References of "Devue, Christel"
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See detailDoes drawing faces make you a super-expert of faces? An investigation of face perception and recognition abilities in visual artists.
Devue, Christel ULg; Barsics, Catherine ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg

Poster (2012, September 01)

Face recognition abilities might constitute a continuum with developmental prosopagnosia and outstanding face recognition capacity at each extreme. 'Super-recognizers' display better face processing ... [more ▼]

Face recognition abilities might constitute a continuum with developmental prosopagnosia and outstanding face recognition capacity at each extreme. 'Super-recognizers' display better face processing abilities than controls and show a larger face inversion effect (FIE) [Russell et al, 2009, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16 (2), 252-257]. Hence, FIE could reflect a specific visual experience/expertise with faces compared to other objects rather than a qualitatively different kind of processing. In this experiment we tested face processing abilities of visual artists who practice portraiture, as well as more general visual perception and recognition skills, in order to contribute to the long-lasting debate about a possible special status of faces. If some special processing faces benefit from is due to expertise, artists' practice might lead to better perceptual and possibly recognition performance with upright faces compared to controls, while increasing the FIE. Because they need to take both configural and featural information into account to reach a satisfactory likeness, artists might also make a differential use of these facial cues compared to controls. Preliminary data indicate that face processing performance might indeed be linked to perceptual expertise with faces. [less ▲]

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See detailDo all negative images similarly retain attention? Time course of attentional disengagement from disgust- and fear-evoking stimuli.
Devue, Christel ULg; Van Hooff, Johanna; Vieweg, Paula et al

in Perception (2012), 41(ECVP abstract suppl.), 133

While disgust and fear are both negative emotions, they are characterized by different physiology and action tendencies, which might in turn lead to different attentional biases. However, the potential ... [more ▼]

While disgust and fear are both negative emotions, they are characterized by different physiology and action tendencies, which might in turn lead to different attentional biases. However, the potential disgusting aspect of threatening stimuli has somehow been neglected which might contribute to discrepancies in the literature. The goal of this study was to examine whether fear- and disgust-evoking images produce different attentional disengagement patterns. We pre-selected IAPS images according to their disgusting, frightening, or neutral character and presented them as central cues while participants had to identify a target letter briefly appearing around them. To investigate the time course of disengagement from those central images, we used 4 different cue-target intervals (200, 500, 800 and 1100 ms). Reaction times were significantly longer with the disgust-evoking images than with neutral- and fear-evoking images at the 200 ms interval only. This suggests that only disgust- and not fear-related images hold participants'attention for longer. This might be related to the need to perform a more comprehensive risk-assessment of disgust-evoking pictures. These results have important implications for future emotion-attention research as they indicate that a more careful selection of stimulus materials that goes beyond the dimensions of valence and arousal is needed. [less ▲]

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See detailOculomotor guidance and capture by irrelevant faces
Devue, Christel ULg; Belopolsky, Artem; Theeuwes, Jan

in Plos ONE (2012)

Even though it is generally agreed that face stimuli constitute a special class of stimuli, which are treated preferentially by our visual system, it remains unclear whether faces can capture attention in ... [more ▼]

Even though it is generally agreed that face stimuli constitute a special class of stimuli, which are treated preferentially by our visual system, it remains unclear whether faces can capture attention in a stimulus-driven manner. Moreover, there is a long-standing debate regarding the mechanism underlying the preferential bias of selecting faces. Some claim that faces constitute a set of special low-level features to which our visual system is tuned; others claim that the visual system is capable of extracting the meaning of faces very rapidly, driving attentional selection. Those debates continue because many studies contain methodological peculiarities and manipulations that prevent a definitive conclusion. Here, we present a new visual search task in which observers had to make a saccade to a uniquely colored circle while completely irrelevant objects were also present in the visual field. The results indicate that faces capture and guide the eyes more than other animated objects and that our visual system is not only tuned to the low-level features that make up a face but also to its meaning. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of saliency and meaning in oculomotor capture by faces
Devue, Christel ULg; Belopolsky, Artem; Theeuwes, Jan

in Perception (2011), 40 ECVP abstract suppl

Long-lasting debates question whether faces are special stimuli treated preferentially by our visual system or whether prioritized processing of faces is simply due to increased salience of their ... [more ▼]

Long-lasting debates question whether faces are special stimuli treated preferentially by our visual system or whether prioritized processing of faces is simply due to increased salience of their constituting features. To examine this issue, we used a visual search task in which participants had to make a saccade to the circle with a unique color among a set of six circles. Critically, there was a task-irrelevant object located next to each circle. We examined how an upright face, an inverted face or a butterfly, presented near the target or non-target circles affected eye movements to the target. Upright (13.12%) and inverted faces (10.8%) located away from the target circle captured the eyes more than butterflies (8.5%), but upright faces captured the eyes more than inverted faces. Moreover, when faces were next to the target, upright faces, and to some extent inverted faces, facilitated the saccades towards the target. Faces are thus salient and capture attention. More importantly however above and beyond their raw salience based on low-level features, canonical upright faces capture attention stronger than inverted faces. Therefore, faces are ‘special’ and our visual system is tuned to their meaning and not only to low-level features making up a face. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of fear and expectancies in capture of covert attention by spiders
Devue, Christel ULg; Belopolsky, Artem; Theeuwes, Jan

in Emotion (2011), 11

Fear-related stimuli are often prioritized during visual selection but it remains unclear whether capture by salient objects is more likely to occur when individuals fear those objects. In this study ... [more ▼]

