References of "Fontaine, Michael"
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See detailPostglacial climate changes and rise of three ecotypes of harbor porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, in western Palearctic waters
Fontaine, Michaël; Roland, K.; Calves, I. et al

in Molecular Ecology (2014)

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See detailCytochrome P450 1A1 expression in cetacean skin biopsies from the Indian Ocean
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Fontaine, Michael et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2011)

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See detailPhylogeography of Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the Eastern North Atlantic and in the Black Sea Explored by the Analyses of Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA
Fontaine, Michaël; Baird, C.; Stuart, J. E. et al

Poster (2005)

Study of the genetic population structure and the demographic history of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) has been nearly comprehensive throughout its distribution in North Atlantic, most studies ... [more ▼]

Study of the genetic population structure and the demographic history of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) has been nearly comprehensive throughout its distribution in North Atlantic, most studies using the mitochondrial control region as a genetic marker. Although these studies have shown population structure in some parts of the North Atlantic, mitochondrial DNA is a single, maternally inherited locus and therefore insufficient to fully characterize population structure and history. Polymorphism at 11 microsatellite loci was analyzed in harbour porpoises collected throughout the range of the species in the Central and Eastern North Atlantic from the Iberian peninsula northward to Arctic waters (Portugal, Spain, bay of Biscay, Irish waters, English Channel, the southern bay of the North Sea, Norway, Faroe Islands, and Iceland) and also along the coasts of the Black Sea (Turkey, Ukraine, Bulgaria and Georgia). Multilocus tests for allele frequency differences and population structure estimates indicate complete genetic isolation between Atlantic and Black Sea porpoises. No fine population structure was observed within the Black Sea, and this population displayed a low genetic diversity compared to those of Atlantic. These results can be interpreted in the light of the demographic history of this relict population and the strong founder effect and bottleneck it may have undergone in its past evolution. In Eastern North Atlantic waters, microsatellite data revealed fine scale partitioning of the genetic variation. These results will be compared to the pattern previously reported based on the analysis of the mtDNA control region, and seem to correlate with variation in oceanographic features. [less ▲]

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See detailTrace metals in the harbour porpoise from the North Sea and adjacent areas: relationship with stable isotope measurements, the nutritional status, lesions of the respiratory system and parasitism.
Das, Krishna ULg; Siebert, Ursula; Fontaine, Michaël et al

Conference (2003)

Growing concern has been raised about the status and the long-term viability of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the North Sea and adjacent areas. Sources of trace metal variations were ... [more ▼]

Growing concern has been raised about the status and the long-term viability of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the North Sea and adjacent areas. Sources of trace metal variations were investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Porpoises from the Belgian coasts were compared to individuals from the German North Sea and Baltic coasts, Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Toxicological results (Hg, Zn, Cu, Cd and Se) were confronted to most common pathological findings, namely emaciation, lesions of the respiratory system or parasitism. Influence of diet through stable carbon and nitrogen analysis (d13C and d15N), age and sex have also been considered. As expected, the nutritional status of stranded harbour porpoise from the Southern North Sea is poor compared to by-caught individuals from Norway and Iceland, as reflected by their blubber thickness, weight to length ratio and hepatic to total body mass ratio. The porpoises collected along the Southern North Sea coast display higher Zn and Hg concentrations compared to individuals collected in more preserved areas from the North Atlantic. Moreover, significant Zn, Hg and Se levels were observed with increasing emaciation severity. Porpoises displaying severe bronchopneumonia also have higher Zn concentrations probably due to the association previously described of emaciation and bronchopneumonia. Hg is clearly linked to parasitism. These increasing concentrations are not related to a shrinking of liver mass as it remains unchanged during the emaciation. As a result, hepatic trace metal load increases also. These observations tend to indicate a general redistribution of heavy metals within the organs (muscles to livers), which results from protein catabolism. Such a re-distribution could well be an additional stress for porpoises already experiencing stressful conditions (organochlorines, etc…). In contrast, Cu and Cd were never associated to emaciation. Other parameters such as age class or diet are more likely to be involved. [less ▲]

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See detailTrace elements concentrations in by-caught Norwegian harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena): sources of variation and insights in their feeding ecology through stable carbon and nitrogen measurements
Fontaine, Michaël; Siebert, Ursula; Tolley, K. et al

Conference (2003)

Great concern raised from the populations decline observed for the harbour porpoises in the North Atlantic but Norwegian populations remain poorly characterized. Trace elements concentrations (Zn, Cu, Cd ... [more ▼]

Great concern raised from the populations decline observed for the harbour porpoises in the North Atlantic but Norwegian populations remain poorly characterized. Trace elements concentrations (Zn, Cu, Cd, Se, total Hg) have been determined in liver, kidney and muscle of 23 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) caught in fishing nets along the Norwegian coast. Sources of variation have been examined with a special interest on geographic location and diet modifications analysed through stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). This study further intend to complete previous feeding ecology knowledge with a combined approach of stable isotopes ratios and metals concentrations as dietary tracers. Norwegian porpoises display mean hepatic concentrations of Zn, Cu and total Hg (96 ± 18; 25 ± 6 ; 15 ± 10 µg.g-1dw respectively) among the lowest in the North-Atlantic. These results suggest that porpoises from this region are less exposed to these metals than others sites such as the North Sea. The low burdens of certain metals (Zn, Cu, Hg) observed make the Norwegian populations suitable to be used as reference level for future ecotoxicological studies on this species. However, renal Cd concentrations (6.7 ± 4.1µg.g-1dw) are twice higher than those from the Southern North Sea. They probably reflect dietary modifications of the porpoises through their range. The low isotopic composition (mean muscle values: d13C=-18.5 ± 0.6 0/00 and δ15N=13.5 ± 1.2 0/00) suggests that Norwegian porpoises feed on more oceanic preys as confirmed by variations of hepatic Hg and renal Cd concentrations. Given that teutophagous marine mammals present higher concentrations of Cd than piscivorous ones. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that the Norwegian porpoises rely on more oceanic squids than those from the North Sea. [less ▲]

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See detailSources of variation of trace metals of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) by caught from Norwegian waters.
Fontaine, Michaël; Das, Krishna ULg; Siebert, Ursula et al

Poster (2002)

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