References of "Dufrasne, Isabelle"
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See detailSelenium in Cattle: A Review
Mehdi, Youcef ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg

in Molecules (2016), 21(4), 545

This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include ... [more ▼]

This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism’s use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation de la quantité de matière sèche ingérée par les vaches laitières au pâturage en traite robotisée, utilisation de l’analyse des fèces en spectrométrie dans le proche infrarouge
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Decruyenaere, Virginie

in Agabriel, Jacques; Boichard, Didier; Choisis, Jean-Philippe (Eds.) et al 22èmes Rencontres autour des recherches sur les ruminants. (2015, December 02)

Malgré l’intérêt nutritionnel et économique de l’herbe dans la ration des vaches laitières, le pâturage est de plus en plus délaissé en raison notamment de l’automatisation de la traite et de l’extension ... [more ▼]

Malgré l’intérêt nutritionnel et économique de l’herbe dans la ration des vaches laitières, le pâturage est de plus en plus délaissé en raison notamment de l’automatisation de la traite et de l’extension de la taille des troupeaux. Une des raisons invoquées par les éleveurs pour cet abandon est leur manque de confiance par rapport aux quantités d’herbe réellement ingérées par les animaux et la crainte que ces apports inconstants se traduisent par des fluctuations de production laitière tant qualitative que quantitative. Or Decruyenaere et al. (2009, 2012) ont développé une méthode d’estimation de la matière sèche volontairement ingérée (MSVI) par analyse des bouses par spectrométrie dans le proche infra-rouge. Cette méthode présente l’avantage d’être non invasive, facile à mettre en œuvre sur le terrain et peu onéreuse. Le but de cette étude était donc d’évaluer l’utilisation de cette méthode dans un troupeau de vaches laitières traites par un robot mobile en pâture. Le troupeau (n=53) était divisé en 2 groupes dont le niveau de complémentation journalière était différent. Lors de la traite, le groupe 1 (GR1) recevait en moyenne 2,6 kg de concentrés/vache alors que le groupe 2 (GR2) en recevait 4,2 kg/vache. L’objectif était de vérifier l’impact du niveau de complémentation sur les résultats obtenus. Des prélèvements de fèces ont été faits une fois par mois sur 10 vaches (5 vaches par groupe) pendant 4 mois. Les spectres d’absorption dans le proche infra-rouge (NIR) ont été confrontés à des étalonnages NIR permettant l’estimation de la MSVI exprimée soit par rapport au poids vif (MSVI1), soit par rapport au poids métabolique (MSVI2). Ces estimations d’ingestion ont permis le calcul de la matière sèche journalière ingérée par vache (MSI1 et MSI2). Par ailleurs, les mesures d’herbe à l’entrée et à la sortie des parcelles pâturées ont été relevées ainsi que la densité du couvert herbacé pour évaluer la quantité d’herbe disponible. A ces valeurs de biomasses disponibles ont été additionnées des quantités de concentrés distribuées lors du passage des animaux au robot. Les valeurs moyennes de matière sèche ingérée (kg/vache/jour) pour le GR1 étaient de 15,20 ± 2,60 kg MS par la MSI1 et de 16,99 ± 1,80 kg MS pour la MSI2. Pour le GR2, la MSI1moyenne était de 20,20 ± 4,95 kg MS et la MSI2 moyenne de 21,95 ± 3,36 kg MS. L’estimation de la ration disponible par vache (kg MS herbe + kg MS concentrés) était de 17,25 ± 0,73 kg MS pour le GR1 et de 18,69 ±0,83 kg MS pour le GR2. Les valeurs obtenues par l’analyse NIR sont donc compatibles avec les quantités d’herbe et de concentrés disponibles. Les valeurs estimées par les 2 méthodes étaient hautement corrélées entre elles à part en période de faible ingestion (<10 kgMS). En ce cas la MSI2 semble donner des résultats plus fiables. En conclusion, l’analyse NIR des bouses apparaît une technique intéressante pour l’estimation de la quantité d’herbe ingérée au pâturage. [less ▲]