Fear-related stimuli are often prioritized during visual selection but it remains unclear whether capture by salient objects is more likely to occur when individuals fear those objects. In this study, participants with high and low fear of spiders searched for a circle while on some trials a completely irrelevant fear-related (spider) or neutral distractor (butterfly/leaf) was presented simultaneously in the display. Our results show that when you fear spiders and you are not sure whether a spider is going to be present then any salient distractor (i.e., a butterfly) grabs your attention, suggesting that mere expectation of a spider triggered compulsory monitoring of all irrelevant stimuli. However, neutral stimuli did not grab attention when high spider fearful people knew that a spider could not be present during a block of trials, treating the neutral stimuli just as the low spider fearful people do. Our results show that people that fear spiders inspect potential spider-containing locations in a compulsory fashion even though directing attention to this location is completely irrelevant for the task. Reduction of capture can only be accomplished when people that fear spiders do not expect a spider to be present. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neural correlates of visual self-recognition
Devue, Christel ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg

in Consciousness and Cognition (2011), 20

This paper presents a review of studies that were aimed at determining which brain regions are recruited during visual self-recognition, with a particular focus on self-face recognition. A complex ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a review of studies that were aimed at determining which brain regions are recruited during visual self-recognition, with a particular focus on self-face recognition. A complex bilateral network, involving frontal, parietal and occipital areas, appears to be associated with self-face recognition, with a particularly high implication of the right hemisphere. Results indicate that it remains difficult to determine which specific cognitive operation is reflected by each recruited brain area, in part due to the variability of used control stimuli and experimental tasks. A synthesis of the interpretations provided by previous studies is presented. The relevance of using self-recognition as an indicator of self-awareness is discussed. We argue that a major aim of future research in the field should be to identify more clearly the cognitive operations induced by the perception of the self-face, and search for dissociations between neural correlates and cognitive components. [less ▲]

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See detailAngry faces hold the eyes
Belopolsky, Artem; Devue, Christel ULg; Theeuwes, Jan

in Visual Cognition (2011), 19

Efficient processing of complex social and biological stimuli associated with threat is crucial for survival. Previous studies have suggested that threatening stimuli such as angry faces not only capture ... [more ▼]

Efficient processing of complex social and biological stimuli associated with threat is crucial for survival. Previous studies have suggested that threatening stimuli such as angry faces not only capture visual attention, but also delay the disengagement of attention from their location. However, in the previous studies disengagement of attention was measured indirectly and was inferred on the basis of delayed manual responses. The present study employed a novel paradigm that allows to directly examine the delayed disengagement hypothesis by measuring the time it takes to disengage the eyes from threatening stimuli. The results showed that participants were indeed slower to make an eye movement away from an angry face presented at fixation than from either a neutral or a happy face. This finding provides converging support that the delay in disengagement of attention is an important component of processing threatening information. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive modulation of fronto-striatal networks in obsessivecompulsive disorder patients.
Desseilles, Martin ULg; Muselle, Alice; Devue, Christel ULg et al

Conference (2010, January)

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See detailWhen do faces capture attention? Evidence from eye movements
Devue, Christel ULg; Belopolsky, Artem; Theeuwes, Jan

in Perception (2010), 39 Suppl.

A recent visual search study showed that the presence of an upright distractor face slows the search for a butterfly target while a butterfly distractor does not affect the search for a target face ... [more ▼]

A recent visual search study showed that the presence of an upright distractor face slows the search for a butterfly target while a butterfly distractor does not affect the search for a target face, suggesting that faces capture attention automatically (Langton et al, 2008 Cognition 107 330-342). To further test this hypothesis, we recorded eye movements during a cued target search task. When the search target alternated between a face and a butterfly (Experiment 1), faces were found faster and with less saccades than butterflies. The presence of the opposite distractor (eg a face during a search for a butterfly) slowed down the search but to a greater extent when the distractor was a face. Moreover, faces captured the eyes more frequently than butterflies. Inverted face targets were also found more efficiently than inverted butterfly targets and captured the eyes more than butterflies when presented as distractors (Experiment 2). However, when upright or inverted faces consistently appeared as irrelevant distractors during a butterfly or a flower target search (Experiment 3), they did not cause significant disruption. These results challenge the view that faces capture attention automatically and suggest that faces only attract attention when their processing is relevant during a search task. [less ▲]

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See detailDo faces capture attention in a bottom-up fashion? An eye-movement study
Devue, Christel ULg; Belopolsky, Artem; Theeuwes, Jan

Conference (2010)

