References of "FOIDART, Jean-Michel"
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See detailEstetrol attenuates neonatal hypoxic–ischemic brain injury
Tskitishvili, Ekaterine ULg; Nisolle, Michelle ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Experimental Neurology (2014), 261

Estetrol (E4) is a recently described natural estrogen with four hydroxyl-groups that is synthesized exclusively during pregnancy by the human fetal liver. It has important antioxidative activity. The aim ... [more ▼]

Estetrol (E4) is a recently described natural estrogen with four hydroxyl-groups that is synthesized exclusively during pregnancy by the human fetal liver. It has important antioxidative activity. The aim of the present study was to define the importance of E4 in the attenuation of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Antioxidative effect of 650μM, 3.25mM and 6.5mM E4 on primary hippocampal cell cultures was studied before/after H202-induced oxidative stress. To examine oxidative stress and cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase activity and cell proliferation colorimetric assays were performed. To study the neuroprotective and therapeutic effects of E4 in vivo neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy model of 7-day-old newborn rat pups was used. The neuroprotective and therapeutic effects of estetrol before/after hypoxic-ischemic insult was studied in 1mg/kg/day, 5mg/kg/day, 10mg/kg/day, 50mg/kg/day E4 pretreated/treated groups and compared with the sham and the vehicle treated groups. The body temperature of the rat pups was examined along with their body and brain weights. Brains were studied at the level of the hippocampus and cortex. Intact cell counting and expressions of microtubule-associated protein-2, doublecortin and vascular-endothelial growth factor were evaluated by histo- and immunohistochemistry. ELISAs were performed on blood samples to detect concentrations of S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein as brain damage markers. This work reveals for the first time that E4 significantly decreases LDH activity and enhances cell proliferation in primary hippocampal neuronal cell cultures in vitro, and decreases the early gray matter loss and promotes neuro- and angiogenesis in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailEGFR activation and signaling in cancer cells are enhanced by the membrane-bound metalloprotease MT4-MMP.
Paye, Alexandra ULg; Truong, Alice ULg; Yip, Cassandre ULg et al

in Cancer research (2014)

MT4-MMP (MMP-17) is a GPI-anchored matrix metalloprotease expressed on the surface of cancer cells which promotes tumor growth and metastasis. In this report, we identify MT4-MMP as an important driver of ... [more ▼]

MT4-MMP (MMP-17) is a GPI-anchored matrix metalloprotease expressed on the surface of cancer cells which promotes tumor growth and metastasis. In this report, we identify MT4-MMP as an important driver of cancer cell proliferation through CDK4 activation and retinoblastoma protein (Rb) inactivation. We also determine a functional link between MT4-MMP and the growth factor receptor EGFR. Mechanistic experiments revealed direct association of MT4-MMP and its positive effects on EGFR phosphorylation in response to TGF- and EGF in cancer cells. Notably, the effects of MT4-MMP on proliferation and EGFR activation did not rely on metalloprotease activity. Clinically, MT4-MMP and EGFR expression were correlated in human triple negative breast cancer specimens. Altogether our results identify MT4-MMP as a positive modifier of EGFR outside-in signaling that acts to cooperatively drive cancer cell proliferation. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression et localisation immunohistochimique de KISS1 et de son récepteur GPR54 : étude du tissu thyroïdien non tumoral et d'une série de patients opérés d'un cancer thyroïdien papillaire
VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg; SCAGNOL, Irène ULg et al

in Abstract book - Annales d'Endocrinologie : 31ème Congrès de la Société Française d'Endocrinologie, Lyon 5-8 novembre 2014 (2014, October)

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See detailThe uterine and vascular actions of estetrol delineate a distinctive profile of estrogen receptor alpha modulation, uncoupling nuclear and membrane activation.
Abot, Anne; Fontaine, Coralie; Buscato, Melissa et al

in EMBO molecular medicine (2014), 6(10), 1328-46

Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen with a long half-life produced only by the human fetal liver during pregnancy. The crystal structures of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) ligand-binding domain ... [more ▼]

Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen with a long half-life produced only by the human fetal liver during pregnancy. The crystal structures of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) ligand-binding domain bound to 17beta-estradiol (E2) and E4 are very similar, as well as their capacity to activate the two activation functions AF-1 and AF-2 and to recruit the coactivator SRC3. In vivo administration of high doses of E4 stimulated uterine gene expression, epithelial proliferation, and prevented atheroma, three recognized nuclear ERalpha actions. However, E4 failed to promote endothelial NO synthase activation and acceleration of endothelial healing, two processes clearly dependent on membrane-initiated steroid signaling (MISS). Furthermore, E4 antagonized E2 MISS-dependent effects in endothelium but also in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. This profile of ERalpha activation by E4, uncoupling nuclear and membrane activation, characterizes E4 as a selective ER modulator which could have medical applications that should now be considered further. [less ▲]

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See detailEstetrol is a weak estrogen antagonizing estradiol-dependent mammary gland proliferation.
Gérard, Céline ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Communal, Laudine et al

in The Journal of endocrinology (2014)

Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced exclusively by the human fetal liver during pregnancy. Its physiological activity remains unknown. In contrast to ethinyl estradiol (EE) and estradiol (E2), E4 ... [more ▼]

Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced exclusively by the human fetal liver during pregnancy. Its physiological activity remains unknown. In contrast to ethinyl estradiol (EE) and estradiol (E2), E4 has a minimal impact on liver cells activity and could provide a better safety profile in contraception or hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to delineate if E4 exhibits an activity profile distinct from that of E2 on mammary gland. Compared to E2, E4 acted as a low affinity estrogen in both, human in vitro and murine in vivo, models. E4 was 100 times less potent than E2 to stimulate the proliferation of human breast epithelial (HBE) cells and murine mammary gland in vitro and in vivo, respectively. This effect was prevented by fulvestrant and by tamoxifen supporting the notion that ERalpha is the main mediator of the estrogenic effect of E4 on the breast. Interestingly, when E4 was administered along with E2, it significantly antagonized the strong stimulatory effect of E2 on HBE cells proliferation and on the growth of mammary ducts. This study characterizes for the first time the impact of E4 on mammary gland. Our results highlight that E4 is less potent than E2 and exhibits antagonistic properties towards the proliferative effect of E2 on breast epithelial cells. These data support E4 as a potential new estrogen for clinical use with a reduced impact on breast proliferation. [less ▲]

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See detailAltered alpha-defensin 5 expression in cervical squamocolumnar junction: implication in the formation of a viral/tumour-permissive microenvironment.
Hubert, Pascale ULg; Herman, Ludivine; Roncarati, Patrick et al

in The Journal of pathology (2014)

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly type 16, is causally associated with cancer of the uterine cervix, which mainly develops at the squamocolumnar (SC) junction. The progression of cervical ... [more ▼]

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly type 16, is causally associated with cancer of the uterine cervix, which mainly develops at the squamocolumnar (SC) junction. The progression of cervical HPV infections into (pre)neoplastic lesions suggests that viral antigens are not adequately recognized by innate immunity or presented to the adaptive immune system. Members of the defensin family have recently been found to inhibit viral and bacterial pathogens, to stimulate the migration of immune cells and to play a role in anticancer responses. In the present study, we focused on the poorly characterized human alpha-defensin 5 (HD-5) and its possible role in these processes. We showed that HD-5 was able to prevent HPV virion entry into cervical keratinocytes and to influence adaptive immunity. Indeed, this peptide specifically induced the chemoattraction and proliferation of both activated T lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells in a CCR2/CCR6-dependent manner and stimulated the infiltration of these professional antigen-presenting cells in a (pre)neoplastic epithelium transplanted in vivo in immunodeficient mice. No chemotactic effect was observed with plasmacytoid dendritic cells, macrophages or natural killer cells. Proliferative and angiogenic effects of HD-5 were also assessed in vitro and in vivo. However there was a striking regional disparity in expression of HD-5, being prominent in ectocervical, vaginal and vulvar neoplasia, while absent, or nearly so, in the cervical SC junction. Taken together, these results suggest one possible explanation for why the SC junction is uniquely vulnerable to both high-risk HPV infection (via reduced HD-5 expression and viral entry) and progression of neoplasia (via altered cell-mediated immune responses and altered microenvironment). Copyright (c) 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailEstetrol and neuroprotection against perinatal ischemic insult
Tskitishvili, Ekaterine ULg; Nisolle, Michelle ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in Estetrol attenuates neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (2014)

