References of "Donnet, Benoît"
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See detailAn Observation-Based Middlebox Policy Taxonomy
Edeline, Korian ULiege; Donnet, Benoît ULiege

in 13th International Conference on emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies Student Workshop (2017, December 12)

Recent years have seen the rise of middleboxes, such as NATs, firewalls, or TCP accelerators. Those middleboxes play an important role in today's Internet, including enterprise networks and cellular ... [more ▼]

Recent years have seen the rise of middleboxes, such as NATs, firewalls, or TCP accelerators. Those middleboxes play an important role in today's Internet, including enterprise networks and cellular networks. However, despite their undisputable success in modern network architecture, their actual impact on packets, traffic, and network performance is not that much understood. In this paper, we propose a path impairment oriented middlebox classification that aims at categorizing the initial purpose of a middlebox policy as well as its potential complications. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovering Routers in Load-balanced Paths
Grailet, Jean-François ULiege; Donnet, Benoît ULiege

in 13th International Conference on emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies Student Workshop (2017, December 12)

Usually, a set of Traceroute measurements collected for a large amount of target IPs contain one or several route hops at which the IP interfaces vary from one measurement to another. These variations ... [more ▼]

Usually, a set of Traceroute measurements collected for a large amount of target IPs contain one or several route hops at which the IP interfaces vary from one measurement to another. These variations occur even if several measurements share the same length and the same last hops. This is likely a consequence of load balancing, a traffic engineering policy which aims at sharing the load to ensure quality of service. In this paper, we consider the problem of conducting alias resolution on IP interfaces discovered via Traceroute and which are involved in load balancing. By conducting alias resolution in such a context, we want to verify if the IP interfaces involved in load balancing belong to unique routers, and more broadly, how relevant is alias resolution in this context. To do so, we use a slightly edited version of TreeNET, a topology discovery tool which relies on a tree-like structure based on Traceroute measurements to map a target domain. The upgraded TreeNET along the measurements described in this paper are both freely available online. [less ▲]

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See detailThrough the Wormhole: Tracking Invisible MPLS Tunnels
Vanaubel, Yves ULiege; Mérindol, Pascal; Pansiot, Jean-Jacques et al

in ACM Internet Measurement Conference (2017, November)

For years, Internet topology research has been conducted through active measurement. For instance, CAIDA builds router level topologies on top of IP level traces obtained with traceroute. The resulting ... [more ▼]

For years, Internet topology research has been conducted through active measurement. For instance, CAIDA builds router level topologies on top of IP level traces obtained with traceroute. The resulting graphs contain a significant amount of nodes with a very large degree, often exceeding the actual number of interfaces of a router. Although this property may result from inaccurate alias resolution, we believe that opaque MPLS clouds made of invisible tunnels are the main cause. Using Layer-2 technologies such as MPLS, routers can be configured to hide internal IP hops from traceroute. Consequently, an entry point of an MPLS network appears as the neighbor of all exit points and the whole Layer-3 network turns into a dense mesh of high degree nodes. This paper tackles three problems: the revelation of IP hops hidden by MPLS tunnels, the MPLS deployment underestimation, and the overestimation of high degree nodes. We develop new measurement techniques able to reveal the presence and content of invisible MPLS tunnels. We assess them through emulation and cross-validation and perform a large-scale measurement campaign targeting suspicious networks on which we apply statistical analysis. Finally, based on our dataset, we look at basic graph properties impacted by invisible tunnels. [less ▲]

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See detailA First Look at the Prevalence and Persistence of Middleboxes in the Wild
Edeline, Korian ULiege; Donnet, Benoît ULiege

in International Teletraffic Congress (2017, September)

Recent years have seen an uprise in the development of middleboxes functionalities (CGNATs, proxies, accelerators, etc), participating so in the ossification of the Internet. In parallel, various ... [more ▼]

