References of "Fisher, Axel"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
See detailSocial reform and federalist option in an early 1920s’ Zionist pre-State regional planning scheme
Fisher, Axel ULg

Conference (2012, July)

In Israeli architectural history, both the official dominant position and the emerging critique usually trace the birth of Zionist comprehensive regional planning policy back to the 1930s and to the rise ... [more ▼]

In Israeli architectural history, both the official dominant position and the emerging critique usually trace the birth of Zionist comprehensive regional planning policy back to the 1930s and to the rise of the so-called Bauhaus-style modernist architecture and urban planning. Looking back to the early 1920s, the Jewish colonization of British Mandate Palestine experienced a major shift, turning from a sporadic and experimental phenomenon to a conscious mass strategy. The Zionist Organization and its many agencies gained a hegemonic role in driving the “Return of the Jewish people to the (Promised) Land” and to agriculture. Hence, Zionism faced for the first time the problem of establishing the forms and features of the Israeli Nation-Space.A key figure in this process was the German-born Jewish architect Richard Kauffmann (1887-1958), which planned most of the new agricultural and urban settlements promoted by the Zionist Organization in Palestine.Placing side by side each of Kauffmann’s plans, an early pre-State regional planning scheme emerges. One that envisioned the Jezreel Valley as the future “core” of the Israeli nation-state shaped as complex polycentric urban network. There, a new national identity based on social reform, agrarianism and the reinterpretation of local geographic possibilities would have developed along an “ancient-modern” transcontinental route between the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Discussing Kauffmann’s contribution to the architectural and landscape expression of this ambitious and controversial resettlement project against geopolitical, agricultural and ideological issues, an alternative narrative of Zionist modern architecture and planning might open up and present-day architectural and planning practice’s “lost of the centre” can be usefully questioned. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPlanning the capital city of a "community of fortune" in the Soviet Far-East: the Hannes Meyer brigade's scheme for the Jewish autonomous oblast of Birobidzhan (1933-1934)
Fisher, Axel ULg

in 15th IPHS Conference “Cities, nations and regions in planning history” (2012, July)

The creation of the first modern-era Jewish state, Birobidzhan, in early 1930s’ Soviet Union, can be considered as a curtain-raiser attempt to propose a socialist solution to the “Jewish Question” which ... [more ▼]

The creation of the first modern-era Jewish state, Birobidzhan, in early 1930s’ Soviet Union, can be considered as a curtain-raiser attempt to propose a socialist solution to the “Jewish Question” which, as a second thought, also had a part in the regime’s propagandistic maneuvers enacted to downsize the rising influence of Zionism in the country. Nevertheless, this experiment aroused a widespread enthusiasm and called for the participation of both Jews and non-Jews to this “small step in the realization of the Leninist policy on nationalities”. Among these stood Hannes Meyer (1889-1954), the Swiss-born Marxist architect and former director of Dessau’s Bauhaus (1928-1930), which – assisted by his “planning brigade” – offered its expertise to the Soviet Institute for Urban Planning (GIPROGOR) from 1930 to 1936 as chief-planner for Siberia and the Far East. Within this context, Meyer’s brigade was entrusted with the preparation of a scheme for the transformation of the small town of Tikhonkaya situated along the Trans-Siberian Railway into the new Capital of Birobidzhan. This scheme, one of Meyer’s last projects in Soviet Union, represents a step in the planer’s line of research focused on the forms and principles of the “socialist city” – the “elastic city” theory – but, unlike his previous schemes, this work also had to face an additional challenge: expressing the new Jewish national identity of the city and its role as the Soviet Jewish people’s Capital city. How did the planner achieve these goals and what place did modern planning models, the “rhetoric of rationality”, Jewish culture, vernacular architectural and urban forms, the local geographical features and landscape hold in the design and figuration process? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailVers une politique active du patrimoine dans le SDER nouveau
Fisher, Axel ULg; Goossens, Marc ULg; Occhiuto, Rita ULg et al

in Cahiers Nouveaux (Les) (2012), 81

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (15 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailAgro-Joint agricultural colonies in Crimea and southern Ukraine (1924-1938): Fordism and settlement patterns
Fisher, Axel ULg

Conference (2011, November)

The Agro-Joint project (1924-1938), conceived and directed by the Russian-born American agronomist Joseph Rosen (1877-1949) and promoted by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, was one of the ... [more ▼]

The Agro-Joint project (1924-1938), conceived and directed by the Russian-born American agronomist Joseph Rosen (1877-1949) and promoted by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, was one of the most effective and ambitious philanthropic relief programs envisioned and implemented for the resettlement and «productivization» of Russian Jews as avant-garde farmers in Soviet Crimea and southern Ukraine. The present paper discusses, from a planner and architect’s perspectives, some of the Agro-Joint plans, projects and planning reports contained in the J. Rosen archives stored at the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research (New York). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (0 ULg)
See detailEnvisioning the future city through the interpretation of the ‘geographic stage’: Richard Kauffmann’s ‘possibilist’ schemes for Afula (1923-1925) and the Haifa Bay (1925-1926)
Fisher, Axel ULg