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See detailMilk production, milking frequency and rumination time of grazing dairy cows milked by a mobile milking robot.
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Minet, Julien ULg et al

in Conington, J; Klopcic, M; Lauridsen, C (Eds.) et al Book of abstracts of the 66th Annual meeting of the European Federation of animal science (2015, September 28)

In Europe, analysis of meteorological data shows that the average temperature has increased by ~1°C over the past hundred years (IPCC, 2013). Heat stress periods are thus expected to be more frequent even ... [more ▼]

In Europe, analysis of meteorological data shows that the average temperature has increased by ~1°C over the past hundred years (IPCC, 2013). Heat stress periods are thus expected to be more frequent even in temperate areas. The use of an automatic milking system (AMS) implies the need to stimulate cows’ traffic to the robot, especially with grazing cows. Describing how heat stress influenced cows’ traffic to the robot is the aim of this study. Grazing dairy cows milked by an automatic system (AMS) experienced heat stress (HS) periods, twice during the summer 2013 in July (J) and August (A). The daily temperature humidity index (THI) during these periods were higher than 75. Each HS period was compared with a “normal period”(N), presenting the same number of cows, similar lactation number, days in milk, distance to come back to the robot and an equal access to water. The first HS period of 5 days with a mean THI of 78.4 was chosen in J, and a second that lasted for 6 days in A with a THI value of 77.3. Heat stress periods were cut off with the same duration of days with no stress (N) and mean THI <70. Milk production, milkings and refusals to the robot during HS were compared with N periods. Milkings and refusals were significantly more numerous in HS periods in July (HS: 2.54 ± 0.11 vs N: 2.19 ± 0.08, 1.87 ± 0.20 vs 0.72 ± 0.16) but milk production dropped from 21.8 ±0.6 kg per cow and per day during N periods to 18.9 ± 0.8 kg in HS. In August, MY increased slightly during HS. This could be explained by less high ambient temperatures and decreased distance to walk inducing less energy expenditure. The increase in milkings and refusals to the robot during HS could be linked to water availability nearby the robot and confirmed previous findings (Lessire et al., 2014). [less ▲]

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See detailChallenging land fragmentation thanks a mobile milking robot: Statement of 2 cases of implementation: Liège and Trevarez experimental farms
Brocard, Valérie; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Lessire, Françoise ULg et al

in Conington, J; Klopcic, M; Lauridsen, C (Eds.) et al Book of abstracts of the 66th annual meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science (2015, September)

Cette présentation fait le point de l'expérience de l'utilisation de 2 robots mobiles, développés comme prototypes à la Ferme expérimentale de Trévarez et à l'Université de Liège

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See detailIs it possible for large herds to graze while keeping a high milk yield level? The experience of two Belgian dairy farms.
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg

in van den Pol-van Dasselaer, Agnes; Aarts, H.F.M; De Vliegher, Alex (Eds.) et al Grassland and forages in high output dairy farming systems (2015, June 15)

Grazing is more and more abandoned because of increasing size of herds and automation of herd management (e.g. automatic milking system – AMS). In this context, this study aims to evaluate milk production ... [more ▼]

Grazing is more and more abandoned because of increasing size of herds and automation of herd management (e.g. automatic milking system – AMS). In this context, this study aims to evaluate milk production and composition of 2 large Belgian dairy herds equipped with AMS during winter and summer. These herds were followed over 2 years. At grazing, 30% of the offered feed was grass. Milk production in both herds was similar in summer and winter (30.2 ± 7.14 vs 29.7 ± 7.8 ± in Herd 1 and 26.9 ± 0.8 vs 26.4 ± 0.8 in Herd 2) while their milk composition differed. In conclusion, it is possible for grazing to be preserved even in large herds without impacting noticeably on the herd performance. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation between levels of β-hydroxybutyrate and fatty acids in blood and milk and its impact on ketosis diagnosis in dairy cows
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Knapp, Emilie ULg; Dotreppe, Olivier et al

Poster (2015, April 16)

