References of "Etienne, Anne-Laure"
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See detailCT FEATURES OF A LACRIMAL GLAND TUMOR IN A DOG
Etienne, Anne-Laure ULg; Grauwels, Magda ULg; Storms, Goedele ULg et al

Poster (2014, August)

Background: In the dog, neoplasms of the lacrimal gland are rare. Lacrimal cysts were also reported. Computed tomography (CT) scan findings of these lacrimal gland abnormalities have not been described in ... [more ▼]

Background: In the dog, neoplasms of the lacrimal gland are rare. Lacrimal cysts were also reported. Computed tomography (CT) scan findings of these lacrimal gland abnormalities have not been described in dogs. Purpose: The present report describes clinical and CT features of a lacrimal gland tumor in a dog. Methods: A 3,5 year old female intact Leonberger with a good general health status was presented with a progressive swelling at the level of the supero-temporal area of the left upper eyelid and of the bulbar conjunctiva since 3 weeks. Ocular examination revealed a slight enophthalmia and a ventronasal strabismus, the presence of a firm mass in the upper eyelid which was anteriorly well circumscribed and extending posteriorly between the globe and the orbital ligament. Findings: A CT scan pre- and post- contrast studies of the head were performed. A 3 cm hypoattenuating (+/- 10 HU) ovoid mass was observed dorsolateral to the indented left globe. This mass was well circumscribed by an unevenly thick irregular soft tissue- attenuating wall (50HU), which was strongly contrast-enhanced (150HU) and measured about 2 to 10mm in thickness. The left globe was displaced caudoventromedially. No adjacent bone lesion, or foreign body was observed. No normal left lacrimal gland was observed. These findings were suggestive of an abscess or an orbital tumor with a necrotic/cystic center; a lacrimal cyst was considered less likely because of the unevenness and the thickness of the wall. Complete surgical ablation was done by a modified lateral orbitotomy. Histopathology revealed a mixed benign tumor of the lacrimal gland and a lymphocytic necrotic adenitis. Six months postoperatively no recurrence is noted and the tear production is 15mm/min. Conclusion: The lacrimal gland is located dorsolateral to the globe and produces tears. In human medicine, a wide range of lacrimal gland pathologies were described and assessed by computed imaging techniques. Pleomorphic adenomas (mixed benign tumor) could reveal irregular bone erosion and could undergo malignant transformation. In dogs, lacrimal cysts were described as thin walled structures.4 Only few articles reported lacrimal gland tumor. To the authors knowledge, CT findings of a lacrimal gland tumor have not been described previously. In conclusion, lacrimal gland tumor should be included in the differential diagnosis of a firm ovoid cystic/necrotic mass dorsolateral to the orbit. [less ▲]

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See detailULTRASOUND ANATOMY AND US-GUIDED INTRA-ARTICULAR INJECTION TECHNIQUE OF THE CANINE ADULT HIP
Bergamino, Chiara; Etienne, Anne-Laure ULg; Busoni, Valeria ULg

Poster (2013, August)

Introduction Ultrasound (US)-guided techniques are routinely used in human1,2 and veterinary3 medicine to increase safety and accuracy1. Due to its deep location blind needle insertion in the coxo-femoral ... [more ▼]

Introduction Ultrasound (US)-guided techniques are routinely used in human1,2 and veterinary3 medicine to increase safety and accuracy1. Due to its deep location blind needle insertion in the coxo-femoral joint may be difficult. The aim of this study was to determine the US anatomy of the adult canine hip in order to establish the approach for US-guided intra-articular (IA) injections. Materials and Methods A 3-18 MHz linear and a 5-10 curvilinear transducers were used. Seven adult live dogs were used to  establish the US anatomy. Ten dog cadavers were used to obtain frozen sections to compare to US images and to establish the injection technique. Dogs were clipped and examined in lateral recumbency using a dorsal approach. To assess accuracy of injections performed on cadavers, joints were injected with a iodinated contrast medium and controlled radiographically. Injections were realized by 3 operators with different US experience using a 22G needle. To localize the joint, two techniques were established: one using the greater trocanther as landmark, one using the ilium wing. Results The coxo-femoral joint was easily visualized in all live dogs and cadavers. When the great trochanter was used as anatomical landmark, the femoral neck hyperechoic surface was identified in continuity with the greater trocanther hyperechoic surface in a plane perpendicular to the vertebral column and then followed axially till the anechoic gap representing the articular space. At the joint space the hyperechoic acetabulum was seen partially covering the femoral head and the joint capsule was visible as a triangular echoic structure (Figs. 1 & 2). Using the hyperechoic surface of the ilium wing as a starting point, the coxofemoral joint was localized following the wing and the hyperechoic ilium body caudally in a transverse plane. The inexperienced operator found easier to localize the joint using the ilium as landmark. For injection the needle was inserted axially to the great trochanter and directed in a dorsolateral-ventromedial direction toward the joint space and then pushed through the capsule (Figs. 3 & 4). Twenty hips were injected (Fig. 5). In all cases operators had the feeling to pass the joint capsule with the needle. All injections were successful and control radiographs showed intra-articular contrast (Fig. 6). Discussion/Conclusion The dorsal aspect of the canine hip can be easily localized at US and US-guidance can be efficiently used for IA injection [less ▲]

