References of "Diepart, Jean-Christophe"
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See detailLearning towards resilience
Jones, Ronald; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

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See detailPathways of change in a coastal resource system: Study from Kampong Trach district, Kampot province
Voe, Pisidh; Touch, Panha; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

Over the past several years, Cambodia’s coastal resources system has undergone considerable transformation. The causes have included uncontrolled fishing activities, tourism development, salt and shrimp ... [more ▼]

Over the past several years, Cambodia’s coastal resources system has undergone considerable transformation. The causes have included uncontrolled fishing activities, tourism development, salt and shrimp farming, sand mining, and trade, to name just the most significant. Against this background, this study analyzes pathways of change over the past 15 years in coastal resource systems in two neighboring communities in the Kampong Trach district of Kampot province. The analysis proceeds on two different levels. We first look at change in respect of the cross-scale multiple drivers in the resource system at village level and its effects on the social and ecological components of the marine, intertidal and agricultural areas of the coastal zone. Then, at household level, we examine the diversity of adaptation measures adopted to deal with these changes, and evaluate their impacts on livelihoods. We argue that the degradation of fisheries resources in marine and intertidal zones results from drivers that originate outside and inside the communities, but mostly stems from problems of governance. Despite tangible improvements in rain-fed rice yield, the development of the farming sector is constrained by limited capacity to diversify and intensify production. The adaptation paths to this resources degradation squeeze are multiple. The few households who can afford to enhance or intensify their farming and fishing efforts usually manage to improve their food security status. But in a majority of cases, the adaptation works through a move away from the land and the sea, either through self-employed non-farm and non-fishing activities (local business associated with cross-border trade with Vietnam) or through wage labor. Self-employed activities and demand more capital but represent the main path of improvement in these communities. Wage labor - particularly associated with migration - has become widespread but its potential to improve food security is very limited. Accessing credit and going into debt is another significant way in which people have attempted to adapt either to address chronic food insecurity or to maintain the same level of productivity.The increase of mobility is a central element in adaptation strategy adopted by many who have been affected. This includes: mobility of labor (non-farm, wage and migration); the mobility of capital (e.g. conversion from marine zone fishing to trade); and mobility of landownership (occurring through market-based land concentration). However, we suggest that these processes of adaptation have actually reinforced the wealth disparity that exists between households. It has particularly exacerbated the vulnerability of those who are most dependent on small-scale fisheries. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferentiation of swidden agriculture in Northeast Cambodia: Kavet swiddeners, the state and the markets in Kok Lak commune
You, Rithy; Kleinpeter, Vivien; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

Until recently, Kavet ethnic minority people traditionally practiced swidden agriculture and accessed natural resources in the uplands as an important, and unchallenged, part of their food system. This ... [more ▼]

Until recently, Kavet ethnic minority people traditionally practiced swidden agriculture and accessed natural resources in the uplands as an important, and unchallenged, part of their food system. This present study aims to trace the historical transformation of land use and tenure practices by Kavet communities in Kok Lak commune in the context of various state-driven and social-economic transformations. At commune level, we look at land use changes along with the migrations associated with these transformations. We also aim to understand how these changes have induced social differentiation between households as it relates to their entitlements, their production activities and their income structure. We examine the transformation in land use prompted by a multiplicity of drivers (demographic, economic, political, institutional and cultural) and in land tenure regimes through a land control matrix that differentiates between two types of rights (the land rights of the users and the rights to manage those rights given to the users). We discovered that the Kavet people have been resilient in protecting and promoting the core of their swidden territories and traditions; however, recent developments (including the establishment of the Virachey National Park (VNP) and market incentives) have considerably fragmented their land uses, cultural values and institutions. Through forced and free migration, some households have adopted new forms of agriculture (e.g. paddy, and annual and perennial non-rice crops) and converted their swidden land into cashew plantations, while others still rely solely on the practice of swidden agriculture as a lifestyle. By reviewing past transformations, by identifying the role swidden agriculture has had and the contribution it has made to the lives of the Kavet people, we recommend that efforts be made to conserve it in recognition of the pivotal role it plays in community development and to adopt better land use planning at local level. But proper consideration should also be given to the Kavet people who do not practice swidden agriculture. [less ▲]