SKC at herd level is difficult to diagnose. Poor production and reproduction performances are usually observed as an increased incidence of periparturient diseases in the herd (Suthar et al., 2013 ... [more ▼]

SKC at herd level is difficult to diagnose. Poor production and reproduction performances are usually observed as an increased incidence of periparturient diseases in the herd (Suthar et al., 2013). Diagnosis methods include determination of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and increased non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) resulting from body fat mobilization. BHB and NEFA could be dosed in blood of animals in late gestation and in early lactation. Post calving, cows presenting BHB over 1. 2-1.4 mmol/L are considered SCK-cows while those presenting NEFA over 0.6 mg/L are labelled fat mobilising cows. Development of non-invasive diagnosis techniques could be interesting to sample animals at a larger scale with lesser stress. The aim of this study was to verify whether blood and milk BHB values were correlated and whether diagnostic methods by milk analysis could be developed. Seventy -five cows out of 8 selected Walloon dairy herds were followed up monthly from calving to pregnancy diagnosis regarding production and reproduction. At each visit (V), BHB and NEFA levels were determined in milk and blood. A maximum of 5 V was made. BHB was determined in blood using a cow-side test and in milk by a colorimetric test . Blood NEFA and milk fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography (GC). Statistical analysis was performed by SAS 9.1. BHB levels in blood and milk were highly correlated (r= 0.86), indicating the possibility of diagnosis of SCK by milk sampling. The earliest the samples have been taken, the better the correlation is (r=0.95 V1; r = 0.91 V2). Comparison of BHB with NEFA demonstrated a better correlation with milk BHB than with blood BHB (respectively 0.51 and 0.53 in milk vs 0.41 and 0.48 in blood for the V1 and V2 respectively). After the 2d V, the correlation dropped to 0.38 (V3) and -0.14 (V4).To conclude, dosage of milk BHB could be a good indicator for ketosis diagnosis taking into account that correlation with blood BHB and with NEFA is time-related. [less ▲]

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See detailRumination time, milk yield, milking frequency of grazing dairy cows milked by a mobile automatic system during mild heat stress
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Minet, Julien ULg et al

in Advances in Animal Biosciences (2015), 6(01), 12-14

Grazing dairy cows milked by an automatic system (AS) experienced mild heat stress (HS) periods, twice during the summer. The daily temperature humidity index (THI) during these periods were higher than ... [more ▼]

Grazing dairy cows milked by an automatic system (AS) experienced mild heat stress (HS) periods, twice during the summer. The daily temperature humidity index (THI) during these periods were higher than 72. Milk production, as well as milking frequency, rumination time and milk fat to protein ratio (F/P) during these periods were compared to adjacent periods with mean THI of 61. The daily milking frequency, the total number of visits to AS and the milk production were significantly higher in HS periods (2.12 vs 1.97, 2.99 vs 2.69, and 19.7 vs 18.5 kg milk per cow, respectively). There were significant interactions between times and periods for milking frequency and number of visits, while the daily rumination time was significantly lower (339 vs 419 min) and the F/P in milk tended to be decreased (1.17 vs 1.23). These results could be explained by changes in cow behaviour during HS periods. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneration of a soluble recombinant trimeric form of bovine CD40L and its potential use as a vaccine adjuvant in cows
Pujol, Julien ULg; Bouillenne, Fabrice ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Veterinary immunology and immunopathology (2015), 168(1), 1-13

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See detailMeat composition and quality of young growing Belgian Blue bulls offered a fattening diet with selenium enriched cereals
Mehdi, Youcef ULg; Clinquart, Antoine ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Canadian Journal of Animal Science (2015), 95(3), 465-473

