References of "Donnet, Benoît"
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See detailOn the Performance of the LISP Beta Network
Coras, Florin; Saucez, Damien; Iannone, Luigi et al

in IFIP Networking (2014, June)

The future Internet has been a hot topic during the past decade and many approaches towards this future Internet, ranging from incremental evolution to complete clean slate ones, have been proposed. One ... [more ▼]

The future Internet has been a hot topic during the past decade and many approaches towards this future Internet, ranging from incremental evolution to complete clean slate ones, have been proposed. One of the proposition, LISP, advocates for the separation of the identifier and the locator roles of IP addresses to reduce BGP churn and BGP table size. Up to now, however, most studies concerning LISP have been theoretical and, in fact, little is known about the actual LISP deployment performance. In this paper, we fill this gap through measurement campaigns carried out on the LISP Beta Network. More precisely, we evaluate the performance of the two key components of the infrastructure: the control plane (i.e., the mapping system) and the interworking mechanism (i.e., communication between LISP and non-LISP sites). Our measurements highlight that performance offered by the LISP interworking infrastructure is strongly dependent on BGP routing policies. If we exclude misconfigured nodes, the mapping system typically provides reliable performance and relatively low median mapping resolution delays. Although the bias is not very important, control plane performance favors USA sites as a result of its larger LISP user base but also because European infrastructure appears to be less reliable. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Quality of BGP Route Collectors for iBGP Policy Inference
Cittadini, Luca; Vissicchio, Stefano; Donnet, Benoît ULg

in IFIP Networking (2014, June)

A significant portion of what is known about Internet routing stems out from public BGP datasets. For this reason, numerous research efforts were devoted to (i) assessing the (in)completeness of the ... [more ▼]

A significant portion of what is known about Internet routing stems out from public BGP datasets. For this reason, numerous research efforts were devoted to (i) assessing the (in)completeness of the datasets, (ii) identifying biases in the dataset, and (iii) augmenting data quality by optimally placing new collectors. However, those studies focused on techniques to extract information about the AS-level Internet topology. In this paper, we show that considering different metrics influences the conclusions about biases and collector placement. Namely, we compare AS-level topology discovery with \iac inference. We find that the same datasets exhibit significantly diverse biases for these two metrics. For example, the sensitivity to the number and position of collectors is noticeably different. Moreover, for both metrics, the marginal utility of adding a new collector is strongly localized with respect to the proximity of the collector. Our results suggest that the ``optimal'' position for new collectors can only be defined with respect to a specific metric, hence posing a fundamental trade-off for maximizing the utility of extensions to the BGP data collection infrastructure. [less ▲]

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See detailRevealing Middlebox Interference with Tracebox
Detal, Grégory; Hesmans, Benjamin; Bonaventure, Olivier et al

in ACM/USENIX Internet Measurement Conference (2013, October)

Middleboxes such as firewalls, NAT, proxies, or Deep Packet Inspection play an increasingly important role in various types of IP networks, including enterprise and cellular networks. Recent studies have ... [more ▼]

Middleboxes such as firewalls, NAT, proxies, or Deep Packet Inspection play an increasingly important role in various types of IP networks, including enterprise and cellular networks. Recent studies have shed the light on their impact on real traffic and the complexity of managing them. Network operators and researchers have few tools to understand the impact of those boxes on any path. In this paper, we propose tracebox, an extension to the widely used traceroute tool, that is capable of detecting various types of middlebox interference over almost any path. tracebox sends IP packets containing TCP segments with different TTL values and analyses the packet encapsulated in the returned ICMP message. Further, as recent routers quote, in the ICMP message, the entire IP packet that they received, \tracebox is able to detect any modification performed by upstream middleboxes. In addition, tracebox can often pinpoint the network hop where the middlebox interference occurs. We evaluate tracebox with measurements performed on PlanetLab nodes. Our analysis reveals various types of middleboxes that were not expected on such an experimental testbed supposed to be connected to the Internet without any restriction. [less ▲]

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See detailNetwork Fingerprinting: TTL-Based Router Signatures
Vanaubel, Yves ULg; Pansiot, Jean-Jacques; Mérindol, Pascal et al

in ACM/USENIX Internet Measurement Conference (2013, October)