Recent years have seen an uprise in the development of middleboxes functionalities (CGNATs, proxies, accelerators, etc), participating so in the ossification of the Internet. In parallel, various solutions have been developed to detect or circumvent unwanted middleboxes interferences such as UDP-based middlebox-proof transports (Google's QUIC, PLUS), middlebox-proof extensions to TCP (HICCUPS, TCPcrypt), and middlebox traversal mechanisms (STUN, ICE, PLUS). All those solutions make the assumption of ubiquitous middleboxes. However, a view of their actual deployment in the wild, in IPv4 wired networks, is missing. In particular, knowing how autonomous systems (ASes) deploy middleboxes in terms of prevalence and persistence would provide additional relevant information to Internet topology models. In this paper, we aim at filling this gap. Based on a large-scale measurement campaign, we highlight different characteristics of middlebox deployment within ASes to elicit middleboxes profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailNETPerfTrace – Predicting Internet Path Dynamics and Performance with Machine Learning
Wassermann, Sarah ULiege; Casas, Pedro; Cuvelier, Thibaut ULiege et al

in Proceedings of Big-DAMA ’17 (2017, August)

We study the problem of predicting Internet path changes and path performance using traceroute measurements and machine learning models. Path changes are frequently linked to path inflation and ... [more ▼]

We study the problem of predicting Internet path changes and path performance using traceroute measurements and machine learning models. Path changes are frequently linked to path inflation and performance degradation, therefore the relevance of the problem. We introduce NETPerfTrace, an Internet Path Tracking system to forecast path changes and path latency variations. By relying on decision trees and using empirical distribution-based input features, we show that NETPerfTrace can predict (i) the remaining life time of a path before it actually changes and (ii) the number of path changes in a certain time period with relatively high accuracy. Through extensive evaluation, we demonstrate that NETPerfTrace highly outperforms DTRACK, a previous system with the same prediction targets. NETPerfTrace also offers path performance forecasting capabilities. In particular, our tool can predict path latency metrics, providing a system which can not only predict path changes, but also forecast their impact in terms of performance variations. We release NETPerfTrace as open software to the networking community, as well as all evaluation datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailcopycat: Testing Differential Treatment of New Transport Protocols in the Wild
Edeline, Korian ULiege; Kühlewind, Mirja; Trammell, Brian et al

in Applied Networking Research Workshop (2017, July)

Recent years have seen the development of multiple transport solutions to address the ossification of TCP in the Internet, and to ease transport-layer extensibility and deployability. Recent approaches ... [more ▼]

Recent years have seen the development of multiple transport solutions to address the ossification of TCP in the Internet, and to ease transport-layer extensibility and deployability. Recent approaches, such as PLUS and Google's QUIC, introduce an upper transport layer atop UDP; their deployment therefore relies on UDP not being disadvantaged with respect to TCP by the Internet. This paper introduces copycat, a generic transport protocol testing tool that highlights differential treatment by the path in terms of connectivity and QoS between TCP and a non-TCP transport protocol. copycat generates TCP-shaped traffic with custom headers, and compares its performance in terms of loss and delay with TCP. We present a proof-of-concept case study (UDP vs. TCP) in order to answer questions about the deployability of current transport evolution approaches, and demonstrate the extent of copycat's capabilities and possible applications. While the vast majority of UDP impairments are found to be access-network linked, and subtle impairment is rare, middleboxes might adapt to new protocols that would then perform differently in the wild compared to early deployments or controlled environment testing. [less ▲]

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See detailHic Sunt NATs: Uncovering Address Translation with a Smart Traceroute
Zullo, Raffaele; Pescapé, Antonio; Edeline, Korian ULiege et al

in IEEE/IFIP Workshop on Mobile Network Measurement (MNM) (2017, June)

Middleboxes are pervasive in today's Internet as they are deployed for an increasing number of reasons. An example is the network address translation (NAT), one of the first task to be performed to cope ... [more ▼]

Middleboxes are pervasive in today's Internet as they are deployed for an increasing number of reasons. An example is the network address translation (NAT), one of the first task to be performed to cope with the lack of IPv4 addresses. Recently the landscape for NATs has become even more crowded, especially in mobile networks, mainly due to the impossibility of IPv6 to be a large-scale solution to addressing issues. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for detecting NATs embodied in Mobile Tracebox, a measurement tool for Android smart devices that detects a wide range of middleboxes. It analyzes ICMP time-exceeded messages received during \traceroute and points at IP and transport checksum inconsistencies in the embedded packets to uncover address translation along a path. We deployed Mobile Tracebox through a crowdsourcing approach and used the collected dataset to validate our methodology. Results showed that, in absence of middleboxes breaking \traceroute, it can help to detect and locate NATs in the majority of the cases. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a Renewed Alias Resolution with Space Search Reduction and IP Fingerprinting
Grailet, Jean-François ULiege; Donnet, Benoît ULiege

in Network Traffic Measurement and Analysis Conference (TMA) (2017, June)