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of selenium (Se) enrichment of cereals on Belgian Blue bulls performance, on meat quality and chemical composition. Twenty three bulls were used in ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of selenium (Se) enrichment of cereals on Belgian Blue bulls performance, on meat quality and chemical composition. Twenty three bulls were used in the present study. Twelve bulls were offered a control diet containing Se at a basal concentration of 58 µg kg-1 of dry matter (DM) and the other 11 bulls given a diet containing 173 µg kg-1DM of Se by means of Se enriched spelt and barley. The Se enrichment of the diet did not affect either the growth performance, the slaughter data or meat quality (p>0.05). There were no effects of Se on tenderness, oxydative rancidity and water losses. However, there were some effects of Se enrichment on the meat chemical composition. The ether extract was decreased from 2.1 to 1.7% DM (p<0.05). There were also significant Se enrichment (p < 0.001) in Longissimus thoracis muscle (177 vs 477 ng g1-DM) and organs: liver (474 vs 1126 ng g1-DM) and kidney (4956 vs 5655 ng g1-DM), Under such condition, the human consumption of a piece of such meat or liver can cover a large part of the recommended daily Se intake estimated between 30 to 57%. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of bovine colostrum on growth and survival in Red kids during the first year of life.
Abdou, Harouna ULg; Marichatou, Hamani; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

Poster (2014, October 17)

The aim of this work was to measure the effect of supplementation with bovine colostrum among newborn Red goats breastfed in breeding conditions for semi-intensive type of Niger. The study was conducted ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was to measure the effect of supplementation with bovine colostrum among newborn Red goats breastfed in breeding conditions for semi-intensive type of Niger. The study was conducted in Secondary Goat Breeding Center of Maradi (SGBCM). Forty newborn kids, regardless of sexe, were divided randomly into two groups: a "T-Control " group receiving only breast milk per feeding (n = 20) and a "C-Colostrum" group having the same diet but supplemented with bovine colostrum thawed (50 ml the first day of life, then 25 ml in 2 meals/ day between the ages of 2 and 15d, n = 20). The results indicate that supplementation with bovine colostrum in the first 15 days of life, increases the growth of kids until weaning (P<0.001), modifie some barymetric changes some settings improves health status and reduces the mortality rate. To our knowledge, in the studied environment, this work is original and seems to bring new knowledges likely to have practical applications in areas with farming conditions quite difficult. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of concentrate level on milk production and traffic of grazing cows milked by a mobile automatic milking system on pasture
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg

in Hopkins, Alan; Collins, Rosemary; Fraser, Marieacia (Eds.) et al EGF at 50: The future of European Grasslands (2014, September 10)

Cows milked by an automatic milking system in pastures were assigned in 2 groups receiving different amounts of concentrates (2.1 kg vs 4.1 kg). The effect of concentrates’ level on milk yield (MY) and ... [more ▼]

Cows milked by an automatic milking system in pastures were assigned in 2 groups receiving different amounts of concentrates (2.1 kg vs 4.1 kg). The effect of concentrates’ level on milk yield (MY) and returns to the robot was assessed. Concentrates’ level had a positive influence on daily milk production over the grazing period as cows of low concentrates group produced 21.43 ± 0.62 kg compared with 24.33 ± 0.62 kg in high concentrates group. However this effect was modulated subsequently to grass quality and availability. Regarding daily voluntary returns to the robot, high concentrates group showed higher frequency (3.66 ± 0.05, compared with 3.22 ± 0.04 in low concentrates group) demonstrating positive impact of complement distribution on cows’ traffic. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of mild heat stress periods on milk production, milking frequency and rumination time of grazing cows milked by an automatic milking system
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg

in Hopkins, A; Collins, Rosemary; Fraser, Mariecia (Eds.) et al EGF at 50: The future of European grasslands (2014, September 10)

Grazing dairy cows milked by an automatic system (AS) experienced mild heat stress (HS) periods, twice during the summer. The daily temperature humidity index (THI) during these periods were higher than ... [more ▼]

Grazing dairy cows milked by an automatic system (AS) experienced mild heat stress (HS) periods, twice during the summer. The daily temperature humidity index (THI) during these periods were higher than 72. Milk production, as well as milking frequency, rumination time and milk fat to protein ratio (F/P) during these periods were compared to adjacent periods with mean THI of 61. The daily milking frequency, the total number of visits to AS and the milk production were significantly higher in HS periods (2.12 vs 1.97, 2.99 vs 2.69, and 19.7 vs 18.5 kg milk per cow, respectively). There were significant interactions between times and periods for milking frequency and number of visits, while the daily rumination time was significantly lower (339 vs 419 min) and the F/P in milk tended to be decreased (1.17 vs 1.23). These results could be explained by changes in cow behaviour during HS periods. [less ▲]