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See detailChanges in elastin density in different locations of the vaginal wall in women with pelvic organ prolapse.
DE LANDSHEERE, Laurent ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in International Urogynecology Journal & Pelvic Floor Dysfunction (2014)

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to analyze the histomorphometric properties of the vaginal wall in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: In 15 women undergoing ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to analyze the histomorphometric properties of the vaginal wall in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: In 15 women undergoing surgery for POP, full-thickness biopsies were collected at two different sites of location from the anterior and/or posterior vaginal wall. Properties of the precervical area (POP-Q point C/D) were compared with the most distal portion of the vaginal wall (POP-Q point Ba/Bp) using histological staining and immunohistochemistry. The densities of total collagen fibers, elastic fibers, smooth muscle cells, and blood vessels were determined by combining high-resolution virtual imaging and computer-assisted digital image analysis. RESULTS: The mean elastin density was significantly decreased in the lamina propria and muscularis layer of the vaginal wall from the most distal portion of the prolapsed vaginal wall compared with the precervical area. This difference was statistically significant in the lamina propria for both anterior (8.4 +/- 1.2 and 12.1 +/- 2.0, p = 0.048) and posterior (6.8 +/- 0.5 and 10.1 +/- 1.4, p = 0.040) locations, and in the muscularis for the anterior (5.2 +/- 0.4 and 8.4 +/- 1.2, p = 0.009) vaginal wall. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean densities of collagen fibers, smooth muscle cells or blood vessels between the two locations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed changes in elastin density in two different locations of the vaginal wall from women with POP. The histomorphometric properties of the vaginal wall can be variable from one place to another in the same patient. This result supports the existence of most vulnerable locations within the vaginal wall and the potential benefit of site-specific prolapse surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of varying antigens and adjuvant systems on the immunogenicity and safety of investigational tetravalent human oncogenic papillomavirus vaccines: Results from two randomized trials.
Van Damme, Pierre; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Simon, Philippe et al

in Vaccine (2014)

BACKGROUND: A prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types in addition to HPV-16 and -18 may broaden protection against cervical cancer. Two Phase I/II, randomized ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: A prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine targeting oncogenic HPV types in addition to HPV-16 and -18 may broaden protection against cervical cancer. Two Phase I/II, randomized, controlled studies were conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of investigational tetravalent HPV L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines, containing VLPs from two additional oncogenic genotypes, with the licensed HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (control) in healthy 18-25 year-old women. METHODS: In one trial (NCT00231413), subjects received control or one of 6 tetravalent HPV-16/18/31/45 AS04 vaccine formulations at months (M) 0,1,6. In a second trial (NCT00478621), subjects received control or one of 5 tetravalent HPV-16/18/33/58 vaccines formulated with different adjuvant systems (AS04, AS01 or AS02), administered on different schedules (M0,1,6 or M0,3 or M0,6). RESULTS: One month after the third injection (Month 7), there was a consistent trend for lower anti-HPV-16 and -18 geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) for tetravalent AS04-adjuvanted vaccines compared with control. GMTs were statistically significantly lower for an HPV-16/18/31/45 AS04 vaccine containing 20/20/10/10mug VLPs for both anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies, and for an HPV-16/18/33/58 AS04 vaccine containing 20/20/20/20mug VLPs for anti-HPV-16 antibodies. There was also a trend for lower HPV-16 and -18-specific memory B-cell responses for tetravalent AS04 vaccines versus control. No such trends were observed for CD4+ T-cell responses. Immune interference could not always be overcome by increasing the dose of HPV-16/18 L1 VLPs or by using a different adjuvant system. All formulations had acceptable reactogenicity and safety profiles. Reactogenicity in the 7-day post-vaccination period tended to increase with the introduction of additional VLPs, especially for formulations containing AS01. CONCLUSIONS: HPV-16 and -18 antibody responses were lower when additional HPV L1 VLPs were added to the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Immune interference is a complex phenomenon that cannot always be overcome by changing the antigen dose or adjuvant system. [less ▲]

