References of "Diepart, Jean-Christophe"
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See detailThey will need land! The current land tenure situation and future land allocation needs of smallholder farmers in Cambodia
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

E-print/Working paper (2016)

The objective of this background paper is to provide a succinct description of the land tenure situation in Cambodia and, on that basis, discuss the needs smallholder farmers have for land, projected up ... [more ▼]

The objective of this background paper is to provide a succinct description of the land tenure situation in Cambodia and, on that basis, discuss the needs smallholder farmers have for land, projected up to the year 2030. The main problem it examines lies at the intersection between, on one hand, the demographic increase in the rural smallholder population and its associated need for land in the future (the demand side) and, on the other hand, the possibility offered by the different land tenure regimes to meet this demand (the supply side); the central question focuses on how supply can meet demand.By looking first at how much land is available under different categories (the supply side), the paper succinctly presents and maps the different land tenure regimes with updated statistics and discusses their main outcomes and shortcomings. On that basis, we present a preliminary assessment of land distribution by main land tenure systems in Cambodia. The land under cultivation by smallholders represents 19 percent of the total area of the national territory and is itself sub-divided into agricultural land with land titles (systematic land registration, 6 percent and land covered by the Order 01, 6 percent), under Social Land Concession arrangements (1 percent) and untitled (6 percent). The forest cover includes forest concessions (10 percent), Community Forestry (2 percent), Protected Areas and Protection Forests (20 percent) and an unclassified forest cover area (14 percent). Economic Land Concessions under operation represent 12 percent while cancelled concessions represent 2 percent of the total territory. The actual tenure of a large non-forested area (14 percent) remains undetermined and further updates are needed to shed light on this issue. The paper suggests that the central problem of the current Cambodian land reform is its ineffectiveness in coordinating the processes of land rights security and formalization in lowland and upland areas, although both regions are closely linked through land-driven migration movements that have intensified over the past 20 years. This has been particularly contentious given the fact that in a parallel process, and driven by a strong, state-based political economy, large land deals have been concentrated in the uplands of the entire country along processes that are exclusionary in nature. The overlap of competing land claims has created a widespread conflict situation in all uplands region of the country. By looking at how much land is needed for family farmers in the future (the demand side), the paper anticipates the land requirements of smallholder farmers by 2030 based on the projected demographic increase in the economically active population in rural Cambodia and on two sets of scenarios i) the transfer of unskilled labour from the agricultural to the secondary and tertiary sectors (industries and services) and ii) the provision of land for smallholder farmers. The analysis suggests that by the year 2030, the transfer of unskilled labour from agriculture to the secondary and tertiary sectors will lag behind the demographic increase in the active rural population. With 2015 as a baseline, the scenarios suggests that by 2030 smallholder farmers will need an additional land area ranging from 320,600 ha (+10 percent in relation to the actual area at the present time) to 1,962,400 (+64 percent), with an average desirable scenario of 1,622.000 ha based on an allocation of 1ha per active labourer (in accordance with the present social concession policy) and on the continuation of the present transfer rate of unskilled manpower from agriculture to the secondary and tertiary sectors (i.e. the transfer of 40.000 workers per year). So the question that needs to be formulated does not revolve around whether or not the rural population will need land in the future, but rather around how this can occur. Along these lines, the paper discusses different options, which are not mutually exclusive, to allocate this land without further impact on the forest cover: i) by redistribution of land from cancelled Economic Land Concessions, ii) through a firmer recognition of swidden agriculture inside Protected Areas, iii) through a far more ambitious Social Land Concession programme and iv) through further reform of the forest concession system. The paper concludes by stressing the need for relevant ministries to engage in open and constructive research-based discussion so that these options can materialize into concrete actions. [less ▲]

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See detailFragmented Territories: Incomplete Enclosures and Agrarian Change on the Agricultural Frontier of Samlaut District, North-West Cambodia
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Sem, Thol

in Journal of Agrarian Change (2016)

In Cambodia, the interactions between large-scale land investment and land titling gathered particular momentum in 2012–13, when the government initiated an unprecedented upland land titling programme in ... [more ▼]