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See detailUltrasonographic characteristics of the cisterna chyli in eight dogs and four cats
Etienne, Anne-Laure ULg; Cavrenne, Romain ULg; Gommeren, Kris ULg et al

in Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound (2013), 54(4), 398-402

Ultrasonography of the cisterna chyli has been used in humans to diagnose increased lymphatic flow or lymph flow obstruction and to guide percutaneous embolization of the thoracic duct via the cisterna ... [more ▼]

Ultrasonography of the cisterna chyli has been used in humans to diagnose increased lymphatic flow or lymph flow obstruction and to guide percutaneous embolization of the thoracic duct via the cisterna chyli. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic characteristics of the dorsal portion of cisterna chyli in dogs and cats with chylous ascites or chylothorax and in a group of healthy dogs and cats. The aorta and the cranial mesenteric artery were used as anatomic landmarks. Ultrasonography was performed before and 2 h after a fatty meal in healthy dogs and cats. The visualized structure was confirmed to be a dilated cisterna chyli at necropsy in a dog with chylous ascites. The confirmed or presumed cisterna chyli was consistently detected using ultrasonography in nonfasted healthy animals and clinically affected animals and appeared as an anechoic tubular structure, without detectable flow, at the right dorsolateral aspect of the aorta. It had a similar ultrasonographic appearance in patients with chyloabdomen and in nonfasted healthy dogs and cats. There was considerable overlap in diameters of the cisterna chyli for affected and healthy animals. The shape and size of the cisterna chyli in an individual animal were variable during the same ultrasound examination and between different examinations. This study demonstrated the appearance of the presumed dorsal portion of the cisterna chyli by ultrasonography and might provide useful preliminary data for further studies into the feasibility of ultrasound-guided injections or aspirations of the cisterna chyli in dogs and cats. [less ▲]

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See detailIMAGING FINDINGS IN HORSES WITH PHARYNGEAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA
Etienne, Anne-Laure ULg; Evrard, Laurence ULg; Bolen, Géraldine ULg et al

Poster (2012)

Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been occasionally reported in the equine pharyngeal region1-3. The aim of this poster is to describe imaging findings in 4 cases of pharyngeal SCC. Material ... [more ▼]

Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been occasionally reported in the equine pharyngeal region1-3. The aim of this poster is to describe imaging findings in 4 cases of pharyngeal SCC. Material and methods Four old horses, mean age 19.5, 2 females and 2 geldings, were referred for dyspnea (3/4) and/or dysphagia (3/4). Because of dyspnea radiographs were realized prior to endoscopy. Ultrasound (US) was performed in all cases by ventral and lateral approach using a linear 7,5MHz transducer. A post-mortem computed tomography (CT) of the head was performed in one case (16 slices CT, Somatom 16, Siemens). Results Radiographic opacity of the pharyngeal region was increased in all cases. A soft tissue mass was also visible in the caudal maxillary sinus in 1 horse. The epiglottis was either not recognized or difficult to see with an abnormal shape. Pharyngoepiglottic distance and nasopharyngeal diameter were reduced in all cases. The soft palate was either thick or impossible to be outlined, with an irregular surface. In 1 case it was dorsally displaced. The dorsal pharyngeal wall looked unevenly thickened or impossible to be outlined ventrally due to border effacement. No bony damage was identified on radiographs. A hypoechoic heterogeneous mass was visualized at US in 2 cases and an enlargement of the mandibular lymph nodes was observed in 3 cases. Lymphnodes had also heterogeneous echogenicity and increased doppler signal in 1 case. Oral and pharyngeal endoscopic examination confirmed a pharyngeal mass in 2 cases but was unsuccessful or incomplete because of passage impairment in 2. CT revealed maxillary bone lysis in the horse with a mass in the maxillary sinus. Histopathological examination of local biopsies or necropsy revealed pharyngeal SCC invading epiglottis, pharyngeal wall and soft palate in the 4 horses and the maxillary sinus in one. Discussion/Conclusion Because endoscopy can be impaired by the size of the mass, radiology is helpful in estimating the extent and invasiveness of the process and US to confirm lymphadenopathy. However because of its relatively low sensitivity and the local increased opacity, radiographic examination may underestimate bone lysis. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution of CT scan for lesions affecting the spine
Deudon, Pauline ULg; Peeters, Dominique ULg; Balligand, Marc ULg et al