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See detailDevice-based controlled local delivery of anastrozol into peritoneal cavity: in vitro and in vivo evaluation
Krier, Fabrice ULg; Riva, Raphaël ULg; Defrère, Sylvie et al

in Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology [=JDDST] (2014), 24(2), 198-204

Local treatment using drug loaded implants allows decreasing seric concentrations of the active ingredient with the purpose of limiting side effects and reaching perfect observance. Nowadays, some ... [more ▼]

Local treatment using drug loaded implants allows decreasing seric concentrations of the active ingredient with the purpose of limiting side effects and reaching perfect observance. Nowadays, some diseases are already treated with implants, but generally, by subcutaneous or intra vaginal implantation. In this work, a new implant device dedicated to the intra-peritoneal cavity was developed. For this purpose, a core-membrane polymer implant was selected. We propose an original method to determine the most appropriate membrane to control the release based on the use of Franz cells. The ability of the implant to release a constant quantity of an active ingredient will be assessed by testing implants in vitro. Finally, intra peritoneal cavity and subcutaneous in vivo implantation has been achieved in order to confirm the controlled and local release of the active ingredient. [less ▲]

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See detailHistology of the vaginal wall in women with pelvic organ prolapse: a literature review.
DE LANDSHEERE, Laurent ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg; Richelle, Betty ULg et al

in International Urogynecology Journal (2013), 24(12), 2011-20

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is incompletely understood. The purpose of this study is to describe the current knowledge about histology of the vaginal ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is incompletely understood. The purpose of this study is to describe the current knowledge about histology of the vaginal wall and its possible involvement in the pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse. METHODS: Eligible studies were selected through a MEDLINE search covering January 1986 to December 2012. The research was limited to English-language publications. RESULTS: Investigations of changes in the vaginal tissue that occur in women with genital prolapse are currently still limited and produced contrary results. The heterogeneity of the patients and the control groups in terms of age, parity and hormonal status, of the localization of biopsies and the histological methods as well as the lack of validation of the quantification procedures do not allow clear and definitive conclusions to be drawn. CONCLUSIONS: This review shows that current knowledge of the histological changes observed in women with POP are inconclusive and relatively limited. More studies are needed in this specific field to better understand the mechanisms that lead to POP. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular mechanisms of type I collagen-induced apoptosis in breast carcinoma cells
Maquoi, Erik ULg; Assent, Delphine ULg; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

Poster (2013, September 27)

Objective: As invading breast carcinoma cells breach the underlying basement membrane, they become confronted with a dense three-dimensional reactive stroma dominated by type I collagen. To develop ... [more ▼]

Objective: As invading breast carcinoma cells breach the underlying basement membrane, they become confronted with a dense three-dimensional reactive stroma dominated by type I collagen. To develop metastatic capabilities, invading tumour cells must acquire the capacity to negotiate this hostile microenvironment. By enmeshing cells in a dense fibrillar network, type I collagen acts as a physical barrier for cell migration as well as an endogenous antigrowth signal, partly by inducing apoptosis in epithelial cells. Aberrant cell survival resulting from an acquired resistance toward apoptosis represents a prominent hallmark of cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms implicated in collagen-induced apoptosis remain poorly defined. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanisms by which type I collagen induces apoptosis in breast carcinoma cells and identify MMP-14, a membrane-anchored matrix metalloproteinase, as a key anti-apoptotic factor. Methods: To investigate the induction of apoptosis by collagen, human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells overexpressing or not MMP-14 were plated on plastic plates or embedded within three dimensional type I collagen gels (Col3D). Cell death was evaluated by measuring cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments (Cell Death Detection ELISA). The percentage of cells with an apoptotic nuclear morphology was also determined. The interactions between cancer cells and Col3D were analyzed by confocal microscopy and the impact of Col3D on the transcriptome of cancer cells was investigated using Illumina HT-12 BeadArrays. Results: When cultured within Col3D gels, MCF-7 cells displayed a round morphology and a cell death characterized by a Z-VAD-FMK-dependent chromatin condensation, nuclear segmentation and oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation was induced. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with MMP-14 cDNA promoted the interactions between cells and collagen and prevented apoptosis. A transcriptomic analysis revealed that culturing MCF-7 cells within Col3D altered the expression of about 700 genes, irrespective of MMP-14 expression. Col3D modulated the expression of several apoptosis-related genes. Interestingly, MMP-14 activity was sufficient to prevent the Col3D-dependent induction of Bcl2-Interacting Killer (BIK), a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. Conclusions: Our results shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which a collagen-rich microenvironment triggers apoptosis in invading breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MMP-14 promotes tumour progression by circumventing apoptosis. [less ▲]

