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See detailThe Effect of Colic on Oxygen Extraction in Horses
Cambier, Carole ULg; Wierinckx, Maude ULg; Grulke, Sigrid ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2008), 175(1), 102-107

Blood oxygen transport and oxygen extraction were assessed in horses with colic. A gravity score (GS) ranging from 1 to 3 was attributed to each colic case with healthy horses used as controls. Jugular ... [more ▼]

Blood oxygen transport and oxygen extraction were assessed in horses with colic. A gravity score (GS) ranging from 1 to 3 was attributed to each colic case with healthy horses used as controls. Jugular venous and carotid arterial blood samples were collected and concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate, inorganic phosphate and chloride were determined. pH and partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PCO(2)), and oxygen (PO(2)) were also measured. Oxygen equilibrium curves (OEC) were constructed under standard conditions and oxygen extraction ratios calculated. Haemoglobin oxygen affinity measured under standard conditions (P50(std)) was unchanged in colic horses compared with healthy controls. Horses with the highest GS, i.e. 3 had lower blood pH values than healthy animals. Arterial and venous partial pressures of oxygen at 50% haemoglobin saturation (P50(a) and P50(v)) were significantly higher in horses suffering from colic (GS=3) than in healthy horses. The oxygen extraction ratio was also significantly increased in colic horses with a GS of 3. A rise in the oxygen extraction ratio detected in the most severely affected animals seemed to reflect the compensatory properties of the oxygen transport system where extraction of oxygen from the blood increases when systemic oxygen delivery decreases, as might be anticipated in horses with colic. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of caprine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein D gene and its translation product
Keuser, Véronique; Detry, Bruno; Thiry, Julien ULg et al

in Virus Research (2006), 115(2), 112-121

Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV- 1) is responsible of systemic infection in neonatal kids as well as abortion and fertility disorders in adult goats. This virus is closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 ... [more ▼]

Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV- 1) is responsible of systemic infection in neonatal kids as well as abortion and fertility disorders in adult goats. This virus is closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Glycoprotein D (gD) mediates important functions in alphaherpesviruses and is also a main inummogen. The sequence of CpHV-1 gD gene and the biochemical properties of its translation product were analyzed and compared to those of BoHV-1 and other alphaherpesviruses. A relatively high homology was found between CpHV-1 and BoHV-1 glycoproteins D amino acid sequences (similarity of 68.8%). Moreover, six cysteine residues are conserved by CpHV-1 gD and the other studied alphaherpesviruses. CpHV-1 gD has a molecular mass similar to BoHV-1 gD and contains complex N-linked oligosaccharides. In contrast to the BoHV-1 gD, CpHV-1 gD is expressed as a late protein. In spite of the observed differences which could influence its biological functions, CpHV-1 gD, shares most characteristics with other alphaherpesviruses and especially BoHV-1. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of intravenous infusions of sodium bicarbonate on blood oxygen binding in calves with diarrhoea
Cambier, Carole ULg; Clerbaux, Thierry; Detry, Bruno et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2005), 156(22), 706-710

Twelve diarrhoeic calves were treated intravenously with an isotonic solution containing sodium bicarbonate, and their oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) were calculated under standard conditions and ... [more ▼]

Twelve diarrhoeic calves were treated intravenously with an isotonic solution containing sodium bicarbonate, and their oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) were calculated under standard conditions and compared with those of a group of healthy calves. The relationships between the OECs for arterial and venous blood and the oxygen extraction ratio were investigated. in the diarrhoeic calves, the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen, measured under standard conditions, was increased compared with the healthy animals. During the infusion, the standard partial oxygen pressure at 50 per cent saturation of haemoglobin (P50) values stayed below the values recorded in the healthy animals. At the end of the infusion the mean standard P50 of the diarrhoeic calves was lower than before the infusion. The combined effects of all the regulating factors on blood oxygen binding resulted in the OECS of the arterial and jugular venous blood of the diarrhoeic calves remaining unchanged compared with the healthy calves. However, the administration of the infusion decreased the P50 of both the arterial and venous blood to below the value recorded in the healthy calves. oxygen extraction by the tissues was impaired in the diarrhoeic calves throughout the infusion, and they remained dehydrated and depressed until 120 minutes after the infusion began [less ▲]

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See detailImproved antigenic methods for differential diagnosis of bovine, caprine, and cervine alphaherpesviruses related to bovine herpesvirus 1
Keuser, V.; Schynts, F.; Detry, Bruno et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2004), 42(3), 1228-1235

The control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis induced by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) requires sensitive and specific diagnostic assays. As BoHV-1 is antigenically and genetically related to four ... [more ▼]

