP-D levels. Potential relevance: Serum concentration of surfactant protein D could represent a potentially valuable and readily accessible blood biomarker of equine lower airway inflammation [less ▲]

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See detailIntérêt du dosage sanguin de la protéine D de surfactant (SP-D) lors d'inflammation des voies respiratoires profondes
Richard, Eric; Pitel, P. H.; Christmann, Undine et al

in Proceedings de la 38ème Journée de la Recherche Equine (2012)

Surfactant protein D (SP-D), mainly synthetised by alveolar type II tells, isone important component of innate pulmonary immunity. The aim of the study was te sompare serum SP-D concentrations in horses ... [more ▼]

Surfactant protein D (SP-D), mainly synthetised by alveolar type II tells, isone important component of innate pulmonary immunity. The aim of the study was te sompare serum SP-D concentrations in horses with and without inflammatory airway disease (IAD). Venous blond samples were collected from 42 Standardbred racehorses at rest and 60 min after performing a standardised treadmill exercise test. Based on bronchoalveolar lavage cytology, 22 horses were defined as IAD-affected and 20 classified as controls. Serum concentrations of SP-D in IAD-affected horses were significantly higher than those of control horses, both at rest and after exercise. Within each group of horses (IAD and control), no significant influence of exercise was found on serum SP-D levels. This is he first study determining serum SP-D concentrations in a noninfectious, naturally occuring form of louver airway inflammation in horses. The results highlight that IAD is associated with a detectable, though moderate, increase of circulating SP-D levels. Serum concentration of surfactant protein D could represent a potentially valuable and readily accessible blond biomarker of equine louver airway inflammation. [less ▲]

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See detailSubclinical diseases affecting performance in Standardbred trotters: Diagnostic methods and predictive parameters
Richard, Eric ULg; Fortier, Guillaume; Pitel, Pierre-Hugues et al

in Veterinary Journal (2010), 184(3), 282-289

The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical diseases in poorly-performing Standardbred horses, compare their physiological response to exercise with control horses, and ... [more ▼]

The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical diseases in poorly-performing Standardbred horses, compare their physiological response to exercise with control horses, and identify predictive parameters of poor-performance. Fifty horses underwent thorough clinical and ancillary examinations, including haematological and biochemical evaluation, Doppler echocardiography, standardised exercise tests (SETs) on both treadmill and racetrack, treadmill video-endoscopy and collection of respiratory fluids. Most of the poorly-performing horses exhibited many concomitant diseases. The most frequently diagnosed problems involved the lower and upper respiratory tract and the musculoskeletal system. Poor-performers had lower speeds at a blood lactate (LA) concentration of 4 mmol/L (VLA4) and a heart rate (HR) of 200 bpm (V200) on treadmill and racetrack, as well as lower values for haematological parameters, plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme and antioxidants, compared to control horses. Problems of the respiratory system were the most frequently diagnosed sub-clinical diseases affecting performance. SETs, together with some blood markers, may be useful as a non-specific diagnostic tool for early detection of diseases that may affect performance. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in the bone marrow of asymptomatic horses
Pitel, Pierre-Hugues; Pronost, Stéphane; Scrive, Thibaut et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2010)

Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease, the aetiological agents of which are either Theileria equi or Babesia caballi parasites. Piroplasmosis is commonly encountered in acute or sub-acute clinical ... [more ▼]

Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease, the aetiological agents of which are either Theileria equi or Babesia caballi parasites. Piroplasmosis is commonly encountered in acute or sub-acute clinical forms although clinically recovered horses may remain asymptomatic but infected for several years. The clinical detection of such apparently healthy carrier horses (that serve as a host for subsequent infecting ticks), remains a worldwide challenge for controlling the spread of the disease. The aim of the present paper is to report on the detection of both T. equi and B. caballi by PCR in the bone marrow of naturally infected asymptomatic horses. Among 35 bone marrow samples evaluated for orthopaedic clinical research purposes, three samples from clinically healthy horses were found to be positive for T. equi, one of which was also positive for B. caballi. Even if the precise localisation of these parasites as well as the underlying mechanisms for persistence still remains unknown, one should not exclude bone marrow as a potential reservoir site for T. equi and B. caballi in infected asymptomatic horses. We suggest that, this possible localisation site (the bone marrow) should be considered as a therapeutic target when treating parasitic infection in apparently healthy horses. [less ▲]

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See detailEquine gammaherpesviruses : pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnosis
Fortier, Guillaume; Van Erck, Emmanuelle ULg; Pronost, Stéphane et al

in Veterinary Journal (2010), 186

Equine gammaherpesviruses (cEHV) have been widely studied over the past 45 years and many isolates have been characterised. Despite this, the diagnosis of cEHV infection remains difficult to establish as ... [more ▼]