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See detailDevice-based controlled local delivery for the treatment of peritoneal pathologies
Riva, Raphaël ULg; Krier, Fabrice; Defrère, Sylvie et al

Poster (2013, August 18)

This contribution aims at reporting the developpment of a controlled drug delivery system (DDS) dedicated to the treatment of intra-peritoneal pathologies, especially endometriosis. At present time ... [more ▼]

This contribution aims at reporting the developpment of a controlled drug delivery system (DDS) dedicated to the treatment of intra-peritoneal pathologies, especially endometriosis. At present time, endometriosis is generally treated by daily oral absorption of drug with the purpose to improve the life quality of patients by the reduction of the pain caused by endometrial lesions. Nevertheless, deleterious side-effects, mainly infertility, are observed as a consequence of the important amount of absorbed active principle. One main advantage of controlled drug delivery devices, e.g. polymer implants, is to maintain sustained drug release over a prolonged period of time thereby eliminating fluctuations in the drug plasma concentration. Moreover, DDS allows a local release of the drug at a specific area, which significantly decreases the active principle concentration in the body and limits side-effects. The peritoneal cavity is a convenient site for the implantation of a DDS against endometriosis because large parts of lesion are localized in this region. At our knowledge, no application of an implant dedicated to the treatment of endometriosis is reported in the literature, whereas the local controlled release of an active principle presents several advantages compared to systemic administration. In this study, anastrozole (2,2’-[5-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl-methyl)-1,3-phenylene]bis(2-methylpropiononitrile)), a well-known aromatase-inhibiting drug, was selected as active molecule. Typically, two non-biodegradable polymers were tested for the elaboration of an anastrozole loaded intra-peritoneal implant, namely polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA). As preliminary research, the ‘in vivo’ biocompatibility of PDMS and EVA in the intra-peritoneal cavity was confirmed by implantation of PDMS and EVA rod-shaped implants in rats. The kinetic of release was determined ‘in vitro’ and confirmed ‘in vivo’. Besides, the efficiency of the implants was improved by the addition of a polymer membrane, which allowed a controlled release of anastrozole over a period of 400 days. [less ▲]

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See detailInterplay between KLF4 and ZEB2/SIP1 in the regulation of E-cadherin expression.
Koopmansch, Benjamin ULg; Berx, Geert; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2013), 431(4), 652

E-cadherin expression is repressed by ZEB2/SIP1 while it is induced by KLF4. Independent data from the literature indicate that these two transcription factors could bind close to each other in the ... [more ▼]

E-cadherin expression is repressed by ZEB2/SIP1 while it is induced by KLF4. Independent data from the literature indicate that these two transcription factors could bind close to each other in the proximal region of the E-cadherin gene promoter. We have here explored a potential competition between ZEB2 and KLF4 for the binding to the E-cadherin promoter. We show an inverse correlation between ZEB2 expression levels and KLF4 recruitment on the E-cadherin promoter in three breast cancer cell lines and in A431/HA.ZEB2 cells in which ZEB2 expression is induced by doxycycline (DOX). We identified a region of the E-cadherin promoter bound by KLF4 which is necessary for the activation of the E-cadherin promoter activity after KLF4 overexpression. This region is localized between positions -28 and -10 and thus overlaps with one of the ZEB2 binding sites. Deleting the bipartite ZEB2 binding site results in increased KLF4 induced E-cadherin promoter activity. Taken together, our results suggest that E-cadherin expression in cancer cells is controlled by a balance between ZEB2 and KLF4 expression levels. [less ▲]