Due to their high social and biological significance, faces should be able to capture attention in a bottom-up fashion. Accordingly, a recent visual search study showed that the presence of an upright ... [more ▼]

Due to their high social and biological significance, faces should be able to capture attention in a bottom-up fashion. Accordingly, a recent visual search study showed that the presence of an upright distractor face slows down the search for a butterfly target while the presence of a butterfly distractor does not affect the search for a target face (Langton et al., 2008). To further test whether upright faces automatically capture attention we recorded eye movements during a cued target search task. We show that when the search alternates between a face and a butterfly target (Experiment 1), faces are found faster and with less saccades than butterflies. The presence of the opposite distractor within the display (e.g. a face during a butterfly search) slows down the search but to a higher extent when the distractor is a face. Similarly, faces capture the eyes more frequently than butterflies. In a control experiment inverted face targets were also found more efficiently than inverted butterfly targets and captured the eyes more frequently than butterflies when presented as distractors (Experiment 2). However, when upright or inverted faces were always presented as irrelevant distractors (Experiment 3), we could not found any sign of disruption caused by their presence during a search for butterfly or flower targets. These results challenge the view that faces capture attention automatically. Rather, they suggest that faces only attract attention when their processing is relevant during the search task and that they can otherwise be ignored. [less ▲]

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See detailAbnormal neural filtering of irrelevant information in depressed patients.
Desseilles, Martin ULg; Muselle, A.; Devue, Christel ULg et al

Poster (2009, June)

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See detailYou do not find your own face faster; you just look at it longer
Devue, Christel ULg; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Brédart, Serge ULg et al

in Cognition (2009), 111(1), 114-122

Previous studies investigating the ability of high priority stimuli to grab attention reached contradictory outcomes. The present study used eye tracking to examine the effect of the presence of the self ... [more ▼]

Previous studies investigating the ability of high priority stimuli to grab attention reached contradictory outcomes. The present study used eye tracking to examine the effect of the presence of the self-face among other faces in a visual search task in which the face identity was task-irrelevant. We assessed whether the self-face (1) received prioritized selection (2) caused a difficulty to disengage attention, and (3) whether its status as target or distractor had a differential effect. We included another highly familiar face to control whether possible effects were self-face specific or could be explained by high familiarity. We found that the self-face interfered with the search task. This was not due to a prioritized processing but rather to a difficulty to disengage attention. Crucially, this effect seemed due to the self-face’s familiarity, as similar results were obtained with the other familiar face, and was modulated by the status of the face since it was stronger for targets than for distractors. [less ▲]

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See detailDo spiders capture attention in a bottom-up fashion and does fear have an impact?
Devue, Christel ULg; Belopolsky, Artem; Theeuwes, Jan

Conference (2009)

Fear-related stimuli (e.g. spiders) seem to be prioritized during visual selection when they are actively searched for. This is especially true if the observers fear them. It remains unclear whether such ... [more ▼]

Fear-related stimuli (e.g. spiders) seem to be prioritized during visual selection when they are actively searched for. This is especially true if the observers fear them. It remains unclear whether such stimuli capture attention automatically when they are task-irrelevant. To answer that question, we used the additional singleton paradigm (Theeuwes, 1992) in which participants searched for a shape singleton (a circle among diamonds) while a fear-related stimulus (a spider) or a fear-unrelated stimulus (a butterfly) was also present in the display. To assess whether fear affects the extent of a possible bottom-up capture, we compared performance of participants that scored high or low on the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (Szymanski & O'Donohue, 1995). Results showed that both types of task-irrelevant animals captured covert attention. Importantly, both types of animals produced larger interference in high-fear than in low-fear participants. This study suggests that fear as an individual characteristic influences bottom-up capture. [less ▲]

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See detailSpiders capture attention especially when you are afraid of them
Devue, Christel ULg; Belopolsky, Artem; Theeuwes, Jan

in Perception (2009), 38 Suppl.

Recent studies suggested that fear-related stimuli (such as spiders or snakes) are prioritized during visual selection. However, it remains unclear whether such stimuli capture attention in a bottom - up ... [more ▼]

Recent studies suggested that fear-related stimuli (such as spiders or snakes) are prioritized during visual selection. However, it remains unclear whether such stimuli capture attention in a bottom - up fashion when they are irrelevant for the search task. To investigate this issue we used the additional singleton paradigm (Theeuwes, 1992 Perception & Psychophysics 51(6) 599 - 606), in which participants had to search for a shape singleton (a circle among diamonds) while either a fear-related stimulus (a spider) or a fear-unrelated stimulus (a butterfly) was also present in the display. To determine whether the capture was modulated by the degree of actual fear evoked by the stimuli we compared performance of participants that scored high or low on the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (Szymanski and O'Donohue, 1995 Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 26 31 - 34). Results indicate that both task-irrelevant spiders and butterflies capture attention. More importantly, however, for high-fear participants the interference caused by spiders was larger than that caused by butterflies, signifying the role of fear as a factor in the capture of attention by fear-related objects. [less ▲]

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