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See detailThe contribution of multi-purpose farming to the food security of small-scale farmers: An agro-economic analysis in the lowland Mekong alluvial plain
Tong, Chantheang; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

Agricultural development models are the focus of intense debate in the Cambodian policy-making arenas. A model inspired by the ‘Green Revolution’, which promotes industrialization of rice cropping systems ... [more ▼]

Agricultural development models are the focus of intense debate in the Cambodian policy-making arenas. A model inspired by the ‘Green Revolution’, which promotes industrialization of rice cropping systems and is mainly dependent on external inputs, is usually contrasted with multi-purpose farming (MPF) in which rice cropping is integrated with other production to maximize their interactions and complementarities. The purpose of this research is to present some economic arguments based on the experience in promoting MPF of CEDAC (Centre d’Etude et de Dévelopement Agricole Cambodgien, also known as the Cambodian Center for Study and Development in Agriculture). We develop a comparative analysis between conventional rice cropping systems and MPF to analyze the production economics and the overall patterns of household labor diversification. Focusing primarily on rainy-season rice production, we attribute significant advantage to MPF against non-MPF practices. These differences are perceptible in higher rice yield, lower cash-paid costs, and higher value-added per hectare. However, these differences become less significant when multi-purpose farming is only partially implemented, i.e. if some elements of the system are missing. MPF provides employment opportunities that represent a reliable alternative to job migration. Under MPF, family labor is used more on-farm than is the case with non- MPF farms and is more homogenously distributed throughout the year. However, we identify barriers that curb the scaling-up of this innovation, which include limited access to information, anticipated lack of labor, lack of capacity or technical skills, lack of up-front capital to make the initial investment in land conversion to MPF, and land plot sizes that are too small to be converted to this model. We also discuss the opportunities to create markets for products of differentiated quality produced under multi-purpose farming. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-scale flood vulnerability assessment of agricultural production in the context of environmental change: The case of the Sangkae River watershed, Battambang province
Doch, Sotheavin; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Heng, Chinda

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

Flooding on Cambodian land use systems is not a new phenomenon but its significance has increased in the context of global environmental changes. This study aims to assess the vulnerability of ... [more ▼]

Flooding on Cambodian land use systems is not a new phenomenon but its significance has increased in the context of global environmental changes. This study aims to assess the vulnerability of agricultural production to floods in the Sangkae River watershed in Battambang province, Northwestern Cambodia. The study was conducted in conjunction with the provincial spatial planning team hosted by the Provincial Department of Land Management and can be viewed as a first step toward a flood management decision-making tool for provincial authorities. The assessments rest on specific dimensions of vulnerability (exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity) at different levels in a multi-scale framework: spatial scale (watershed, commune and household); temporal scale (decade, year and season); and institutional scale (national policy, provincial operating rules and communal agencies). The analysis rests on triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data (time-series rainfall data, land use systems, participatory flood mapping, commune workshops (n=31), social-economic statistical databases, in-depth interviews with relevant institutions (n=5) and household surveys (n=162). Intensification of rainfall since the 1920s has increased the risk of flooding in the Sangkae River watershed during the late rainy season, particularly in the upstream area. Using an indicator-based approach, we discovered that the vulnerability of communes is highly dependent on the agro-ecology of land use systems. The household assessment reveals the variability of adaptive capacity between households according to their food security status and income portfolio. Agricultural innovation and structural adaptation to flood are scarce; the households mostly cope with flood through credit, external aid and de-capitalization (sale of household assets). These coping mechanisms adopted by farmers do not reduce vulnerability but reinforce it.The application of this assessment methodology provides nested pictures of vulnerability at different levels and scales and we argue that a dialogue between these levels and scales is necessary to understand the nature of the vulnerability and to act to reduce it. Using these different typologies of vulnerability, this approach enables recommendations to be formulated to reduce vulnerability through better horizontal and vertical integration of institutions and agencies, and effective collective action. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning for social-ecological resilience: conceptual overview and key findings
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Diepart, Jean-Christophe (Ed.) Learning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia’s rural communities (2015)