Since the early 2000's, the Internet Topology has been frequently described and modeled from the perspective of routers. To this end, alias resolution mechanisms have been developed in order to aggregate ... [more ▼]

Since the early 2000's, the Internet Topology has been frequently described and modeled from the perspective of routers. To this end, alias resolution mechanisms have been developed in order to aggregate all IP interfaces of a router, collected with traceroute, into a single identifier. So far, many active measurement techniques have been considered, often taking advantage of specific features from network protocols. However, a lot of these methods have seen their efficiency decrease over time due to security reinforcements across the Internet. In this paper, we introduce a generic methodology to conduct efficient and scalable alias resolution. It combines the space search reduction of TreeNET (a tool for efficiently discovering subnets) with a fingerprinting process used to assess the feasibility of several state-of-the-art alias resolution methods, using a small, fixed amount of probes. We validate our method along MIDAR on an academic groundtruth and demonstrate that our methodology can achieve similar accuracy while using less probes and discovering subnets in the process. We further evaluate our method with measurements made on PlanetLab towards several distinct ASes of varying sizes and roles in the Internet. The collected data shows that some properties of our fingerprints correlate with each other, hinting some observed profiles could be linked with equipment vendors. Both TreeNET (which implements our methodology) and our dataset are freely available. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting Internet Path Dynamics and Performance with Machine Learning
Wassermann, Sarah ULiege; Casas, Pedro; Cuvelier, Thibaut ULiege et al

Report (2017)

In this paper, we study the problem of predicting Internet path changes and path performance using traceroute measurements and machine learning models. Path changes are frequently linked to path inflation ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we study the problem of predicting Internet path changes and path performance using traceroute measurements and machine learning models. Path changes are frequently linked to path inflation and performance degradation; therefore, predicting their occurrence is highly relevant for performance monitoring and dynamic traffic engineering. We introduce NETPerfTrace, an Internet Path Tracking system capable of forecasting path changes and path latency variations. By relying on decision trees and using empirical distribution based input features, we show that NETPerfTrace can predict (i) the remaining life time of a path before it actually changes and (ii) the number of path changes in a certain time-slot with high accuracy. Through extensive evaluation, we demonstrate that NETPerfTrace highly outperforms DTRACK, a previous system with the same prediction targets. NETPerfTrace also offers path performance forecasting capabilities. In particular, it can predict path latency metrics, providing a system which could not only predict path changes but also forecast their impact in terms of performance variations. As an additional contribution, we release NETPerfTrace as open software to the networking community. [less ▲]

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See detailStability and Consistency of the LISP Pull Routing Architecture
Li, Yue; Saucez, Damien; Iannone, Luigi et al

in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Network Measurements (WNM) (2017)

Future Internet has been a hot topic for the last decade. One of the approaches put forward in order to revise the Internet architecture is LISP~--~Locator/ID Separation Protocol, which leverages the ... [more ▼]

Future Internet has been a hot topic for the last decade. One of the approaches put forward in order to revise the Internet architecture is LISP~--~Locator/ID Separation Protocol, which leverages the separation of the identifier and the locator roles of IP addresses. Contrary to the classical push model used by the BGP-based routing architecture, LISP relies on a pull model. In particular, routing information is pulled from a new network element, the Mapping System, to provide the association between the identifier (i.e., the address used to identify a host inside a domain) and a list of locators (i.e., the addresses to locate an attachment point) upon an explicit query. In this paper, we evaluate a LISP Mapping System deployment in the public LISP Beta Network from two standpoints: Stability and Consistency. Our measurements show that the mapping information is stable over time and consistent between the different mapping entities and the vantage points. Our analysis shows that there are cases where the Mapping System is unstable and/or inconsistent, hence, beside proposing a taxonomy in order to classify them, we carry out an in-depth investigation of such cases so to provide hints on how to improve the performance of LISP. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine Learning based Prediction of Internet Path Dynamics
Wassermann, Sarah ULiege; Casas, Pedro; Donnet, Benoît ULiege

in ACM CoNEXT Student Workshop: Irvine 12 décembre 2016 (2016, December)

