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See detailLack of isocitrate lyase in Chlamydomonas leads to changes in carbon metabolism and in the response to oxidative stress under mixotrophic growth.
Plancke, Charlotte; Vigeolas, Hélène ULg; Hohner, Ricarda et al

in The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology (2014), 77(3), 404-417

Isocitrate lyase is a key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle. This cycle plays an essential role in cell growth on acetate, and is important for gluconeogenesis as it bypasses the two oxidative steps of the ... [more ▼]

Isocitrate lyase is a key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle. This cycle plays an essential role in cell growth on acetate, and is important for gluconeogenesis as it bypasses the two oxidative steps of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in which CO2 is evolved. In this paper, a null icl mutant of the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is described. Our data show that isocitrate lyase is required for growth in darkness on acetate (heterotrophic conditions), as well as for efficient growth in the light when acetate is supplied (mixotrophic conditions). Under these latter conditions, reduced acetate assimilation and concomitant reduced respiration occur, and biomass composition analysis reveals an increase in total fatty acid content, including neutral lipids and free fatty acids. Quantitative proteomic analysis by 14 N/15 N labelling was performed, and more than 1600 proteins were identified. These analyses reveal a strong decrease in the amounts of enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis in parallel with a shift of the TCA cycle towards amino acid synthesis, accompanied by an increase in free amino acids. The decrease of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis, as well as the decrease in enzymes involved in beta-oxidation of fatty acids in the icl mutant are probably major factors that contribute to remodelling of lipids in the icl mutant. These modifications are probably responsible for the elevation of the response to oxidative stress, with significantly augmented levels and activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, and increased resistance to paraquat. [less ▲]

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See detailThe elicitation of a systemic resistance by Pseudomonas putida BTP1 in tomato involves the stimulation of two lipoxygenase isoforms
Mariutto, Martin ULg; Duby, Franceline ULg; Adam, Akram et al

in BMC Plant Biology (2011), 11

Background Some non-pathogenic rhizobacteria called Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) possess the capacity to induce in plant defense mechanisms effective against pathogens. Precedent studies ... [more ▼]

Background Some non-pathogenic rhizobacteria called Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) possess the capacity to induce in plant defense mechanisms effective against pathogens. Precedent studies showed the ability of Pseudomonas putida BTP1 to induce PGPR-mediated resistance, termed ISR (Induced Systemic Resistance), in different plant species. Despite extensive works, molecular defense mechanisms involved in ISR are less well understood that in the case of pathogen induced systemic acquired resistance. Results We analyzed the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX), key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and oxylipin pathways respectively, in tomato treated or not with P. putida BTP1. The bacterial treatment did not stimulate PAL activity and linoleate-consuming LOX activities. Linolenate-consuming LOX activity, on the contrary, was significantly stimulated in P. putida BTP1-inoculated plants before and two days after infection by B. cinerea. This stimulation is due to the increase of transcription level of two isoforms of LOX: TomLoxD and TomLoxF, a newly identified LOX gene. We showed that recombinant TomLOXF preferentially consumes linolenic acid and produces 13-derivative of fatty acids. After challenging with B. cinerea, the increase of transcription of these two LOX genes and higher linolenic acid-consuming LOX activity were associated with a more rapid accumulation of free 13-hydroperoxy-octadecatrienoic and 13-hydroxy-octadecatrienoic acids, two antifungal oxylipins, in bacterized plants. Conclusion In addition to the discovery of a new LOX gene in tomato, this work is the first to show differential induction of LOX isozymes and a more rapid accumulation of 13-hydroperoxy-octadecatrienoic and 13-hydroxy-octadecatrienoic acids in rhizobacteria mediated-induced systemic resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification, characterization and expression profiling of the tomato gene TomLoxF
Mariutto, Martin ULg; Duby, Franceline ULg; Adam, Akram et al

Poster (2010, January 26)

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See detailSystemic resistance induction in tomato by Pseudomonas putida BTP1: investigation of defense pathways.
Mariutto, M.; Duby, Franceline ULg; Ongena, Marc ULg et al

in Journal of Plant Pathology [=JPP] (2008), 90

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See detailThe systemic resistance induced in tomato by a non-pathogenic Pseudomonas strain is associated with the stimulation of the lipoxygenase pathway
Adam, Akram; Duby, Franceline ULg; Ongena, MARC ULg et al

in Bulletin OILB/SROP = IOBC/WPRS Bulletin (2007), 30

Root treatment by the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1 reduced by 34% the disease caused by Botrytis cinerea on tomato leaves. This induced systemic resistance phenomenon is associated both ... [more ▼]

Root treatment by the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1 reduced by 34% the disease caused by Botrytis cinerea on tomato leaves. This induced systemic resistance phenomenon is associated both with the accumulation of fungitoxic material and with the stimulation of the lipoxygenase pathway in infected leaves. More precisely, we observed a consistent change in the expression of a new tomloxF gene in the leaves from BTP1-treated plants as far as the pathogen is introduced. This suggests that the roots were primed and reacted locally to colonization by bacteria and that defense-related gene expression is turned on systemically upon pathogen perception [less ▲]

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See detailBacillus subtilis M4 decreases plant susceptibility towards fungal pathogens by increasing host resistance associated with differential gene expression
Ongena, MARC ULg; Duby, Franceline ULg; Jourdan, E. et al

in Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology (2005), 67(5), 692-698

Results presented in this paper describe the ability of Bacillus subtilis strain M4 to reduce disease incidence caused by Colletotrichum lagenarium and Pythium aphanidermatum on cucumber and tomato ... [more ▼]