In Cambodia, the interactions between large-scale land investment and land titling gathered particular momentum in 2012–13, when the government initiated an unprecedented upland land titling programme in an attempt to address land tenure insecurity where large-scale land investment overlaps with land appropriated by peasants. This paper is based on a spatially explicit ethnography of land rights conducted in the Samlaut district of north-west Cambodia – a former Khmer Rouge resistance stronghold – in a context where the enclosures are both incomplete and entangled with post-war, socially embedded land tenure systems. We discuss how this new pattern of fragmentation affects the prevailing dynamics of agrarian change. We argue that it has introduced new forms of exclusion and a generalized perception of land tenure uncertainty that is managed by peasants through the actualization of hybrid land tenure arrangements borrowing from state rules and local consensus. In contrast with common expectations about land formalization, the process reinforces the patterns of social differentiation initiated by land rent capture practices of early migrants and pushes more vulnerable peasants into seeking wage labour and resorting to job migration. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction to the Cambodian Spatial Planning System
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Koditek, Walter; Hänert, Thomas et al

Report (2016)

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See detailProvincial Spatial Planning Handbook
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Koditek, Walter; Hänert, Thomas et al

Report (2016)

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See detailDistrict & Municipal Land Use Master Plan and Land Use Plan Handbook
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Koditek, Walter; Hänert, Thomas et al

Report (2016)

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See detailFisheries reforms and right-based fisheries: insights from community fisheries across Cambodia
Chap, Sreyphea; Touch, Panha; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

E-print/Working paper (2016)

The working paper uses a right-based approach to examine recent wave of reforms in the Cambodian fisheries sector and what these reforms mean for community fisheries management.

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See detailDéveloppement rural et petite paysannerie en Asie du Sud-Est : Leçons d'expériences au Vietnam et au Cambodge
Lebailly, Philippe ULg; Peemans, Jean-Philippe; Vu Dinh, Ton et al

Book published by L'Harmattan (2015)

Le fil conducteur de cet ouvrage repose sur un constat : l’agriculture continue de représenter le moteur essentiel du développement économique et social pour les pays d’Asie de l’Est et du Sud-Est. Elle y ... [more ▼]

Le fil conducteur de cet ouvrage repose sur un constat : l’agriculture continue de représenter le moteur essentiel du développement économique et social pour les pays d’Asie de l’Est et du Sud-Est. Elle y occupe la majorité de la main-d’œuvre et doit à la fois assurer la subsistance de la population rurale, faire face à l’augmentation et à la diversification de la consommation urbaine et contribuer à produire des ressources pour l’exportation. L’approche pluridisciplinaire du développement rural prônée dans le cadre des contributions à cet ouvrage collectif a voulu placer au cœur de ses préoccupations les petites exploitations villageoises se situant tant au niveau de la production que de la transformation et la commercialisation de ces produits, dans le contexte actuel de la libération des marchés. L’un des grands défis est d’y intégrer la dimension de durabilité, sur le plan social et sur le plan environnemental. Les différentes parties de l’ouvrage illustrent cette perspective et partagent ces questionnements. [less ▲]

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See detailThe fragmentation of land tenure systems in Cambodia: peasants and the formalization of land rights
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

Book published by The Technical Committee on “Land Tenure and Development" (2015)

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See detailLearning towards resilience
Jones, Ronald; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

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See detailPathways of change in a coastal resource system: Study from Kampong Trach district, Kampot province
Voe, Pisidh; Touch, Panha; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

Over the past several years, Cambodia’s coastal resources system has undergone considerable transformation. The causes have included uncontrolled fishing activities, tourism development, salt and shrimp ... [more ▼]