We study the problem of predicting Internet path changes and path performance using traceroute and machine-learning techniques. Path changes are frequently linked to path inflation and performance ... [more ▼]

We study the problem of predicting Internet path changes and path performance using traceroute and machine-learning techniques. Path changes are frequently linked to path inflation and performance degradation. Therefore, predicting their occurrence could improve the analysis of path dynamics using traceroute. By relying on neural networks and using empirical distribution based input features, we show that we are able to predict (i) the remaining life time of a path before it actually changes, and (ii) the number of path changes in a certain time slot with relatively high accuracy. We also show that it is possible to predict path performance in terms of latency, opening the door to novel, machine-learning-based approaches for RTT prediction. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Analysis of Internet Paths with DisNETPerf, a Distributed Paths Performance Analyzer
Wassermann, Sarah ULiege; Casas, Pedro; Donnet, Benoît ULiege et al

in Proc. 10th IEEE Workshop on Network Measurements (WNM) (2016, November)

Traceroute is the most widely used Internet path analysis tool today to study the topology of the Internet and to diagnose routing failures as well as poor performance events. A major limitation of ... [more ▼]

Traceroute is the most widely used Internet path analysis tool today to study the topology of the Internet and to diagnose routing failures as well as poor performance events. A major limitation of traceroute when the destination is not controllable by the user is its inability to measure reverse paths, i.e., the path from any given destination back to the source. This is a major drawback for ISPs, who need to understand the performance of the Internet paths connecting popular services (e.g., YouTube and Facebook) to their customers. Even if public servers and distributed measurement platforms can provide partial reverse path visibility through ad-hoc measurements, there is still a need for a structured approach capable of analyzing the performance of Internet paths connecting any pair of nodes (servers, routers, hosts, etc.). While the problem of reverse traceroute has been addressed in the past, proposed techniques rely on IP address spoofing – which might lead to security concerns, and assume the availability of certain route-tracking options –, which might not be available. In this paper, we introduce and evaluate DisNETPerf, a new tool which provides exactly the same type of information as traceroute, but for paths connecting arbitrarily selected nodes. DisNETPerf works by firstly locating probes (i.e., measurement points) that are the closest to a given target node, using them to perform traceroute measurements from the target point-of-view to a given destination for path performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes. We propose two techniques for probe location, and demonstrate that the reverse path (from server to users) can be measured with very high accuracy in certain scenarios. We also analyze relevant characteristics of Internet paths and distributed measurement platforms, which reinforce the applicability and relevance of DisNETPerf in current Internet. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a Multipath TCP Aware Load Balancer
Lienardy, Simon ULiege; Donnet, Benoît ULiege

in Applied Networking Research Workshop (2016, July)

Multipath TCP has been recently introduced in order to allow a better resource consumption and user quality-of-experience. This is achieved by allowing a connection between two hosts through multiple ... [more ▼]

Multipath TCP has been recently introduced in order to allow a better resource consumption and user quality-of-experience. This is achieved by allowing a connection between two hosts through multiple subflows. However, with the rise of middleboxes and inherent Internet ossification, the large-scale deployment of this TCP extension is difficult. In particular, a load balancer at the entry point of a data center may forward subflows to different servers, canceling so the advantages of Multipath TCP. In this paper, we introduce MpLB, a Multipath TCP aware load balancer that fixes this particular issue without any modification to the Multipath TCP protocol itself. We demonstrate advantages of MpLB through a proof-of-concept. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an Observatory for Network Transparency Research
Neuhaus, Stephan; Münter, Roman; Edeline, Korian ULiege et al

in Applied Networking Research Workshop (2016, July)

The Internet is full of middleboxes that change packets and flows. In fact, there is probably no IP or TCP header that is not affected by at least one middlebox. Obviously, middleboxes impede path ... [more ▼]