Conference (2011, April)

In mid-1920s British Mandate Palestine, the German-born Jewish architect and planner, Richard Kauffmann (1887-1958), prepared a town planning scheme for Afula and a ‘preliminary regional development ... [more ▼]

In mid-1920s British Mandate Palestine, the German-born Jewish architect and planner, Richard Kauffmann (1887-1958), prepared a town planning scheme for Afula and a ‘preliminary regional development scheme for the Haifa Bay’. The topical relevance of these two experiments stands in the original relations they attempted to establish with the physical environment and the ‘geographic stage’ at a national scale. The chosen location for the foundation of the new town of Afula as an ‘intermediate agro-city’ was the barycentre of the Jezreel Valley, ‘cradle of the agricultural Communities’ and ‘core of the Jewish State’ (Koestler, 1946). Haifa, instead, was to be implemented into a major port city aimed to compete with Beirut on the international scene as the new ‘gateway to the East’, enhancing its local natural resources and features. Both schemes gain further consistency when considered within the wider frame of Zionist settlement strategy in British Mandate Palestine, especially along the Jezreel Valley, where Kauffmann also planned many agricultural settlements. Together, Kauffmann's 1920s’ projects form an early pre-State regional planning scheme. If this first comprehensive expression of the Zionist Nation-Space naïvely neglected the presence of the Arab Other, it did not entail yet the later obsession of Zionist and Israeli planning with military-led territorial conquest. Instead, the dominant theme of this early Zionist vision of the future Nation’s geographical horizon was the building of a new collective identity grounded in agriculture and the reinterpretation of local geographic possibilities: the development of an ‘ancient-modern’ transcontinental route between the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Widely overshadowed by both the official dominant Israeli architectural history and by the emerging critique, this experiment could instead open up to an alternative narrative of Zionist modern architecture and planning and usefully question present-day architectural and planning practice’s 'lost of the centre'. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 ULg)
See detailMigrazioni e processi insediativi la visione dello Spazio-Nazione sionista in Palestina negli anni Venti letta attraverso i progetti di Richard Kauffmann
Fisher, Axel ULg

Conference (2010, September)

Il Grande Incendio di Salonicco (1917) e la sua ricostruzione contribuirono a ridisegnare la geografia etno-confessionale lungo il nuovo confine greco-turco, ma anche alla transizione della città da ... [more ▼]

Il Grande Incendio di Salonicco (1917) e la sua ricostruzione contribuirono a ridisegnare la geografia etno-confessionale lungo il nuovo confine greco-turco, ma anche alla transizione della città da “Gerusalemme dei Balcani” a “Capitale dei profughi”. Pochi decenni prima dell’incendio che avrebbe colpito nel corpo la comunità ebraica europea – l’Olocausto – quello di Salonicco concorse ad alimentare fenomeni migratori e progetti di ricostruzione in luoghi distanti : calcando le orme dei loro correligionari centreuropei, gli ebrei di Salonicco emigrarono verso l’Europa occidentale, le Americhe. Alcuni preferirono la Palestina.Dalla fine dell’Ottocento, le persecuzioni razziali in Europa – spesso accompagnate dall’incendio dei luoghi di culto – avevano provocato regolari ondate migratorie verso questa remota provincia dell’Impero ottomano, ora sotto Mandato britannico. A ciascuna di queste ondate corrispondevano altrettante campagne insediative accomunate dallo sforzo di diverse generazioni di agronomi, architetti e urbanisti nella definizione dei caratteri e delle forme del villaggio agricolo ebraico ; « topos » prioritario nella ricostruzione delle nuove identità individuali e collettive ebraiche.Nei primi anni Venti, il riassetto geopolitico del Mediterraneo orientale rappresenta l’occasione per l’Organizzazione sionista di guidare il « ritorno degli ebrei alla loro terra d’origine » e all’agricoltura. Nella Valle di Jesreel si mette in atto un ambizioso progetto di ricostruzione e diradicamento, fisico e culturale a un tempo : un giovane architetto e urbanista di origini tedesche – Richard Kauffmann (1887-1958) – progetta numerosi villaggi agricoli, una piccola agro-città (Afula) e lo sviluppo della Baia di Haifa. La sequenza di questi progetti prefigura un precoce esperimento di pianificazione regionale pre-statale dal quale emerge la prima espressione compiuta di un’idea dello Spazio-Nazione sionista : un sistema insediativo lineare fondato sull’agricoltura, gerarchicamente organizzato e funzionalmente integrato, in cui è possibile apprezzare il grado di necessità del progetto di architettura nel quadro di una strategia di ampio respiro che stabilisce rapporti originali con la natura, la storia e l’« impianto geografico » a scala nazionale. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)