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See detailLearning for resilience: Insights from Cambodia's rural communities
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

Book published by The Learning Institute (2015)

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See detailThe peasants in turmoil: Khmer Rouge, state formation and the control of land in northwest Cambodia
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Dupuis, David

in The Journal of Peasant Studies (2014), 41(4), 445468

Over the past 15 years, northwest Cambodia has seen dramatic agrarian expansion away from the central rice plain into the peripheral uplands fuelled by peasant in-migration. Against this background, we ... [more ▼]

Over the past 15 years, northwest Cambodia has seen dramatic agrarian expansion away from the central rice plain into the peripheral uplands fuelled by peasant in-migration. Against this background, we examine the nature of relations between the peasantry and the state. We first show the historical continuities of land control processes and how the use of violence in a post-conflict neoliberal context has legitimised ex-Khmer Rouge in controlling land distribution. Three case studies show the heterogeneity of local level sovereignties, which engage the peasants in different relations with authority. We examine how these processes result in the construction of different rural territories along the agricultural frontier and argue that, in this region of Cambodia, the struggles between Khmer Rouge and neoliberal modes of land control are central to state formation processes. [less ▲]

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See detailDemography
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Save Cambodia's Wildlife (Ed.) Atlas of Cambodia: Maps on Socio-Economic Development and Environment (2014)

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See detailMigrations
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Pilgrim, John; Dulioust, Jérémie

in Save Cambodia's Wildlife (Ed.) Atlas of Cambodia: Maps on Socio-Economic Development and Environment (2014)

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See detailMultiple Migrations, Displacements and Land Transfers at Ta Kream in Northwest Cambodia
Pilgrim, John; Ngin, Chanrith; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Hecht, Susanna; Kandel, Susan; Morales, Abelardo (Eds.) Migration, Rural Livelihoods and Natural Resource Management (2012)

The Cambodian case examines migration, land tenure and land management, in a context of conflict and the use of force in land transfers since the time of the Khmer Rouge regime to the present, by studying ... [more ▼]

The Cambodian case examines migration, land tenure and land management, in a context of conflict and the use of force in land transfers since the time of the Khmer Rouge regime to the present, by studying five agro-ecological zones close to the Kamping Pouy irrigation system in Battambang Province. The study combines analysis of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of household use of land and labor with a historical and ethnographic review of conflict and institutional factors in successive land administrations. Continuing in-migration is reflected in population increases in Battambang and other provinces of Northwest Cambodia in conditions of limited land availability and landlordism, and conflict over expropriation of land by armed groups and business interests. Land transfers to a growing wealthy class of businessmen and government officials have contributed to the creation of a subclass of very poor, landless households whose livelihoods depend on agricultural wage labor, locally and in Thailand, and access to the commons. Access to land for a substantial proportion of the community depends on either tenancy, sharecropping or wage labor on the land of wealthier farmers. Three problematic processes that run counter to the Cambodian Constitution and Land Law are systemic: 1) the usurpation of land rights by locally operating armed groups; 2) legitimation of such land acquisition by military-business-government officials by corrupt officeholders and local government officials; and 3) the capture of rents or profits by agencies responsible for safeguarding natural resources. [less ▲]

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See detailCambodian peasant’s contribution to rural development: a perspective from Kampong Thom Province
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14(2), 321-340

The paper aims to identify the rationality of peasant communities and their contribution to rural development in Kampong Thom province. To do so, an interdisciplinary analytical framework addresses the ... [more ▼]