Poster (2011, January 22)

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See detailULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE CISTERNA CHYLI IN THE DOG
Etienne, Anne-Laure ULg; Cavrenne, Romain ULg; Garcia et al

Poster (2011)

Introduction/Aims The cisterna chyli (CC) is a dilated and bipartite portion of the lymphatic channels coursing intimately along the abdominal aorta in the retroperitoneal space.1 The appearance of the CC ... [more ▼]

Introduction/Aims The cisterna chyli (CC) is a dilated and bipartite portion of the lymphatic channels coursing intimately along the abdominal aorta in the retroperitoneal space.1 The appearance of the CC of the dog has been described on magnetic resonance imaging.2 The aim of this poster is to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the CC in 2 dogs with chylous ascitis and in 2 healthy dogs. Methods Abdominal ultrasonography was realised with a 7.5MHz microconvex transducer. A right or left lateral dorsal approach was used. The aorta (together with the cranial mesenteric artery in normal dogs) was used as the main landmark to localize the CC. The dogs with chylous ascites were a 4 year old female american cocker spaniel, with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia and a 1 year old, spayed female whippet with recurrent pancreatitis. The 2 healthy dogs were a 7 year old Beagle and a 9 year old Jack Russell. The abdominal ultrasonography was realised within 2 hours after the meal in the healthy dogs. Results The CC was seen as a hypoechoic structure, without detectable flow, dorsal and to the right of the aorta. The CC was easily visible in the 2 dogs with chyloabdomen while it was more difficult to localize in the healthy dogs. The CC was tubular on the longitudinal images. On transverse images, the CC is elliptic or semilunar and may partially surround the aorta. The maximal width of the CC measured on transverse images varied from 2-3mm in the 2 healthy dogs to 4-8mm in the 2 dogs with chyloabdomen. In 3 patients some efferent/afferent lymphatic vessels were seen as thin hypoechoic tubes converging on the CC. Shape and size of the CC in the same animal were seen varying during the same ultrasonography or between different exams. Discussion/Conclusion The CC is visible by ultrasonography in dogs. Its visibility depends on different conditions like disease of the lymphatic system3, quality and distance of the meal. [less ▲]

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See detailComputed Tomographic Features of Choanal Atresia in a Friesian Foal
Van Galen, Gaby ULg; Bolen, Géraldine ULg; Verwilghen, Denis ULg et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2010), 30(8), 436-440

A 3 week old Friesian foal colt was presented with a history of respiratory distress since birth. Endoscopy showed obstruction of the right nasal passage to the nasopharynx. Computed tomography (CT) was ... [more ▼]

A 3 week old Friesian foal colt was presented with a history of respiratory distress since birth. Endoscopy showed obstruction of the right nasal passage to the nasopharynx. Computed tomography (CT) was performed to further characterize this unilateral blockage: images showed demonstrated a complete membranous obstruction of the ventral meatus, together with a deviation of the vomer bone to the left. The diagnosis of unilateral choanal atresia was confirmed. This is the first report describing CT features of choanal atresia in a foal. [less ▲]

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See detailMise au point d'une technique échoguidée pour la réalisation des ponctions lombaires chez le chien
Etienne, Anne-Laure ULg

Master of advanced studies dissertation (2010)

SUMMARY Subarachnoid lumbar puncture is commonly used in the dog for diagnostic reasons: cerebrospinal fluid collection and/or execution of a myelography. This work is based on 2 studies. The first study ... [more ▼]

SUMMARY Subarachnoid lumbar puncture is commonly used in the dog for diagnostic reasons: cerebrospinal fluid collection and/or execution of a myelography. This work is based on 2 studies. The first study has established the percutaneous sonographic anatomy of the lumbar region in the dog with ex-vivo (2 cadavers) and then in-vivo (4 dogs) experiences, and has compared sonographic images with anatomic frozen sections. With the help of sonographic landmarks established in study 1, the second study, has developed an ultrasonographic-guided technique to introduce a spinal needle in the subarachnoid lumbar space on 2 cadavers. Then, this procedure has been used in 5 anesthetized dogs. The sonographic anatomy of the lumbar region has been established by means of transverse and longitudinal (sagittal and parasagittal) images, highlighting bony structures as spinous processes, the floor of the vertebral canal and articular processes. The ultrasonographic-guided technique has been developed using the contiguous articular facets of the fifth and sixth lumbar vertebrae as anatomical landmarks on a parasagittal image. The sonographic identification of the lumbar bony structures depends on 2 main factors: the morphology of the dog and the operator. These factors need to be further evalued to assess the applicability of this ultrasonographic-guided procedure in veterinary practice. Key words: ultrasonography, dog, lumbar puncture, myelography, spinal needle [less ▲]

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