The Internet is full of middleboxes that change packets and flows. In fact, there is probably no IP or TCP header that is not affected by at least one middlebox. Obviously, middleboxes impede path transparency, i.e., the idea that an exchange of messages results in more or less the same packets, no matter what path the packets takes. But no one seems to have a truly global view of what middleboxes do to packets on what Internet paths, which would however be an essential knowledge for new transport protocols to be successfully deployed. We address these concerns in the MAMI project by building an observatory of path transparency measurements. The project hosts an extensive set of path transparency measurements - we believe it to be the first dataset to deal specifically with middlebox involvement. In this paper, we describe that Observatory and a number of questions that we want to address with the data in that Observatory. Eventually, the project will provide public access to that Observatory so that researchers and the interested public can ask their own questions about path transparency issues and middlebox involvement. [less ▲]

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See detailUnveiling the MPLS Structure on Internet Topology
Davila Revelo; Anderson Ricci, Mauricio; Donnet, Benoît ULiege et al

in 8th International Workshop on Traffic Monitoring and Analysis (TMA) (2016, April)

Recently, researches have been conducted to discover and assess the usage of MPLS tunnels. Indeed, recent developments in the ICMP protocol make certain categories of MPLS tunnels transparent to ... [more ▼]

Recently, researches have been conducted to discover and assess the usage of MPLS tunnels. Indeed, recent developments in the ICMP protocol make certain categories of MPLS tunnels transparent to traceroute probing. Additional techniques have been proposed to reveal the presence of MPLS tunnels when they do not explicitly appear in traceroute. It has been shown that MPLS is a very well deployed technology whose usage (i.e., Traffic Engineering, load balancing, etc.) varies in time and according to ASes. However, the MPLS structure on the Internet architecture has not been studied yet. In this paper, we follow this path by providing two contributions to the state of the art: (i) we evaluate the biases involved on MPLS tunnel detection when they are not directly revealed through traceroute. (ii), we provide some properties and architectural details related with MPLS deployment on router topology based on a k-core decomposition. [less ▲]

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See detailTreeNET: Discovering and Connecting Subnets
Grailet, Jean-François ULiege; Tarissan, Fabien; Donnet, Benoît ULiege

in 8th International Workshop on Traffic Monitoring and Analysis (TMA) (2016, April)

Since the early 2000's, the Internet topology has been an attractive and important research topic, either for developing data collection mechanisms, and for analyzing and modeling the network. Beside ... [more ▼]

Since the early 2000's, the Internet topology has been an attractive and important research topic, either for developing data collection mechanisms, and for analyzing and modeling the network. Beside traditional aspects of the Internet topology (i.e., IP interface, router, and AS levels), recent researches focused on intermediate promising visions of the topology, namely Point-of-Presence (PoP) and subnets (i.e., a set of devices that are located on the same connection medium and that can communicate directly with each other at the link layer). This paper focuses on network subnet discovery by proposing a new tool called treenet. One of the key aspects of treenet is that it builds a tree representing the way subnets are located with respect to each other. This tree allows treenet to obtain additional information on the network, leading to better analysis of the collected data. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential of treenet through the evaluation of its key algorithmic steps and the study of measurements collected from the PlanetLab testbed. [less ▲]

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See detailA Brief History of MPLS Usage in IPv6
Vanaubel, Yves ULiege; Mérindol, Pascal; Pansiot, Jean-Jacques et al

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2016)

Recent researches have stated the fast deployment of IPv6. It has been demonstrated that IPv6 grows much faster, being so more and more adopted by both Internet service providers but also by servers and ... [more ▼]

Recent researches have stated the fast deployment of IPv6. It has been demonstrated that IPv6 grows much faster, being so more and more adopted by both Internet service providers but also by servers and end-hosts. In parallel, researches have been conducted to discover and assess the usage of MPLS tunnels. Indeed, recent developments in the ICMP protocol make certain categories of MPLS tunnels transparent to traceroute probing. However, these studies focus only on IPv4, where MPLS is strongly deployed. In this paper, we provide a first look at how MPLS is used under IPv6 networks using traceroute data collected by CAIDA. At first glance, we observe that the MPLS deployment and usage seem to greatly differ between IPv4 and IPv6, in particular in the way MPLS label stacks are used. While label stacks with at least two labels are marginal in IPv4 (and mostly correspond to a VPN usage), they are prevalent in IPv6. After a deeper analysis of the label stack typical content in IPv6, we show that such tunnels result from the use of 6PE. This is not really surprising since this mechanism was specifically designed to forward IPv6 traffic using MPLS tunnels through networks that are not fully IPv6 compliant. However, we show that it does not result from non dual-stack routers but rather from the absence of native IPv6 MPLS signaling protocols. Finally, we investigate a large Tier-1 network, Cogent, that stands out with an original set-up. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards DisNETPerf: a Distributed Internet Paths Performance Analyzer
Wassermann, Sarah ULiege; Casas, Pedro; Donnet, Benoît ULiege