The control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis induced by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) requires sensitive and specific diagnostic assays. As BoHV-1 is antigenically and genetically related to four other alphaherpesviruses of ruminants-namely, BoHV-5, caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1), cervine herpesvirus 1 (CvHV-1) and CvHV-2-diagnostic tests able to discriminate BoHV-1 from these related viruses are needed to avoid misdiagnosis, especially because some of these viruses are able to cross the species barrier. In this study, murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for BoHV-1, BoHV-5, CpHV-1, CvHV-1, and CvHV-2 were produced with the aim of setting up an immunofluorescence assay able to discriminate between these related herpesviruses. Produced MAbs were selected for their viral specificity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence staining of virus-infected cells. Radioimmunoprecipitation characterization of the selected MAbs revealed that four of them are directed against glycoprotein C (gC) and one of them is directed against gD of these related viruses. The obtained results demonstrate that the antibodies produced allow an unambiguous discrimination of each of the four alphaherpesviruses related to BoHV-1. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the susceptibility of human cell lines to bovine herpesvirus 4 infection: Demonstration that human cells can support a nonpermissive persistent infection which protects them against tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis
Gillet, Laurent ULg; Minner, F.; Detry, Bruno et al

in Journal of Virology (2004), 78(5), 2336-2347

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a gammaherpesvirus that has a worldwide distribution in the population of cattle. Many factors make human contamination by BoHV-4 likely to occur. In this study, we ... [more ▼]

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a gammaherpesvirus that has a worldwide distribution in the population of cattle. Many factors make human contamination by BoHV-4 likely to occur. In this study, we performed in vitro experiments to assess the risk and the consequences of human infection by BoHV-4. First, by using a recombinant BoHV-4 strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene promoter, we tested 21 human cell lines for their sensitivity and their permissiveness to BoHV-4 infection. These experiments revealed that human cell lines from lymphoid and myeloid origins were resistant to infection, whereas epithelial cells, carcinoma cells, or adenocarcinoma cells isolated from various organs were sensitive but poorly permissive to BoHV-4 infection. Second, by using the HeLa cell line as a model of human cells sensitive but not permissive to BoHV-4 infection, we investigated the resistance of infected cells to apoptosis and the persistence of the infection through cellular divisions. The results obtained can be summarized as follows. (i) BoHV-4 nonpermissive infection of HeLa cells protects them against tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis. (ii) BoHV-4 infection of HeLa cells persists in cell culture; however, the percentage of infected cells decreases with time due to erratic transmission of the viral genome through cell division. (iii) BoHV-4 infection has no effect on the rate of HeLa cell division. Altogether, these data suggest that BoHV-4 could infect humans. This study also stresses the importance of considering the insidious effects of nonpermissive infection when the biosafety of animal gammaherpesviruses for humans is being considered. [less ▲]

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See detailRise and survival of bovine herpesvirus 1 recombinants after primary infection and reactivation from latency
Schynts, F.; Meurens, F.; Detry, Bruno et al

in Journal of Virology (2003), 77(23), 12535-12542

Recombination is thought to be an important source of genetic variation in herpesviruses. Several studies, performed in vitro or in vivo, detected recombinant viruses after the coinoculation of two ... [more ▼]

Recombination is thought to be an important source of genetic variation in herpesviruses. Several studies, performed in vitro or in vivo, detected recombinant viruses after the coinoculation of two distinguishable strains of the same herpesvirus species. However, none of these studies investigated the evolution of the relative proportions of parental versus recombinant progeny populations after coinoculation of the natural host, both during the excretion and the reexcretion period. In the present study, we address this by studying the infection of cattle with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). The recombination of two BoHV-1 mutants lacking either glycoprotein C (gC(-)/gE(+)) or E (gC(+)/gE(-)) was investigated after inoculation of cattle by the natural route of infection. The results demonstrated that (i) recombination is a frequent event in vivo since recombinants (gC(+)/gE(+) and gC(-)/gE(-)) were detected in all coinoculated calves, (ii) relative proportions of progeny populations evolved during the excretion period toward a situation where two populations (gC(+)/gE(+) and gC(-)/gE(+)) predominated without fully outcompeting the presence of the two other detected populations (gC(+)/gE(-) and gC(-)/gE(-)), and (iii) after reactivation from latency, no gC(+)/gE(-) and gC(-)/gE(-) progeny viruses were detected, although gC(+)/gE(-) mutants, when inoculated alone, were detected after reactivation treatment. In view of these data, the importance of gE in the biology of BoHV-1 infection and the role of recombination in herpesvirus evolution are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe structures of bovine herpesvirus 1 virion and concatemeric DNA: implications for cleavage and packaging of herpesvirus genomes
Schynts, F.; McVoy, M. A.; Meurens, F. et al

in Virology (2003), 314(1), 326-335

Herpesvirus genomes are often characterized by the presence of direct and inverted repeats that delineate their grouping into six structural classes. Class D genomes consist of a long (L) segment and a ... [more ▼]