Fingerprinting networking equipment has many potential applications and benefits in network management and security. More generally, it is useful for the understanding of network structures and their ... [more ▼]

Fingerprinting networking equipment has many potential applications and benefits in network management and security. More generally, it is useful for the understanding of network structures and their behaviors. In this paper, we describe a simple fingerprinting mechanism based on the initial TTL values used by routers to reply to various probing messages. We show that main classes obtained using this simple mechanism are meaningful to distinguish routers platforms. Besides, it comes at a very low additional cost compared to standard active topology discovery measurements. As a proof of concept, we apply our method to gain more insight on the behavior of MPLS routers and to, thus, more accurately quantify their visible/invisible deployment. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a bipartite graph modeling of the internet topology
Tarissan, Fabien; Quoitin, Bruno; Mérindol, Pascal et al

in Computer Networks (2013), 57(11), 2331-2347

Modeling the properties of the Internet topology aims at generating large scale artificial IP networks that mimic properties of real ones for simulation purposes. Current models typically consider the ... [more ▼]

Modeling the properties of the Internet topology aims at generating large scale artificial IP networks that mimic properties of real ones for simulation purposes. Current models typically consider the Internet as a simple graph where edges are point-to-point connections between routers. This approach does not take into account point-to-multipoint connections that exist at lower layers in the network, e.g. layer-2 clouds, such as Ethernet switches or MPLS networks. Instead, such physical point-to-multipoint connections are modeled as several logical IP level point-to-point connections. In this paper, we rely on recent developments in topology discovery based on IGMP probing that allows for revealing part of the network’s layer-2 structure. We take advantage of this additional knowledge for proposing an Internet model based on bipartite graphs considering both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections. Our model remains simple: it only takes as input the node degree sequence for both layer-2 and layer-3 nodes, randomly generates a bipartite graph respecting those distributions, and then derives the corresponding layer-3 topology. We show that, despite the simplicity of our model, realistic network properties, such as high local density, emerge naturally. This is in contrast with the now common belief that such properties can only appear with more intricate models or if explicitly injected in random models. Besides, we also provide evidences of how the analysis performed at the bipartite level might shed light on important properties of the real network structure. Finally, we propose and evaluate a bipartite graph generator based on our model that only takes two synthetic node degree distributions as input. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Potential of Recommendation Technologies for Efficient Content Delivery Networks
Kaafar, Mohamed Ali; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Donnet, Benoît ULg

in Computer Communication Review (2013), 43(3), 74-77

During the last decade, we have witnessed a substantial change in content delivery networks (CDNs) and user access paradigms. If previously, users consumed content from a central server through their ... [more ▼]

During the last decade, we have witnessed a substantial change in content delivery networks (CDNs) and user access paradigms. If previously, users consumed content from a central server through their personal computers, nowadays they can reach a wide variety of repositories from virtually everywhere using mobile devices. This results in a considerable time-, location-, and event-based volatility of content popularity. In such a context, it is imperative for CDNs to put in place adaptive content management strategies, thus, improving the quality of services provided to users and decreasing the costs. In this paper, we introduce predictive content distribution strategies inspired by methods developed in the Recommender Systems area. Specifically, we outline different content placement strategies based on the observed user consumption patterns, and advocate their applicability in the state of the art CDNs. [less ▲]

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See detailA First Measurement Look at the Deployment and Evolution of the Locator/ID Separation Protocol
Saucez, Damien; Iannone, Luigi; Donnet, Benoît ULg

in Computer Communication Review (2013), 43(1), 37-43

During the last decade, we have seen the rise of discussions regarding the emergence of a Future Internet. One of the proposed approaches leverages on the separation of the identifier and the locator ... [more ▼]

During the last decade, we have seen the rise of discussions regarding the emergence of a Future Internet. One of the proposed approaches leverages on the separation of the identifier and the locator roles of IP addresses, leading to the LISP (Locator/Identifier Separation Protocol) protocol, currently under development at the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). Up to now, researches made on LISP have been rather theoretical, i.e., based on simulations/emulations often using Internet traffic traces. There is no work in the literature attempting to assess the state of its deployment and how this has evolved in recent years. This paper aims at bridging this gap by presenting a first measurement study on the existing worldwide LISP network (lisp4.net). Early results indicate that there is a steady growth of the LISP network but also that network manageability might receive a higher priority than performance in a large scale deployment. [less ▲]

