References of "Diepart, Jean-Christophe"
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See detailThe peasants in turmoil: Khmer Rouge, state formation and the control of land in northwest Cambodia
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Dupuis, David

in The Journal of Peasant Studies (2014), 41(4), 445468

Over the past 15 years, northwest Cambodia has seen dramatic agrarian expansion away from the central rice plain into the peripheral uplands fuelled by peasant in-migration. Against this background, we ... [more ▼]

Over the past 15 years, northwest Cambodia has seen dramatic agrarian expansion away from the central rice plain into the peripheral uplands fuelled by peasant in-migration. Against this background, we examine the nature of relations between the peasantry and the state. We first show the historical continuities of land control processes and how the use of violence in a post-conflict neoliberal context has legitimised ex-Khmer Rouge in controlling land distribution. Three case studies show the heterogeneity of local level sovereignties, which engage the peasants in different relations with authority. We examine how these processes result in the construction of different rural territories along the agricultural frontier and argue that, in this region of Cambodia, the struggles between Khmer Rouge and neoliberal modes of land control are central to state formation processes. [less ▲]

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See detailDemography
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Save Cambodia's Wildlife (Ed.) Atlas of Cambodia: Maps on Socio-Economic Development and Environment (2014)

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See detailMigrations
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Pilgrim, John; Dulioust, Jérémie

in Save Cambodia's Wildlife (Ed.) Atlas of Cambodia: Maps on Socio-Economic Development and Environment (2014)

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See detailMultiple Migrations, Displacements and Land Transfers at Ta Kream in Northwest Cambodia
Pilgrim, John; Ngin, Chanrith; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Hecht, Susanna; Kandel, Susan; Morales, Abelardo (Eds.) Migration, Rural Livelihoods and Natural Resource Management (2012)

The Cambodian case examines migration, land tenure and land management, in a context of conflict and the use of force in land transfers since the time of the Khmer Rouge regime to the present, by studying ... [more ▼]

The Cambodian case examines migration, land tenure and land management, in a context of conflict and the use of force in land transfers since the time of the Khmer Rouge regime to the present, by studying five agro-ecological zones close to the Kamping Pouy irrigation system in Battambang Province. The study combines analysis of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of household use of land and labor with a historical and ethnographic review of conflict and institutional factors in successive land administrations. Continuing in-migration is reflected in population increases in Battambang and other provinces of Northwest Cambodia in conditions of limited land availability and landlordism, and conflict over expropriation of land by armed groups and business interests. Land transfers to a growing wealthy class of businessmen and government officials have contributed to the creation of a subclass of very poor, landless households whose livelihoods depend on agricultural wage labor, locally and in Thailand, and access to the commons. Access to land for a substantial proportion of the community depends on either tenancy, sharecropping or wage labor on the land of wealthier farmers. Three problematic processes that run counter to the Cambodian Constitution and Land Law are systemic: 1) the usurpation of land rights by locally operating armed groups; 2) legitimation of such land acquisition by military-business-government officials by corrupt officeholders and local government officials; and 3) the capture of rents or profits by agencies responsible for safeguarding natural resources. [less ▲]

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See detailCambodian peasant’s contribution to rural development: a perspective from Kampong Thom Province
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14(2), 321-340

The paper aims to identify the rationality of peasant communities and their contribution to rural development in Kampong Thom province. To do so, an interdisciplinary analytical framework addresses the ... [more ▼]

The paper aims to identify the rationality of peasant communities and their contribution to rural development in Kampong Thom province. To do so, an interdisciplinary analytical framework addresses the dynamics of land use and land tenure, the strategies of labor force allocation as well as the determinants of land and labor agricultural productivities amongst peasant communities. It rests on details field surveys in two communes located in very distinct agro-ecological settings of Kampong Thom province. A land use change analysis based on time-series aerial photos is conducted with participatory inventories of natural resources. It shows that endogenous management of forest and fisheries resources generate significant incomes and, at the same time, contribute to maintaining biodiversity. The paper analyses how this contribution is challenged by the non-peasant actors involved in massive State land privatization. Aiming to full employment, peasant households enjoy a great flexibility in the way they allocate labor force, especially in line with the age of active labor and the fluctuation of labor opportunity costs. Principally due to an unequal land holding distribution, agricultural income is unfairly distributed but this inequality is actually balanced by the access to common-pool resources of crucial importance for the poorest and by the recourse to non farming activities, which is an important factor of socio-economic differentiation amongst households. The main economic indicators of rice production confirm that peasant households always try to maximize their income in step with the production factor they have in relatively less amount. A land market simulation stresses that, contrarily to theoretical assumptions, land access through sale (and purchase) does not result in a fairer land distribution. Nevertheless, land leases amongst peasant households seem more promising to ensure equitable access to land as they are embedded in collective security mechanisms activated by peasantry. The paper argues that peasant communities in the studied area constitute a solid basis for rural development as they offer a very good articulation between economic efficiency, social justice and environmental sustainability. Finally, recommendations are formulated to properly address peasant contribution to rural development in the new national agrarian policies. [less ▲]

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See detailGoing along the river by the bend; entering the village by the country: A spatial planning perspective to enhance community-based natural resource management in Cambodia
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Sem, Thol

in Beaupre, Pauline; Taylor, Janet; Carson, Toby (Eds.) Emerging Trends, Challenges and Innovations Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) in Cambodia (2009)

This paper suggests that new decentralized and de-concentration reforms, which set out a framework to bring important governance functions to the sub-national level, have opened new spaces to explore ... [more ▼]