Herpesvirus genomes are often characterized by the presence of direct and inverted repeats that delineate their grouping into six structural classes. Class D genomes consist of a long (L) segment and a short (S) segment. The latter is flanked by large inverted repeats. DNA replication produces concatemers of head-to-tail linked genomes that are cleaved into unit genomes during the process of packaging DNA into capsids. Packaged class D genomes are an equimolar mixture of two isomers in which S is in either of two orientations, presumably a consequence of homologous recombination between the inverted repeats. The L segment remains predominantly fixed in a prototype (P) orientation; however, low levels of genomes having inverted L (I-L) segments have been reported for some class D herpesviruses. Inefficient formation of class D I-L genomes has been attributed to infrequent L segment inversion, but recent detection of frequent inverted L segments in equine herpesvirus 1 concatemers [Virology 229 (1997) 415-420] suggests that the defect may be at the level of cleavage and packaging rather than inversion. In this study, the structures of virion and concatemeric DNA of another class D herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus 1, were determined. Virion DNA contained low levels of I-L genomes, whereas concatemeric DNA contained significant amounts of L segments in both P and I-L orientations. However, concatemeric termini exhibited a preponderance of L termini derived from P isomers which was comparable to the preponderance of P genomes found in virion DNA. Thus, the defect in formation of I-L genomes appears to lie at the level of concatemer cleavage. These results have important implications for the mechanisms by which herpesvirus DNA cleavage and packaging occur. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailInduce triploidy by heat shock in Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis
Rougeot, Carole ULg; Minet, Laurent; Prignon, Christian ULg et al

in Aquatic Living Resources (2003), 16(2, MAR-APR), 90-94

In Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), females grow significantly faster than males. Moreover, gonadal development has a significant negative impact on somatic growth and fillet yield. In order to induce ... [more ▼]

In Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), females grow significantly faster than males. Moreover, gonadal development has a significant negative impact on somatic growth and fillet yield. In order to induce sterility, triploidy induction was attempted by subjecting fertilised eggs to heat shocks. Different combinations of temperature (28, 30, 34, 35 and 36 degreesC), duration (2, 5, 10 and 25 min) and time of shock initiation (TI = 3, 5 and 7 min post-fertilisation) were tested. Flow cytometry analysis was used to assess ploidy level of control and heat-shocked larvae. Low intensity (28-30 degreesC) and long duration (10 and 25 min) shocks lead to significantly higher survival (44 +/- 26%) and triploidisation (71 +/- 26%) rates than high intensity (34-36 degreesC) and short duration (2 and 5 min) shocks (17 +/- 19% and 21 +/- 26%, respectively). The most effective conditions for efficient triploidy induction were low intensity shock of 30 degreesC, applied 5 min post-fertilisation for 25 min. This treatment led to the production of all-triploid populations (100%) with up to 43% survival rate. (C) 2003 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS and Ifremer/IRD/Inra/Cemagref. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms controlling the oxygen consumption in experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in calves
Cambier, Carole ULg; Clerbaux, Thierry; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Veterinary Research (2002), 33

The study was carried out on healthy Friesian calves (n = 10) aged between 10 and 30 days. Hypochloremia and alkalosis were induced by intravenous administration of furosemide and isotonic sodium ... [more ▼]

The study was carried out on healthy Friesian calves (n = 10) aged between 10 and 30 days. Hypochloremia and alkalosis were induced by intravenous administration of furosemide and isotonic sodium bicarbonate. The venous and arterial blood samples were collected repeatedly. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), hemoglobin and plasmatic chloride concentrations were determined. The red blood cell chloride concentration was also calculated. pH, PCO2 and PO2 were measured in arterial and mixed venous blood. The oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) was measured in standard conditions. The correspondence of the OEC to the arterial and mixed venous compartments was calculated, taking blood temperature, pH and PCO2 values into account. The oxygen exchange fraction (OEF%), corresponding to the degree of blood desaturation between the arterial and mixed venous compartments and the amount of oxygen released at the tissue level by 100 mL of blood (OEF Vol%) were calculated from the arterial and mixed venous OEC, combined with PO2 and hemoglobin concentration. Oxygen delivery (DO2) was calculated using the arterial oxygen content, the cardiac output measured by thermodilution, and the body weight of the animal. The oxygen consumption (VO2) was derived from the cardiac output, OEF Vol% and body weight values. Despite the plasma hypochloremia, the erythrocyte chloride concentration was not influenced by furosemide and sodium bicarbonate infusion. Due to the alkalosis-induced increase in the 2,3-DPG, the standard OEC was shifted to the right, allowing oxygen to dissociate from hemoglobin more rapidly. These changes opposed the increased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen induced by alkalosis. Moreover, respiratory acidosis, hemoconcentration, and the slight decrease in the partial oxygen pressure in mixed venous blood (Pvo(2)) tended to improve the OEF Vol% and maintain the oxygen consumption in a physiological range while the cardiac output, and the oxygen delivery were significantly decreased. It may be concluded that, despite reduced oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption is maintained during experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in healthy 10-30 day old calves [less ▲]