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See detailInternet Topology Discovery
Donnet, Benoît ULg

in Biersack, Ernst; Callegari, Christian; Matijasevic, Maja (Eds.) Data Traffic Monitoring and Analysis: From Measurement, Classification, and Anomaly Detection to Quality of Experience (2013)

Since the nineties, the Internet has seen an impressive growth, in terms of users, intermediate systems (such as routers), autonomous systems, or applications. In parallel to this growth, the research ... [more ▼]

Since the nineties, the Internet has seen an impressive growth, in terms of users, intermediate systems (such as routers), autonomous systems, or applications. In parallel to this growth, the research community has been looking for obtaining and modeling the Internet topology, i.e., how the various elements of the network interconnect between themselves. An impressive amount of work has been done regarding how to collect data and how to analyse and model it. This chapter reviews main approaches for gathering Internet topology data. We first focus on hop limited probing, i.e., traceroute-like probing. We review large-scale tracerouting projects and discuss traceroute limitations and how they are mitigated by new techniques or extensions. Hop limited probing can reveal an IP interface vision of the Internet. We next focus on techniques for aggregating several IP interfaces of a given router into a single identifier. This leads to a router level vision of the topology. The aggregation can be done through a process called alias resolution. We also review a technique based on IGMP probing that silently collect all multicast interfaces of a router into a single probe. We next refine the router level topology by adding subnet information. We finish this chapter by discussing the AS level topology, in particular the relationships between ASes and the induced hierarchy. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantifying and Mitigating IGMP Filtering in Topology Discovery
Marchetta, Pietro; Mérindol, Pascal; Donnet, Benoît ULg et al

in IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (2012, December)

Recent developments in router level topology discovery have suggested the introduction of IGMP probing in addition to standard techniques such as traceroute and alias resolution. With a single IGMP probe ... [more ▼]

Recent developments in router level topology discovery have suggested the introduction of IGMP probing in addition to standard techniques such as traceroute and alias resolution. With a single IGMP probe, one can obtain all multicast interfaces and links of a multicast router. If such a probing is a promising approach, we noticed that IGMP probes are subject to filtering, leading so to the fragmentation of the collected multicast graph into several disjoint connected components. In this paper, we cope with the fragmentation issue. Our contributions are threefold: (i) we experimentally quantify the damages caused by IGMP filtering on collected topologies of large tier-1 ISPs; (ii) using traceroute data, we construct a hybrid graph and estimate how far each IGMP fragment is from each other; (iii) we provide and experimentally evaluate a recursive approach for reconnecting disjoint multicast components. The key idea of the third contribution is to recursively apply alias resolution to reassemble disjoint fragments and, thus, progressively extend the mapping of the targeted ISP. Data presented in the paper, as well as reconstructed topologies, are freely available at http://svnet.u-strasbg.fr/merlin. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Dynamics of Locators in LISP
Saucez, Damien; Donnet, Benoît ULg

in IFIP/TC6 Networking (2012, May)

In the Internet, IP addresses play the dual role of identifying the hosts and locating them on the topology. This design choice limits the way a network can control its traffic and causes scalability ... [more ▼]

In the Internet, IP addresses play the dual role of identifying the hosts and locating them on the topology. This design choice limits the way a network can control its traffic and causes scalability issues. To overcome this limitation, the Locator/Identifier Separation Protocol (LISP) has been introduced. In LISP, the addresses used to identify end hosts (i.e., identifiers) are independent of the addresses used to locate them (i.e., locators). LISP maps identifiers into a list of locators and provides a mean to transport the packets with the appropriate locator. A key feature of this separation is that several locators can be associated to a given identifier, leading to more control for an end-site on the path selection to reach a given destination. In this paper, we show that the choice of the locator can have an impact on the performance and the reliability of the communication in a LISP environment. To this aim, we build a mapping between identifiers and locators as if LISP were deployed today. In addition, we extensively collect delay data between locators and demonstrate that the locator selection for a given identifier prefix impacts the performance of the LISP path in 25% of the cases. Finally, we measure the locators availability over time and demonstrate that it remains quite stable. [less ▲]