Results presented in this paper describe the ability of Bacillus subtilis strain M4 to reduce disease incidence caused by Colletotrichum lagenarium and Pythium aphanidermatum on cucumber and tomato, respectively. Disease protection in both pathosystems was most probably due to induction of resistance in the host plant since experiments were designed in order to avoid any direct contact between the biocontrol agent and the pathogen. Pre-inoculation with strain M4 thus sensitised both plants to react more efficiently to subsequent pathogen infection. In cucumber, the use of endospores provided a disease control level similar to that obtained with vegetative cells. In contrast, a mixture of lipopeptides from the surfactin, iturin and fengycin families showed no resistance-inducing potential. Interestingly, treatment with strain M4 was also associated with significant changes in gene transcription in the host plant as revealed by cDNA-AFLP analyses. Several AFLP fragments corresponded to genes not expressed in control plants and specifically induced by the Bacillus treatment. In support to the macroscopic protective effect, this differential accumulation of mRNA also illustrates the plant reaction following perception of strain M4, and constitutes one of the very first examples of defence-associated modifications at the transcriptional level elicited by a non-pathogenic bacterium in a host plant. [less ▲]

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See detailResistance induced in cucumber and tomato by a non-pathogenic Pseudomonas putida strain
Adam, Akram; Jourdan, Emmanuel ULg; Ongena, MARC ULg et al

in Parasitica (2005), 61

Some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are able to stimulate inducible defense mechanisms that render the host plant less susceptible to a subsequent pathogen attack. This phenomenon, called induced ... [more ▼]

Some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are able to stimulate inducible defense mechanisms that render the host plant less susceptible to a subsequent pathogen attack. This phenomenon, called induced systemic resistance (ISR), can occur in several plant species against a wide range of bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens. Despite extensive work, many aspects of the molecular basis underlying this rhizobacteria-mediated ISR remain unclear. In this context, we have studied for several years the ISR-mediated protective effect of a particular strain, Pseudomonas putida BTP1. In this paper, we present the results obtained by using BTP1 for disease reduction against anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lagenarium on cucumber and grey mold caused by Botrytis cinerea on tomato. As a result of cucumber treatment with BTP1, we observed an enhanced hydroperoxide lyase activity that could restrict pathogen ingress since this enzyme, acting downstream in the so-called oxylipin pathway, forms short chain aldehydes considered as “volatile phytoalexins”. By contrast, this phenomenon is not involved in the protective effect afforded by the strain in tomato. In this case, disease reduction is more seemingly associated with an early accumulation of antifungal compounds stimulated by the bacterium, showing that specific ISR-related metabolic pathways may be activated in different plants by the same microorganism. [less ▲]

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See detailStimulation of the lipoxygenase pathway is associated with systemic resistance induced in bean by a nonpathogenic Pseudomonas strain
Ongena, MARC ULg; Duby, Franceline ULg; Rossignol, Fanny et al

in Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (2004), 17(9), 1009-1018

Systemic defense reactions induced in bean by the nonpathogenic Pseudomonas putida BTP1 strain reduced disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. Phenylalanine ammonialyase activity and the level of endogenous ... [more ▼]

Systemic defense reactions induced in bean by the nonpathogenic Pseudomonas putida BTP1 strain reduced disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. Phenylalanine ammonialyase activity and the level of endogenous free sallicylic acid were compared in plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria-treated versus control plants, but no significant differences were detected. Furthermore, no enhanced fungitoxicity was detected in methanolic leaf extracts, suggesting that accumulation of bean phytoalexins was not part of the stimulated defense mechanisms. However, BTP1-inoculated plants showed increased levels of both linoleic and linolenic acids. On this basis, we further investigated whether the lipoxygenase pathway, leading to antifungal phytooxylipins, could have been stimulated. Two key enzymatic activities of this metabolic route, namely lipoxygenase and hydroperoxidelyase, were significantly stimulated during the first four days after challenging BTP1-treated plants with the pathogen. This was observed in parallel with a more rapid consumption of the respective substrates of these enzymes, as revealed by measurements of endogenous concentrations of linolenic acid and their hydroperoxide derivatives. Moreover, headspace-gas chromatography analyses showed significantly higher concentrations of the fungitoxic final product Z-3-hexenal in leaves from BTP1-inoculated beans as compared with control plants. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the oxylipin pathway can be associated with enhanced disease resistance induced in bean plants by nonpathogenic rhizobacteria. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure of the Telomeric Ends of Mt DNA, Transcriptional Analysis and Complex I Assembly in the Dum24 Mitochondrial Mutant of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii
Duby, Franceline ULg; Cardol, Pierre ULg; Matagne, René-Fernand ULg et al

in Molecular Genetics & Genomics (2001), 266(1), 109-14

The dum24 mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains four types of altered mitochondrial linear genomes: two types of deleted monomers and two types of dimers resulting from fusions between some ... [more ▼]

The dum24 mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains four types of altered mitochondrial linear genomes: two types of deleted monomers and two types of dimers resulting from fusions between some monomers via their deleted ends. All molecules lack at least cob, nd4 and the 3' end of nd5, three adjacent genes located in the left part of the genome. We present evidence showing that in dum24, as in other deletion mutants, the deletions extend to the left telomeric end, and propose that the only replicative forms in the mutants are the dimeric DNA molecules that possess intact telomeric structures at both ends. Two abnormally large transcripts produced from chimeric genes are detected in dum24, which throws some light on the location of potential promoter sequences and processing signals in the mitochondrial genome. Using BN-PAGE analysis and immunological methods to detect complex I, we further show that dum24 mitochondria do not possess the normal multimeric complex I (850 kDa), but produce a smaller, partially assembled, complex (650 kDa), demonstrating a role for ND4 and/or ND5 subunits(s) in complex I assembly. [less ▲]

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