This paper suggests that new decentralized and de-concentration reforms, which set out a framework to bring important governance functions to the sub-national level, have opened new spaces to explore complementary approaches for environmental governance. Using the Battambang spatial planning framework as a basis, the paper reviews some of the limitation of CBNRM implementation of the last ten years and then focuses on detailing the methodology used to develop and build the framework and how it can be beneficial to current CBNRM. The argument continually defended is that the integration of CBNRM initiatives into a comprehensive spatial planning framework at the provincial level can reinforce local actions and give communities stronger recognition. In a discussion of the three dimensions of the spatial planning framework which include land use planning, territorial policy, and territorial governance, the analysis does not negate the important contribution of local support to rural communities but tries to identify complementary (and not substitutive) approaches that might strengthen communities in their daily livelihood issues. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal-Level Monitoring in Decentralized Forest Management: Exploring the Spaces for Community Participation
Tol, Sokchea; Srey, Marona; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Beaupre, Pauline; Taylor, Janet; Carson, Toby (Eds.) Emerging Trends, Challenges and Innovations Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) in Cambodia (2009)

This paper explores a participatory monitoring process initiated in Kampong Thom province with 3 Community Forestry (CF) sites where CF development was facilitated by Forestry Administration (FA) staff ... [more ▼]

This paper explores a participatory monitoring process initiated in Kampong Thom province with 3 Community Forestry (CF) sites where CF development was facilitated by Forestry Administration (FA) staff and externally supported by German Technical Support-Rural Development Programme (GTZ-RDP).The paper details the methodology used and the key outputs produced during the process, it highlights the four main principles of the principle, criteria, and indicator Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) which are: (1) that forest health is maintained, (2) public well-being is improved, (3) community well-being is assured, and (4) external support is effective. The results show that in all three CF, the land integrity and the forest resource itself was improved between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Despite the positive results, many of the challenges and limitations were acknowledged including the difficulty in capturing all different points of view and opinions when there are such a large number of people involved and consulted as well as how this can lead to a slowdown within the whole process and is very expensive. The paper concludes suggesting that a local level monitoring system can help to build local capacity, improve decision-making, reduce conflict between local forest dependents and responsible authorities as well as empower local community members, especially marginalized groups. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Problems and Challenges of Cambodian Rural Economy. Between New Governances and Peasant’s Realities. The Case of Kampong Thom Province
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

Doctoral thesis (2007)

In Cambodia, agriculture and natural resources constitute a corner stone in the production systems of peasant families, who constitute the large majority of the rural population. Hence, in the perspective ... [more ▼]

In Cambodia, agriculture and natural resources constitute a corner stone in the production systems of peasant families, who constitute the large majority of the rural population. Hence, in the perspective of an important demographic growth and an increasing marketing of agricultural inputs and outputs, man-made management of ecosystems represent considerable economic, social and environmental challenges to Cambodian peasants. The study precisely focuses on the peasant’s ways to manage rural territories. It rests on a fundamental hypothesis, according to which peasant practices are environmentally sustainable, economically efficient (in terms of creation of added-values) and socially equitable in the distribution of these added-values. A multi-scale analytical framework that integrates different dimensions of natural resources management is established to check out and fine tune this fundamental hypothesis. A first analytical framework, given a priori, covers the entire province of Kampong Thom. The second analytical framework is determined by choice. It covers two communes, selected on the basis of agro-ecological and institutional criteria, which are representative of rural dynamics observed and detailed at the provincial level. The first part shows the intricate links between agro-ecological diversity and peasant’s production systems. It details the social relationships that liven up rural territories and shows how power relationships structure or affect peasant communities. The next part analyses the new choices for collective and individual action for the management of natural resources. It points out the very conflictive nature of previous forms of management and the internal contradictions of the new choices. The potential contribution of commune council in natural resources management is also examined from a legal and organisational point of view. Field works carried out at the level of two communes detail and complete this analysis. First of all, spatial analysis of land use change between 1992 and 2006 shows the growing importance of non-peasant stakeholders in rural development dynamics. The analysis shows that when the development of rural territories can be entirely controlled by peasant’s communities, the dynamics of change are rational and efficient. Peasant’s strategies are characterized by a large diversity of activities, that all have in common the cultivation of rain-fed rice. The access to forest or fisheries resources on public state land is triggered by household’s activities diversification tactics in the dry season. These modes of access and use of natural resources are critically detailed and put in the perspective of the establishment of community fisheries and community forestry schemes. Management of private agricultural land is characterized by the overwhelming importance of rice in the cropping systems. Technical itineraries for rice cultivation implemented by rural households are analyzed and their economic results are evaluated. Different economic rationalities are highlighted in relation to inputs productivity. Elements of productivity, efficiency and profitability are also apprehended in relation with the access to credit and land markets. This analysis allows revisiting the assumed self-regulating role of land markets to ensure the growth of the agricultural sector on the one hand, and the improvement in the access of land for more equity on the other hand. Eventually, the analysis done at the commune level are put into the perspective of new institutional choices for collective and individual action for natural resources management and propose, in fine, operational recommendations to support peasant’s ways to manage natural resources. [less ▲]

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See detailRural communities on the Cambodian Central Plain : a comparative analysis based on five communes
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Dogot, Thomas ULg; Ly, Viboth et al

in Moussons (2007), (9-10), 325-354

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See detailRecent land dynamics in the Tonle Sap Flood Plain and its impacts on the local communities
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve Bulletin (2007), 3

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