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See detailRevealing MPLS Tunnels Obscured from Traceroute
Donnet, Benoît ULg; Luckie, Matthew; Mérindol, Pascal et al

in Computer Communication Review (2012), 42(2), 87-93

Operators have deployed Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) in the Internet for over a decade. However, its impact on Internet topology measurements is not well known, and it is possible for some MPLS ... [more ▼]

Operators have deployed Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) in the Internet for over a decade. However, its impact on Internet topology measurements is not well known, and it is possible for some MPLS configurations to lead to false router-level links in maps derived from traceroute data. In this paper, we introduce a measurement-based classification of MPLS tunnels, identifying tunnels where IP hops are revealed but not explicitly tagged as label switching routers, as well as tunnels that obscure the underlying path. Using a large-scale dataset we collected, we show that paths frequently cross MPLS tunnels in today's Internet: in our data, at least 30% of the paths we tested traverse an MPLS tunnel. We also propose and evaluate several methods to reveal MPLS tunnels that are not explicitly flagged as such: we discover that their fraction is significant (up to half the explicit tunnel quantity) but most of them do not obscure IP-level topology discovery. [less ▲]

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See detailPath Similarity Evaluation using Bloom Filters
Donnet, Benoît ULg; Gueye, Bamba,; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali

in Computer Networks (2012), 56(2), 858-869

The performance of several Internet applications often relies on the measurability of path similarity between different participants. In particular, the performance of content distribution networks mainly ... [more ▼]

The performance of several Internet applications often relies on the measurability of path similarity between different participants. In particular, the performance of content distribution networks mainly relies on the awareness of content sources topology information. It is commonly admitted nowadays that, in order to ensure either path redundancy or efficient content replication, topological similarities between sources is evaluated by exchanging raw traceroute data, and by a hop by hop comparison of the IP topology observed from the sources to the several hundred or thousands of destinations. In this paper, based on real data we collected, we advocate that path similarity comparisons between different Internet entities can be much simplified using lossy coding techniques, such as Bloom filters, to exchange compressed topology information. The technique we introduce to evaluate path similarity enforces both scalability and data confidentiality while maintaining a high level of accuracy. In addition, we demonstrate that our technique is scalable as it requires a small amount of active probing and is not targets dependent. [less ▲]

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See detailTopology Discovery at the Router Level: a New Hybrid Tool Targeting ISP Networks
Marchetta, Pietro; Mérindol, Pascal; Donnet, Benoît ULg et al

in IEEE Journal on Selected Areas In Communications (2011), 29(6), 1776--1787

For a long time, traceroute measurements combined with alias resolution methods have been the sole way to collect Internet router level maps. Recently, a new approach has been introduced with the use of a ... [more ▼]

For a long time, traceroute measurements combined with alias resolution methods have been the sole way to collect Internet router level maps. Recently, a new approach has been introduced with the use of a multicast management tool, mrinfo, and a recursive probing scheme. In this paper, after analyzing advantages and drawbacks of probing approaches based on traceroute and mrinfo, we propose a hybrid discovery tool, MERLIN (MEasure the Router Level of the INternet), mixing mrinfo and traceroute probes. Using a central server controlling a set of distributed vantage points in order to increase the exploration coverage while limiting the probing redundancy, the purpose of MERLIN is to provide an accurate router level map inside a targeted Autonomous System (AS). MERLIN also takes advantage of alias resolution methods to reconnect scattered mul- ticast components. To evaluate the performance of MERLIN, we report experimental results describing its efficiency in topology exploration and reconstruction of several ASes. [less ▲]

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See detailMERLIN: MEasure the Router Level of the INternet
Mérindol, Pascal; Donnet, Benoît ULg; Pansiot, Jean-Jacques, et al

in 7th Euro-NF Conference on Next Generation Internet (2011, June)

The Internet topology discovery has been an extensive research subject those last years. While the raw data is collected using large traceroute campaigns, additional probing and/or extensive computation ... [more ▼]