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See detailEstetrol: a new fetal estrogen with antioxidative and neuroprotective activity in the newborn
Tskitishvili, Ekaterine ULg; Nisolle, Michelle ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in Estetrol attenuates neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (2013)

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See detailImproved computer-assisted analysis of the global lymphatic network in human cervical tissues.
Balsat, Cédric ULg; Signolle, Nicolas; GOFFIN, Frédéric ULg et al

in Modern Pathology : An Official Journal of the United States & Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc (2013), sous presse

Lymphatic dissemination is a key event in cervical cancer progression and related tumor lymphatic markers are viewed as promising prognostic factor of nodal extension. However, validating such parameters ... [more ▼]

Lymphatic dissemination is a key event in cervical cancer progression and related tumor lymphatic markers are viewed as promising prognostic factor of nodal extension. However, validating such parameters requires an objective characterization of the lymphatic vasculature. Here, we performed a global analysis of the lymphatic network using a new computerized method applied on whole uterine cervical digital images. Sixty-eight cases of cervical neoplasia (12 CIN3, 10 FIGO stage 1A and 46 stage IB1) and 10 cases of normal cervical tissue were reacted with antibodies raised against D2-40, D2-40/p16 and D2-40/Ki67. Immunostained structures were automatically detected on whole slides. The lymphatic vessel density (D2-40), proliferating lymphatic vessel density (D2-40/ki67) and spatial lymphatic distribution in respect to the adjacent epithelium were assessed from normal cervix to early cervical cancer and correlated with lymphovascular space invasion and lymph node status. Prominent lymphatic vessel density and proliferating lymphatic vessel density are detected under the transformation zone of benign cervix and no further increase is noted during cancer progression. Notably, a shift of lymphatic vessel distribution toward the neoplastic edges is detected. In IB1 cervical cancer, although intra- and peritumoral lymphatic vessel density are neither correlated with lymphovascular space invasion nor with lymph node metastasis, a specific spatial distribution with more lymphatic vessels in the vicinity of tumor edges is predictive of lymphatic dissemination. Herein, we provide a new computerized method suitable for an innovative detailed analysis of the lymphatic network. We show that the transformation zone of the benign cervix acts as a baseline lymphangiogenic niche before the initiation of neoplastic process. During cancer progression, this specific microenvironment is maintained with lymphatic vessels even in closer vicinity to tumor cells.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 6 December 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.195. [less ▲]

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See detailLaser-induced choroidal neovascularization model to study age-related macular degeneration in mice.
LAMBERT, Vincent ULg; Lecomte, Julie ULg; Hansen, Sylvain ULg et al

in Nature Protocols (2013), 8(11), 2197-2211

The mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) has been used extensively in studies of the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This experimental in vivo model ... [more ▼]

The mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) has been used extensively in studies of the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This experimental in vivo model relies on laser injury to perforate Bruch's membrane, resulting in subretinal blood vessel recruitment from the choroid. By recapitulating the main features of the exudative form of human AMD, this assay has served as the backbone for testing antiangiogenic therapies. This standardized protocol can be applied to transgenic mice and can include treatments with drugs, recombinant proteins, antibodies, adenoviruses and pre-microRNAs to aid in the search for new molecular regulators and the identification of novel targets for innovative treatments. This robust assay requires 7-14 d to complete, depending on the treatment applied and whether immunostaining is performed. This protocol includes details of how to induce CNV, including laser induction, lesion excision, processing and different approaches to quantify neoformed vasculature. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for cross-talk between the LH receptor and LH during implantation in mice
Gridelet, Virginie ULg; Tsampalas, Marie; Berndt, Sarah et al

in Reproduction, Fertility and Development (2013), 25

The present study investigated the first interaction that occurs between the blastocyst and endometrium during implantation. Given the ethical objections to studying implantation in humans, a mouse model ... [more ▼]