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See detailEconomical evaluation of feeding costs in pilot farms at grazing.
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg

Conference (2014, September 07)

Cette présentation montre la méthodologie de calcul des coûts alimentaires dans des fermes laitières au pâturage.Ce calcul nécessite l'évaluation de la quantité d'herbe présente dans la ration et l ... [more ▼]

Cette présentation montre la méthodologie de calcul des coûts alimentaires dans des fermes laitières au pâturage.Ce calcul nécessite l'évaluation de la quantité d'herbe présente dans la ration et l'évaluation du coût de production de celle-ci. La quantité d'herbeest estimée par différentes méthodes explicitées dans la présentation. [less ▲]

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See detailSelenium status in cattle herds in Wallonia (Belgium): overview and health management
Mehdi, Youcef ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Veterinary World (2014), 7(12), 1144-1149

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See detailChemical composition of colostrum from Azawak cow in Niger compared with meta-analytical data
Abdou, Harouna; Marichatou, Hamani; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Animal Genetic Resources Information = Bulletin d'Information sur les Ressources Génétiques Animales = Boletin de Informacion sobre Recursos Geneticos Animales (2014), 55

This study aimed at comparing data obtained from Azawak zebu colostrum with literature data. The comparison was performed by a meta-analytical approach. Colostrum samples were hand-collected after 5 h ... [more ▼]

This study aimed at comparing data obtained from Azawak zebu colostrum with literature data. The comparison was performed by a meta-analytical approach. Colostrum samples were hand-collected after 5 h from 7 Azawak cows at calving between August 27, to September 10, 2009 in the Sahel. For data from literature, twenty one (21) references were identified in the following analytical databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar, Collection from University of Liege. The references were selected according to the following two criteria: i) only studies reported on bovine colostrum were used irrespective of breeds, and ii) among the selected studies, those not providing complete information to allow meta-analytical calculation were excluded. Samples were analyzed for immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA), lactoferrin, and chemical composition (dry mater, protein, fat, lactose, ash, Ca, P, NA, K, Mg). The mean levels of IgG, IgM, dry matter, protein and fat for Azawak cows were lower (P ˂ 0.001) than those obtained in other breeds; however colostrum from the Azawak was higher in IgA but the difference was not significant. For lactose and ash, mean values for Azawak cows were higher (P ˂ 0.001) than those from the literature. Contents of Ca, P, Na and Mg in Azawak bovine colostrum were significantly higher (P ˂ 0.001) than the mean levels in form the literature data. In conclusion, the colostrum from Azawak cows appears to be lower in most immunoglobulins, in fat and in protein than the values reported in the literature, but higher in lactose and minerals. This could be an adaptation to sahelian contraints. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of bovine colostrum intake on growth, reproductive parameters and survival in red kids
Harouna, Abdou; Marichatou, Hamani; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Journal of Animal Physiology & Animal Nutrition (2014), 98(5), 845-852

The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of frozen Azawak colostrum supplementation on body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), reproductive parameters (mean age at first parturition ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of frozen Azawak colostrum supplementation on body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), reproductive parameters (mean age at first parturition, fertility, fecundity, prolificacy) and mortality rate among red kids. The study was conducted at the goat farm secondary centre of Maradi in Niger from September 2010 to September 2011. The control animals (n = 20) were left with their mother, while the treatment animals (n = 20) received in addition 50 ml/animal/day of bovine colostrum at birth and 15 ml/animal/day from d2 to d15. Weight was measured weekly from birth to d365. Mortalities were also recorded over the same period. For reproductive parameters, observations began at weaning (d197). Growth rate was higher (p < 0.001) in supplemented animal, and the treatment effects on ADG were observed up to 150 day after the end of supplementation. A similar long-lasting trend was also observed in relation to the mortality rate (25% for ColG vs. 55% for ConG; p = 0.05). The age at first kidding tended to be lower in the treated group (13.8 0.7 vs. 14.1 0.8 month; p < 0.1). In conclusion, mild bovine colostrum supplementation induces a long-lasting positive impact on growth rate and to a lower extent on reproduction parameters and survival rate. [less ▲]