The Internet topology discovery has been an extensive research subject those last years. While the raw data is collected using large traceroute campaigns, additional probing and/or extensive computation are required to gather subsets of IP addresses into single identifiers cor- responding to routers. This process, known as alias reso- lution, leads to a router level map of the Internet. In this paper, we push further the Internet router level mapping with a new probing tool called MERLIN. MER- L I N is based on mrinfo, a multicast management tool. mrinfo is able to silently collect all IPv4 multicast en- abled interfaces of a router and all its multicast links to- wards its neighbors: it does not need or rely on any alias resolution mechanism. In addition, M E R L I N comes with the advantage of being much more scalable than standard data gathering techniques. In this paper, we deploy and evaluate the performance of MERLIN. We demonstrate that the use of several vantage points is crucial to circum- vent IGMP filtering in order to collect large amounts of routers. We also investigate the completeness of MERLIN by providing a lower bound on the proportion of in- formation that it may miss. Finally, our dataset and the MERLIN implementation are freely available. [less ▲]

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See detailIP Geolocation Databases: Unreliable?
Poese, Ingmar; Uhlig, Steve; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali et al

in Computer Communication Review (2011), 41(2), 53-56

The most widely used technique for IP geolocation con- sists in building a database to keep the mapping between IP blocks and a geographic location. Several databases are available and are frequently used ... [more ▼]

The most widely used technique for IP geolocation con- sists in building a database to keep the mapping between IP blocks and a geographic location. Several databases are available and are frequently used by many services and web sites in the Internet. Contrary to widespread belief, geolo- cation databases are far from being as reliable as they claim. In this paper, we conduct a comparison of several current geolocation databases -both commercial and free- to have an insight of the limitations in their usability. First, the vast majority of entries in the databases refer only to a few popular countries (e.g., U.S.). This creates an imbalance in the representation of countries across the IP blocks of the databases. Second, these entries do not re- flect the original allocation of IP blocks, nor BGP announce- ments. In addition, we quantify the accuracy of geolocation databases on a large European ISP based on ground truth information. This is the first study using a ground truth show- ing that the overly fine granularity of database entries makes their accuracy worse, not better. Geolocation databases can claim country-level accuracy, but certainly not city-level. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving Retouched Bloom Filter for Trading Off Selected False Positives Against False Negatives
Donnet, Benoît ULg; Baynat, Bruno; Friedman, Timur

in Computer Networks (2010), 54(18), 3373-3387

Where distributed agents must share voluminous set membership information, Bloom fil- ters provide a compact, though lossy, way for them to do so. Numerous recent networking papers have examined the trade ... [more ▼]

Where distributed agents must share voluminous set membership information, Bloom fil- ters provide a compact, though lossy, way for them to do so. Numerous recent networking papers have examined the trade-offs between the bandwidth consumed by the transmis- sion of Bloom filters, and the error rate, which takes the form of false positives. This paper is about the retouched Bloom filter (RBF). An RBF is an extension that makes the Bloom fil- ter more flexible by permitting the removal of false positives, at the expense of introducing false negatives, and that allows a controlled trade-off between the two. We analytically show that creating RBFs through a random process decreases the false positive rate in the same proportion as the false negative rate that is generated. We further provide some simple heuristics that decrease the false positive rate more than the corresponding increase in the false negative rate, when creating RBFs. These heuristics are more effective than the ones we have presented in prior work. We further demonstrate the advantages of an RBF over a Bloom filter in a distributed network topology measurement application. We finally discuss several networking applications that could benefit from RBFs instead of standard Bloom filters. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Impact of Layer-2 on Node Degree Distribution
Mérindol, Pascal; Donnet, Benoît ULg; Bonaventure, Olivier et al

in 10th annual conference on Internet measurement (2010, November)

The Internet topology data collected through traceroute exploration has been extensively studied in the past. In particular, a remarkable property of the Internet, the power-law shape of node degree ... [more ▼]