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See detailBlood oxygen binding in hypoxaemic calves
Cambier, Carole ULg; Clerbaux; Detry, Bruno et al

in Veterinary Research (2002), 33(3), 283-290

Blood oxygen transport and tissue oxygenation were studied in 28 calves from the Belgian White and Blue breed (20 healthy and 8 hypoxaemic ones). Hypoxaemic calves were selected according to their high ... [more ▼]

Blood oxygen transport and tissue oxygenation were studied in 28 calves from the Belgian White and Blue breed (20 healthy and 8 hypoxaemic ones). Hypoxaemic calves were selected according to their high respiratory frequency and to their low partial oxygen pressure (PaO2) in the arterial blood. Venous and arterial blood samples were collected, and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate, chloride, inorganic phosphate and hemoglobin concentrations, and pH, PCO, and PO2 were determined. An oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) was measured in standard conditions, for each animal. The arterial and venous OEC were calculated, taking body temperature, pH and PCO2 values in arterial and venous blood into account. The oxygen exchange fraction (OEF%), corresponding to the degree of blood desaturation between the arterial and the venous compartments, and the amount of oxygen released at the tissue level by 100 mL of blood (OEF Vol%) were calculated from the arterial and venous OEC combined with the PO2 and hemoglobin concentration. In hypoxaemic calves investigated in this study, the hemoglobin oxygen affinity, measured under standard conditions, was not modified. On the contrary, in vivo acidosis and hypercapnia induced a decrease in the hemoglobin oxygen affinity in arterial blood, which combined to the decrease in PaO2 led to a reduced hemoglobin saturation degree in the arterial compartment. However, this did not impair the oxygen exchange fraction (OEF%), since the hemoglobin saturation degree in venous blood was also diminished. [less ▲]

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See detailCD40 engagement enhances eosinophil survival through induction of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 expression: Possible involvement in allergic inflammation.
Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Seumois, Gregory; Jaspar, Fabrice et al

in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (The) (2002), 110(3), 443-9

BACKGROUND: CD40 engagement enhances eosinophil survival, suggesting a role for this receptor in the development of eosinophilia. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether CD40 enhances eosinophil survival by ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: CD40 engagement enhances eosinophil survival, suggesting a role for this receptor in the development of eosinophilia. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether CD40 enhances eosinophil survival by inducing the expression of antiapoptotic proteins. Three members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, namely cellular (c)-IAP1, c-IAP2, and XIAP, and 2 antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family, namely Bcl-x(L) and Bfl-1/A1, were investigated. METHODS: Blood and sputum were obtained from healthy subjects and atopic asthmatic patients. Blood eosinophils were isolated by means of magnetic selection. Expression of CD40, IAPs, and Bcl-2 proteins was investigated by using flow cytometry, immunoblotting, or both. CD40 stimulation was achieved with agonistic antibodies or soluble ligands. Apoptosis was assessed by staining with propidium iodide and FITC-conjugated annexin-V. c-IAP2 expression was inhibited with antisense oligonucleotides. RESULTS: Freshly isolated eosinophils from healthy and asthmatic patients did not express CD40. Conversely, eosinophils expressed CD40 spontaneously when cultured for 48 hours. At this time point, CD40 stimulation significantly delayed eosinophil apoptosis. Inhibition of eosinophil apoptosis was accompanied by induction of c-IAP2 but not c-IAP1, XIAP, Bcl-x(L), or Bfl-1/A1 expression. Antisense knockdown of c-iap2 abolished CD40-induced enhancement of eosinophil survival. Sputum cells from asthmatic patients, unlike those from healthy subjects, substantially expressed CD40 and c-IAP2. Moreover, a strong correlation was found between the percentage of eosinophils in the sputum from asthmatic patients and the sputum level of CD40 and c-IAP2 expression. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that CD40 engagement enhances eosinophil survival through induction of c-IAP2 expression and suggest a role for this mechanism in allergic inflammation. [less ▲]

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