The paper aims to identify the rationality of peasant communities and their contribution to rural development in Kampong Thom province. To do so, an interdisciplinary analytical framework addresses the dynamics of land use and land tenure, the strategies of labor force allocation as well as the determinants of land and labor agricultural productivities amongst peasant communities. It rests on details field surveys in two communes located in very distinct agro-ecological settings of Kampong Thom province. A land use change analysis based on time-series aerial photos is conducted with participatory inventories of natural resources. It shows that endogenous management of forest and fisheries resources generate significant incomes and, at the same time, contribute to maintaining biodiversity. The paper analyses how this contribution is challenged by the non-peasant actors involved in massive State land privatization. Aiming to full employment, peasant households enjoy a great flexibility in the way they allocate labor force, especially in line with the age of active labor and the fluctuation of labor opportunity costs. Principally due to an unequal land holding distribution, agricultural income is unfairly distributed but this inequality is actually balanced by the access to common-pool resources of crucial importance for the poorest and by the recourse to non farming activities, which is an important factor of socio-economic differentiation amongst households. The main economic indicators of rice production confirm that peasant households always try to maximize their income in step with the production factor they have in relatively less amount. A land market simulation stresses that, contrarily to theoretical assumptions, land access through sale (and purchase) does not result in a fairer land distribution. Nevertheless, land leases amongst peasant households seem more promising to ensure equitable access to land as they are embedded in collective security mechanisms activated by peasantry. The paper argues that peasant communities in the studied area constitute a solid basis for rural development as they offer a very good articulation between economic efficiency, social justice and environmental sustainability. Finally, recommendations are formulated to properly address peasant contribution to rural development in the new national agrarian policies. [less ▲]

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See detailGoing along the river by the bend; entering the village by the country: A spatial planning perspective to enhance community-based natural resource management in Cambodia
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Sem, Thol

in Beaupre, Pauline; Taylor, Janet; Carson, Toby (Eds.) Emerging Trends, Challenges and Innovations Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) in Cambodia (2009)

This paper suggests that new decentralized and de-concentration reforms, which set out a framework to bring important governance functions to the sub-national level, have opened new spaces to explore ... [more ▼]

This paper suggests that new decentralized and de-concentration reforms, which set out a framework to bring important governance functions to the sub-national level, have opened new spaces to explore complementary approaches for environmental governance. Using the Battambang spatial planning framework as a basis, the paper reviews some of the limitation of CBNRM implementation of the last ten years and then focuses on detailing the methodology used to develop and build the framework and how it can be beneficial to current CBNRM. The argument continually defended is that the integration of CBNRM initiatives into a comprehensive spatial planning framework at the provincial level can reinforce local actions and give communities stronger recognition. In a discussion of the three dimensions of the spatial planning framework which include land use planning, territorial policy, and territorial governance, the analysis does not negate the important contribution of local support to rural communities but tries to identify complementary (and not substitutive) approaches that might strengthen communities in their daily livelihood issues. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal-Level Monitoring in Decentralized Forest Management: Exploring the Spaces for Community Participation
Tol, Sokchea; Srey, Marona; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Beaupre, Pauline; Taylor, Janet; Carson, Toby (Eds.) Emerging Trends, Challenges and Innovations Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) in Cambodia (2009)

This paper explores a participatory monitoring process initiated in Kampong Thom province with 3 Community Forestry (CF) sites where CF development was facilitated by Forestry Administration (FA) staff ... [more ▼]

This paper explores a participatory monitoring process initiated in Kampong Thom province with 3 Community Forestry (CF) sites where CF development was facilitated by Forestry Administration (FA) staff and externally supported by German Technical Support-Rural Development Programme (GTZ-RDP).The paper details the methodology used and the key outputs produced during the process, it highlights the four main principles of the principle, criteria, and indicator Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) which are: (1) that forest health is maintained, (2) public well-being is improved, (3) community well-being is assured, and (4) external support is effective. The results show that in all three CF, the land integrity and the forest resource itself was improved between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Despite the positive results, many of the challenges and limitations were acknowledged including the difficulty in capturing all different points of view and opinions when there are such a large number of people involved and consulted as well as how this can lead to a slowdown within the whole process and is very expensive. The paper concludes suggesting that a local level monitoring system can help to build local capacity, improve decision-making, reduce conflict between local forest dependents and responsible authorities as well as empower local community members, especially marginalized groups. [less ▲]

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