Over the past several years, Cambodia’s coastal resources system has undergone considerable transformation. The causes have included uncontrolled fishing activities, tourism development, salt and shrimp farming, sand mining, and trade, to name just the most significant. Against this background, this study analyzes pathways of change over the past 15 years in coastal resource systems in two neighboring communities in the Kampong Trach district of Kampot province. The analysis proceeds on two different levels. We first look at change in respect of the cross-scale multiple drivers in the resource system at village level and its effects on the social and ecological components of the marine, intertidal and agricultural areas of the coastal zone. Then, at household level, we examine the diversity of adaptation measures adopted to deal with these changes, and evaluate their impacts on livelihoods. We argue that the degradation of fisheries resources in marine and intertidal zones results from drivers that originate outside and inside the communities, but mostly stems from problems of governance. Despite tangible improvements in rain-fed rice yield, the development of the farming sector is constrained by limited capacity to diversify and intensify production. The adaptation paths to this resources degradation squeeze are multiple. The few households who can afford to enhance or intensify their farming and fishing efforts usually manage to improve their food security status. But in a majority of cases, the adaptation works through a move away from the land and the sea, either through self-employed non-farm and non-fishing activities (local business associated with cross-border trade with Vietnam) or through wage labor. Self-employed activities and demand more capital but represent the main path of improvement in these communities. Wage labor - particularly associated with migration - has become widespread but its potential to improve food security is very limited. Accessing credit and going into debt is another significant way in which people have attempted to adapt either to address chronic food insecurity or to maintain the same level of productivity.The increase of mobility is a central element in adaptation strategy adopted by many who have been affected. This includes: mobility of labor (non-farm, wage and migration); the mobility of capital (e.g. conversion from marine zone fishing to trade); and mobility of landownership (occurring through market-based land concentration). However, we suggest that these processes of adaptation have actually reinforced the wealth disparity that exists between households. It has particularly exacerbated the vulnerability of those who are most dependent on small-scale fisheries. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferentiation of swidden agriculture in Northeast Cambodia: Kavet swiddeners, the state and the markets in Kok Lak commune
You, Rithy; Kleinpeter, Vivien; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

Until recently, Kavet ethnic minority people traditionally practiced swidden agriculture and accessed natural resources in the uplands as an important, and unchallenged, part of their food system. This ... [more ▼]

Until recently, Kavet ethnic minority people traditionally practiced swidden agriculture and accessed natural resources in the uplands as an important, and unchallenged, part of their food system. This present study aims to trace the historical transformation of land use and tenure practices by Kavet communities in Kok Lak commune in the context of various state-driven and social-economic transformations. At commune level, we look at land use changes along with the migrations associated with these transformations. We also aim to understand how these changes have induced social differentiation between households as it relates to their entitlements, their production activities and their income structure. We examine the transformation in land use prompted by a multiplicity of drivers (demographic, economic, political, institutional and cultural) and in land tenure regimes through a land control matrix that differentiates between two types of rights (the land rights of the users and the rights to manage those rights given to the users). We discovered that the Kavet people have been resilient in protecting and promoting the core of their swidden territories and traditions; however, recent developments (including the establishment of the Virachey National Park (VNP) and market incentives) have considerably fragmented their land uses, cultural values and institutions. Through forced and free migration, some households have adopted new forms of agriculture (e.g. paddy, and annual and perennial non-rice crops) and converted their swidden land into cashew plantations, while others still rely solely on the practice of swidden agriculture as a lifestyle. By reviewing past transformations, by identifying the role swidden agriculture has had and the contribution it has made to the lives of the Kavet people, we recommend that efforts be made to conserve it in recognition of the pivotal role it plays in community development and to adopt better land use planning at local level. But proper consideration should also be given to the Kavet people who do not practice swidden agriculture. [less ▲]

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See detailThe contribution of multi-purpose farming to the food security of small-scale farmers: An agro-economic analysis in the lowland Mekong alluvial plain
Tong, Chantheang; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

Agricultural development models are the focus of intense debate in the Cambodian policy-making arenas. A model inspired by the ‘Green Revolution’, which promotes industrialization of rice cropping systems ... [more ▼]