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See detailAménagement des logettes et confort des vaches laitières
Cazin, Pauline; Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg

in INRA Productions Animales (2014), 27(5), 359-368

Cubicle housing offers a good compromise between the needs of the animals and those of the breeders; it is one of the main housing systems for dairy cows. The recommendations relative to the design and ... [more ▼]

Cubicle housing offers a good compromise between the needs of the animals and those of the breeders; it is one of the main housing systems for dairy cows. The recommendations relative to the design and management of cubicle housing are, however, always subject to revision. Special attention is now being given to the improvement of animal comfort, particularly with regards to the lying cow. In this context, the level of comfort is estimated by the duration of the lying time, the frequency of the lying bouts and the ease with which cows are able to get up and lie down. The level of cow comfort is in direct relation to the softness of the floor, to the cubicle dimensions, and to the design of the lateral and frontal partitions. A soft floor can be assured through the use of either multilayer mattresses or a thick litter. Mattresses must be covered with a litter material that absorbs surface moisture and helps to ensure the cleanliness of the stall and udder. To achieve these objectives, the nature of the litter material (straw, sawdust, sand, lime, etc.) appears to be less important than the frequency of renewal. Cubicle floors covered with a thick layer (± 20 cm) of litter seem generally better appreciated by the cows than those equipped with mattresses, and their use is associated with a lower frequency of leg injuries as well as lameness. Sand appears to be a top-grade material for ensuring animal comfort. Nevertheless, the maintenance of a thick layer of litter demands an extra daily labor requirement and the handling of sand as a litter material requires specific equipment. There is a wide range of recommendations on cubicle dimensions due to differences in cow size and the need to take into account the cleanliness of the floor. Lateral partitions must be evaluated for their effectiveness in constraining the animal from spilling out into the neighboring cubicles while at the same time avoiding both injury and difficulties experienced by the cow in getting up and lying down. Finally, frontal partitions must be evaluated regarding their effectiveness in providing sufficient space to allow the cow to thrust its head forward as it stands up. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of bovine colostrum administration on plasma protein profile, growth, and survival in Red kid.
Abdou, Harouna ULg; Marichatou, Hamani; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Small Ruminant Research (2013), 117

This study evaluated the effect of colostrum from Azawak cows on plasma protein profile, 24 growth, and survival in Red kids from Niger. Forty (40) newborn kids were allocated to one 25 of two treatment ... [more ▼]

This study evaluated the effect of colostrum from Azawak cows on plasma protein profile, 24 growth, and survival in Red kids from Niger. Forty (40) newborn kids were allocated to one 25 of two treatment-groups: control (free access to water and the mother) and colostrum (free 26 access to water and the mother, but with additional 50 mL of colostrum/animal/day of birth 27 and 25 mL/animal/day from the 2nd to 15th day of age). Blood samples were collected into 28 EDTA vacutainer tubes by jugular puncture at 10 and 30 days of age. Total protein was 29 quantified by the Biuret method. The agarose gel electrophoresis was used to determine the 30 serum levels of albumin, -globulin, β1-globulin, β2-globulin, γ-globulin and the 31 albumin/globulin ratio. The animals from the colostrum group showed higher body weight 32 and average daily gain when compared to the control group (P < 0.001). The average 33 concentration in protein at the both sampling times reached higher values in the colostrum 34 than in the control group. At D10, the colostrum group tended (P < 0.07) to show higher 35 levels of -globulin and had higher values (P < 0.05) for β1-globulin. At D30, total protein 36 and β2-globulins were higher in colostrum group. Colostrum from Azawak cows seems to 37 have positive effects on some plasma proteins levels and on growth rate in Red kids. [less ▲]

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