in ACM CoNEXT Student Workshop: Heidelberg 1 décembre 2015 (2015, December)

For more than 25 years now, traceroute has demonstrated its supremacy for network-path measurement, becoming the most widely used Internet path diagnosis tool today. A major limitation of traceroute when ... [more ▼]

For more than 25 years now, traceroute has demonstrated its supremacy for network-path measurement, becoming the most widely used Internet path diagnosis tool today. A major limitation of traceroute when the destination is not controllable by the user is its inability to measure reverse paths, i.e., the path from a destination back to the source. Proposed techniques to address this issue rely on IP address spoofing, which might lead to security concerns. In this paper we introduce and evaluate DisNETPerf, a new tool for locating probes that are the closest to a distant server. Those probes are then used to collect data from the server point-of-view to the service user for path performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes. We propose two techniques for probe location, and demonstrate that the reverse path can be measured with very high accuracy in certain scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailMPLS Under the Microscope: Revealing Actual Transit Path Diversity
Vanaubel, Yves ULiege; Mérindol, Pascal; Pansiot, Jean-Jacques et al

in ACM Internet Measurement Conference (2015, October)

Traffic Engineering (TE) is one of the keys for improving packet forwarding in the Internet. It allows IP network operators to finely tune their forwarding paths according to various customer needs. One ... [more ▼]

Traffic Engineering (TE) is one of the keys for improving packet forwarding in the Internet. It allows IP network operators to finely tune their forwarding paths according to various customer needs. One of the most popular tool available today for optimizing the use of networking resources is MPLS. On the one hand, operators may use MPLS and label distribution mechanisms such as RSVP-TE in conjunction with BGP to define multiple transit paths (for a given edge pair) verifying different constraints on their network. On the other hand, when operators simply enable LDP for distributing MPLS labels in order to improve the scalability of their network, another kind of path diversity may appear thanks to the ECMP feature of IGP routing. In this paper, using an MPLS labels analysis, we demonstrate that it is possible to better understand the transit path diversity deployed within a given ISP. More specifically, we introduce the Label Pattern Recognition (LPR) algorithm, a method for analyzing traceroute data including MPLS information. LPR reveals the actual usage of MPLS according to the inferred label distribution protocol and is able to make the distinction between ECMP and TE multi-path forwarding. Based on an extensive and longitudinal traceroute dataset obtained from CAIDA, we apply LPR and find that each ISP behavior is really specific in regard to its MPLS usage. In particular, we are able to observe independently for each ISP the MPLS path diversity and usage, and its evolution over time. Globally speaking, the main outcomes of our study are that (i) the usage of MPLS has been increasing over the the last five years with basic encapsulation being predominant, (ii) path diversity is mainly provided thanks to ECMP and LDP, and, (iii), TE using MPLS is as common as MPLS without path diversity. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-check of Analysis Modules and Reasoner Interactions
Manferdini, U.; Traverso, S.; Mellia, Marco et al

Report (2015)

This deliverable presents an extended set of Analysis Modules, including both the improvements done to those presented in deliverable D4.1 as well as the new analysis algorithms designed and developed to ... [more ▼]

This deliverable presents an extended set of Analysis Modules, including both the improvements done to those presented in deliverable D4.1 as well as the new analysis algorithms designed and developed to address use-cases. The deliverable also describes a complete workflow description for the different use-cases, including both stream processing for real-time monitoring applications as well as batch processing for “off-line” analysis. This workflow description specifies the iterative interaction loop between WP2, WP3, T4.1, and T4.2, thereby allowing for a cross-checking of the analysis modules and the reasoner interactions. [less ▲]

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