The present study investigated the first interaction that occurs between the blastocyst and endometrium during implantation. Given the ethical objections to studying implantation in humans, a mouse model was used to study the dialogue between luteinising hormone (LH) and luteinising hormone receptor (LHCGR). Several studies performed on LHCGR-knockout mice have generated controversy regarding the importance of the dialogue between LH and LHCGR during implantation. There has been no demonstration of a bioactive LH-like signal produced by the murine blastocyst. The first aim of the present study was to examine and quantify, using radioimmunoassay, the generation of a bioactive LH signal by the murine blastocyst. We went on to examine and quantify endometrial Lhcgr expression to validate the mouse model. Expression of LHCGR in mouse uteri was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. To quantify the expression of Lh in the mouse blastocyst and Lhcgr in the endometrium, reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative (q) RT-PCR were performed. The results demonstrate that Lhcgr expression in BALB/c mouse endometrial epithelium is increased at the time of implantation and indicate that LHCGR may contribute to the implantation process. In support of this hypothesis, we identified a bioactive LH signal at the time of murine blastocyst implantation. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of the gamma 2 chain of laminin-332 in eutopic and ectopic endometrium of patients with endometriosis.
Locci, Rosella; Nisolle, Michelle ULg; Angioni, Stefano et al

in Reproductive biology and endocrinology (2013), 11(1), 94

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cells, which are shed by retrograde menstruation, may aberrantly express molecules involved in invasion and migration, leading to endometriosis. The aim of this study was to ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cells, which are shed by retrograde menstruation, may aberrantly express molecules involved in invasion and migration, leading to endometriosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the laminin gamma 2 chain (LAMC2) in the tissues of women with and without endometriosis. METHODS: Endometrial biopsy specimens were collected from healthy volunteers and from endometriosis patients. Biopsy specimens from the corresponding endometriotic lesions were also collected. The expression of laminin gamma 2 chain was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Endometrial tissue from women with or without endometriosis showed constitutive expression of LAMC2 mRNA throughout the menstrual cycle. A higher mRNA level was observed in ectopic endometrium (Ec) from women with endometriosis compared with eutopic endometrium (Eu) from women with endometriosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed a varied pattern of laminin gamma 2 chain expression, with increased epithelial expression in eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis compared with those without endometriosis. CONCLUSIONS: The altered expression of laminin gamma 2 chain in eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis may provide new opportunities for diagnosis and treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailSunitinib inhibits inflammatory corneal lymphangiogenesis.
Detry, Benoît ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Erpicum, Charlotte ULg et al

in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (2013), 54(5), 3082-93

PURPOSE: To evaluate the antilymphangiogenic potential of multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in corneal neovascularization (NV). METHODS: Inflammatory corneal NV was induced by thermal ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: To evaluate the antilymphangiogenic potential of multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in corneal neovascularization (NV). METHODS: Inflammatory corneal NV was induced by thermal cauterization applied in the central cornea of mice, to which sunitinib malate was daily administered by gavage or not. At days 6, 11, or 17 post cauterization, lymphatic and blood vessels, as well as inflammatory cells were immunostained and quantified in whole-mounted corneas. RT-PCRs were performed to evidence VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1 and -2 (sVEGFR-1, sVEGFR-2) expressions. Macrophages were isolated from mice peritoneal cavity following thioglycollate injection to produce conditioned medium. The effects of sunitinib were evaluated in vitro in the aortic and lymphatic ring assays in the presence or not of macrophage conditioned medium. RESULTS: Sunitinib treatment drastically reduced pathologic corneal lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis. Reduced F4/80+ cell infiltration was evidenced in sunitinib-treated mice and was associated to decreased VEGF-A (by 50%, P < 0.01) and VEGF-C (by 35%, P < 0.01) expressions, while VEGF-D and sVEGFR-2 expressions were not affected. In vitro, sunitinib dose-dependently inhibited aortic ring outgrowth, but failed to affect lymphangiogenesis in the lymphatic ring assay. However, macrophage conditioned medium-enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis were both strongly counteracted by sunitinib treatment. Mechanistically, sunitinib blocked VEGFR-2 phosphorylation induced by VEGF-A released by macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Sunitinib exerts antihemangiogenic and antilymphangiogenic effects in vivo by reducing F4/80+ cell recruitment and interacting with their released factors. [less ▲]

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