The Internet topology data collected through traceroute exploration has been extensively studied in the past. In particular, a remarkable property of the Internet, the power-law shape of node degree distribution, drew the attention of the research community. Several studies have since questioned this property. In this paper, based on a large dataset collected using mrinfo, we show that the node degree distribution is strongly impacted by the presence of layer-2 (L2) networks, such as switches. L2 devices interconnect a large number of routers, themselves being also involved in multiple L2 interconnec- tions. Such a situation induces nodes with very high degree when analyzing the layer-3 (L3) graph with traceroute probing. Considering the physical design of a network, our analysis provides a lower bound on the bias generated by using only an L3 view. We also provide a model that can be a first step towards L2 aware topology generation. [less ▲]

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See detailA Survey on Network Coordinates Systems, Design, and Security
Donnet, Benoît ULg; Gueye, Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba ULg; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali

in IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials (2010)

During the last decade, a new class of large-scale globally-distributed network services and applications have emerged. Those systems are flexible in the sense that they can select their communication ... [more ▼]

During the last decade, a new class of large-scale globally-distributed network services and applications have emerged. Those systems are flexible in the sense that they can select their communication path among a set of available ones. However, ceaselessly gathering network information such as latency to select a path is infeasible due to the large amount of measurement traffic it would generate. To overcome this issue, Network Coordinates Systems (NCS) have been proposed. An NCS allows hosts to predict latencies without performing direct measurements and, consequently, reduce the network resources consumption. During these last years, NCS opened new research fields in which the networking community has produced an impressive amount of work. We believe it is now time to stop and take stock of what has been achieved so far. In this paper, we survey the various NCS proposed as well as their intrinsic limits. In particular, we focus on security issues and solutions proposed to fix them. We also discuss potential future NCS developments, in particular how to use NCS for predicting bandwidth. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 2nd Workshop on Active Internet Measurements (AIMS-2) Report
claffy, kc; Aben, Emile; Auge, Jorge, et al

in Computer Communication Review (2010), 40(5), 53-58

On February 8-10, 2010, CAIDA hosted the second Work- shop on Active Internet Measurements (AIMS-2) as part of our series of Internet Statistics and Metrics Analysis (ISMA) workshops. The goals of this ... [more ▼]

On February 8-10, 2010, CAIDA hosted the second Work- shop on Active Internet Measurements (AIMS-2) as part of our series of Internet Statistics and Metrics Analysis (ISMA) workshops. The goals of this workshop were to further our understanding of the potential and limitations of active mea- surement research and infrastructure in the wide-area Inter- net, and to promote cooperative solutions and coordinated strategies to addressing future data needs of the network and security research communities. The three-day workshop included presentations, group discussion and analysis, and focused interaction between participating researchers, oper- ators, and policymakers from all over the world. This report describes the motivation and findings of the workshop, and reviews progress on recommendations developed at the 1st Active Internet Measurements Workshop in 2009 [18]. Slides from the workshop presentations are available at [9]. [less ▲]

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See detailExtracting Intra-Domain Topology from mrinfo Probing
Pansiot, Jean-Jacques; Mérindol, Pascal; Donnet, Benoît ULg et al

in 11th international Conference on Passive and active Measurement (2010, April)

Activeandpassivemeasurementsfortopologydiscoveryhave known an impressive growth during the last decade. If a lot of work has been done regarding inter-domain topology discovery and modeling, only a few ... [more ▼]

Activeandpassivemeasurementsfortopologydiscoveryhave known an impressive growth during the last decade. If a lot of work has been done regarding inter-domain topology discovery and modeling, only a few papers raise the question of how to extract intra-domain topologies from measurements results. In this paper, based on a large dataset collected with mrinfo, a multicast tool that silently discovers all interfaces of a router, we provide a mechanism for retrieving intra-domain topologies. The main challenge is to assign an AS number to a border router whose IP addresses are not mapped to the same AS. Our algorithm is based on probabilistic and empirical IP allocation rules. The goal of our pool of rules is to converge to a consistent router to AS mapping. We show that our router-to-AS algorithm results in a mapping in more than 99% of the cases. Furthermore, with mrinfo, point-to-point links between routers can be distinguished from multiple links attached to a switch, providing an accurate view of the collected topologies. Finally, we provide a set of large intra-domain topologies in various formats. [less ▲]

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