Agricultural development models are the focus of intense debate in the Cambodian policy-making arenas. A model inspired by the ‘Green Revolution’, which promotes industrialization of rice cropping systems and is mainly dependent on external inputs, is usually contrasted with multi-purpose farming (MPF) in which rice cropping is integrated with other production to maximize their interactions and complementarities. The purpose of this research is to present some economic arguments based on the experience in promoting MPF of CEDAC (Centre d’Etude et de Dévelopement Agricole Cambodgien, also known as the Cambodian Center for Study and Development in Agriculture). We develop a comparative analysis between conventional rice cropping systems and MPF to analyze the production economics and the overall patterns of household labor diversification. Focusing primarily on rainy-season rice production, we attribute significant advantage to MPF against non-MPF practices. These differences are perceptible in higher rice yield, lower cash-paid costs, and higher value-added per hectare. However, these differences become less significant when multi-purpose farming is only partially implemented, i.e. if some elements of the system are missing. MPF provides employment opportunities that represent a reliable alternative to job migration. Under MPF, family labor is used more on-farm than is the case with non- MPF farms and is more homogenously distributed throughout the year. However, we identify barriers that curb the scaling-up of this innovation, which include limited access to information, anticipated lack of labor, lack of capacity or technical skills, lack of up-front capital to make the initial investment in land conversion to MPF, and land plot sizes that are too small to be converted to this model. We also discuss the opportunities to create markets for products of differentiated quality produced under multi-purpose farming. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-scale flood vulnerability assessment of agricultural production in the context of environmental change: The case of the Sangkae River watershed, Battambang province
Doch, Sotheavin; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Heng, Chinda

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

Flooding on Cambodian land use systems is not a new phenomenon but its significance has increased in the context of global environmental changes. This study aims to assess the vulnerability of ... [more ▼]

Flooding on Cambodian land use systems is not a new phenomenon but its significance has increased in the context of global environmental changes. This study aims to assess the vulnerability of agricultural production to floods in the Sangkae River watershed in Battambang province, Northwestern Cambodia. The study was conducted in conjunction with the provincial spatial planning team hosted by the Provincial Department of Land Management and can be viewed as a first step toward a flood management decision-making tool for provincial authorities. The assessments rest on specific dimensions of vulnerability (exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity) at different levels in a multi-scale framework: spatial scale (watershed, commune and household); temporal scale (decade, year and season); and institutional scale (national policy, provincial operating rules and communal agencies). The analysis rests on triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data (time-series rainfall data, land use systems, participatory flood mapping, commune workshops (n=31), social-economic statistical databases, in-depth interviews with relevant institutions (n=5) and household surveys (n=162). Intensification of rainfall since the 1920s has increased the risk of flooding in the Sangkae River watershed during the late rainy season, particularly in the upstream area. Using an indicator-based approach, we discovered that the vulnerability of communes is highly dependent on the agro-ecology of land use systems. The household assessment reveals the variability of adaptive capacity between households according to their food security status and income portfolio. Agricultural innovation and structural adaptation to flood are scarce; the households mostly cope with flood through credit, external aid and de-capitalization (sale of household assets). These coping mechanisms adopted by farmers do not reduce vulnerability but reinforce it.The application of this assessment methodology provides nested pictures of vulnerability at different levels and scales and we argue that a dialogue between these levels and scales is necessary to understand the nature of the vulnerability and to act to reduce it. Using these different typologies of vulnerability, this approach enables recommendations to be formulated to reduce vulnerability through better horizontal and vertical integration of institutions and agencies, and effective collective action. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning for social-ecological resilience: conceptual overview and key findings
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

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See detailLearning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia's rural communities
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

Book published by The Learning Institute (2015)

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See detailThe peasants in turmoil: Khmer Rouge, state formation and the control of land in northwest Cambodia
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Dupuis, David

in Journal of Peasant Studies (2014), 41(4), 445468

Over the past 15 years, northwest Cambodia has seen dramatic agrarian expansion away from the central rice plain into the peripheral uplands fuelled by peasant in-migration. Against this background, we ... [more ▼]

Over the past 15 years, northwest Cambodia has seen dramatic agrarian expansion away from the central rice plain into the peripheral uplands fuelled by peasant in-migration. Against this background, we examine the nature of relations between the peasantry and the state. We first show the historical continuities of land control processes and how the use of violence in a post-conflict neoliberal context has legitimised ex-Khmer Rouge in controlling land distribution. Three case studies show the heterogeneity of local level sovereignties, which engage the peasants in different relations with authority. We examine how these processes result in the construction of different rural territories along the agricultural frontier and argue that, in this region of Cambodia, the struggles between Khmer Rouge and neoliberal modes of land control are central to state formation processes. [less ▲]

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See detailDemography
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Save Cambodia's Wildlife (Ed.) Atlas of Cambodia: Maps on Socio-Economic Development and Environment (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (2 ULg)