Equine gammaherpesviruses (cEHV) have been widely studied over the past 45 years and many isolates have been characterised. Despite this, the diagnosis of cEHV infection remains difficult to establish as its clinical manifestations lack specificity, ranging from mild respiratory signs in a small number of animals to outbreaks in large groups of young horses. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of equine herpesvirus (EHV)-2 and -5 infections, as well as on the genetic variation of these viruses. Study of these variations has resulted in hypotheses relating to viral re-infection and re-activation. Interestingly, the viruses were found to contain genetic sequences identical to those of eukaryotic cells which are considered central to the development of viral latency through interfering with host immune and inflammatory responses. Future molecular biological studies will further elucidate the virulence mechanisms of these equine pathogens [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of subclinical inflammatory airway disease on equine respiratory function evalueated by impulse oscillometry
Richard, Eric ULg; Fortier, Guillaume; Denoix, Jean-Marie et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2009), 41(4), 384-389

Reasons for performing study: Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is a nonseptic condition of the lower respiratory tract. Its negative impact on respiratory function has previously <br /><br />been ... [more ▼]

Reasons for performing study: Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is a nonseptic condition of the lower respiratory tract. Its negative impact on respiratory function has previously <br /><br />been described using either forced expiration or forced oscillations techniques. However, sedation or drug-induced bronchoconstriction were usually required. The impulse <br /><br />oscillometry system (IOS) is a noninvasive and sensitive respiratory function test validated in horses, which could be useful to evaluate IAD-affected horses without further <br /><br />procedures. <br /><br />Objectives: To determine the sensitivity of IOS in detecting alterations of the respiratory function in subclinically IAD-affected horses without inducing bronchoprovocation and to characterise their respiratory impedance according to frequency for each respiratory phase. <br /><br />Methods: Pulmonary function was evaluated at rest by IOS in 34 Standardbred trotters. According to the cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), 19 horses were defined <br /><br />as IAD-affected and 15 horses were used as control (CTL). Total respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) from 1–20 Hz as well as their inspiratory and expiratory <br /><br />components were compared between groups. <br /><br />Results: A significant increase of Rrs at the lower frequencies (R1–10 Hz) as well as a significant decrease of Xrs beyond 5 Hz (X5–20 Hz) was observed in IAD compared to CTL horses. IOS-data was also significantly different between inspiration and expiration in IAD-affected horses. In the whole population, both BALF eosinophil and mast cell counts were <br /><br />significantly correlated with IOS measurements. <br /><br />Conclusions: Functional respiratory impairment may be measured, even in the absence of clinical signs of disease. In IAD-affected horses, the different parameters of respiratory <br /><br />function (Rrs or Xrs) may vary depending on the inflammatory cell profiles represented in BALF. <br /><br />Potential relevance: Impulse oscillometry could be used in a routine clinical setting as a noninvasive method for early detection of subclinical respiratory disease and of the results <br /><br />of treatment in horses. [less ▲]

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See detailLaboratory findings in respiratory fluids of the poorly-performing horse
Richard, Eric ULg; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2009)

Any disorder impairing a performance horse’s ability to ventilate its lungs and exchange oxygen compromises exercise performance in any discipline. Since bronchoalveolar lavage was described in horses in ... [more ▼]

Any disorder impairing a performance horse’s ability to ventilate its lungs and exchange oxygen compromises exercise performance in any discipline. Since bronchoalveolar lavage was described in horses in the early 1980s, laboratory evaluation of respiratory fluids, along with clinical and functional assessment of the respiratory system, has become a relevant step in the diagnosis of respiratory disease affecting performance. The aim of this review is to provide objective information to assist clinicians in interpreting laboratory findings by (1) summarising published cytological references values in both clinically healthy horses and those with various airway diseases, (2) assessing the influence of physiological circumstances, such as exercise, on the cytological evaluation, (3) discussing the relationship between cytological and microbiological analyses, clinical signs and respiratory function, and (4) suggesting how this latter relationship may affect performance. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of equid herpesvirus-5 in respiratory liquids: A retrospective study of 785 samples taken in 2006-2007
Fortier, Guillaume; Pronost, Stéphane; Miszczak, Fabien et al

in Veterinary Journal (2009), 182

During a case control study undertaken in 2006-2007, a screening and consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to evaluate the potential role of equid herpesviruses (EHV) in several ... [more ▼]

During a case control study undertaken in 2006-2007, a screening and consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to evaluate the potential role of equid herpesviruses (EHV) in several occurrences of respiratory disorders in 661 horses. Of 785 bronchoalveolar or tracheal lavage fluid samples submitted for analysis, 20 were positive for EHV-5 DNA by sequential analysis of the consensus PCR product. Nineteen of those samples were confirmed using a specific EHV-5 PCR. No particular changes in cytological profile could be associated with the detection of EHV-5 in contrast to suggestions in previous reports of natural or experimental respiratory viral infections in horses or ponies. This is the first description of EHV-5 isolation in equine respiratory fluids in Europe, but further investigations are needed to determine the potential pathogenic role of this gammaherpesvirus in the horse. [less ▲]

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See detailBilan medico-sportif du yearling a l’entrainement
Toussaint; Fraipont, Audrey ULg; Wagemans, Marie-Christine et al

in 35èmes Journées AVEF (2007)

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See detailA case of periarticular abcess and suppurative arthritis of the atlanto-occipital joint
Van Galen, Gaby ULg; Lopez, Diego; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

Poster (2006, August)

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