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See detailCyclovirus CyCV-VN species distribution is not limited to Vietnam and extends to Africa
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Hagen, Ralf Mathias; Frickmann, Hagen et al

in Scientific Reports (2014), 4

Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses of the Circoviridae family, have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid from symptomatic human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), was shown ... [more ▼]

Cycloviruses, small ssDNA viruses of the Circoviridae family, have been identified in the cerebrospinal fluid from symptomatic human patients. One of these species, cyclovirus-Vietnam (CyCV-VN), was shown to be restricted to central and southern Vietnam. Here we report the detection of CyCV-VN species in stool samples from pigs and humans from Africa, far beyond their supposed limited geographic distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailA gammaherpesvirus infection protects against allergic asthma.
Machiels, Bénédicte ULg; Dourcy, Mickael ULg; Sabatel, Catherine ULg et al

Poster (2014, December 12)

The “hygiene hypothesis” proposes that the augmentation of allergic diseases in developed countries could be linked to a reduced exposure to infections during childhood. Surprisingly, the potential ... [more ▼]

The “hygiene hypothesis” proposes that the augmentation of allergic diseases in developed countries could be linked to a reduced exposure to infections during childhood. Surprisingly, the potential protective role of herpesvirus infections against allergy development has never been addressed directly. In this study, we used the Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) to study the impact of a persistent gammaherpesvirus infection on the development of House Dust Mites (HDM)-induced allergic asthma. Our results revealed that MuHV-4 infection affects both the sensitization and the challenging phases of HDM-induced airway allergy. In particular, we highlighted that MuHV-4 infection strongly impacts the lung innate immune response. Indeed, while the dendritic cells remained competent to uptake antigens and to migrate to the draining lymph nodes, MuHV-4 infection impaired their ability to trigger HDM sensitization. In the future, these results could allow us to develop strategies to prevent the development of TH2-skewed responses against respiratory allergens. [less ▲]

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See detailAlveolar macrophages hyporeactivity act in the extreme susceptibility of DBA/2J to Influenza A infection.
Casanova Bustos, Tomas Ronaldo ULg; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

Poster (2014, October 17)

DBA/2J and C57BL/6J represent two opposite ends in terms of sensitivity and resistance to influenza A virus between the Mx-negative mouse lines. Several research teams focused on the factors explaining ... [more ▼]

DBA/2J and C57BL/6J represent two opposite ends in terms of sensitivity and resistance to influenza A virus between the Mx-negative mouse lines. Several research teams focused on the factors explaining this difference, mainly by genetic approaches using Recombinant Inbred Lines between those two strains. Several candidate-genes have been proposed, but it was not possible to determine their importance. To help to define the factors involved in the susceptibility of DBA/2J mice to influenza infection, we adopted a phenotypic approach to identify the critical steps of the infection process accounting for this extreme susceptibility. Overall, the data presented here support the role of a dysfunction of alveolar macrophages, to influenza infection in the higher susceptibility of DBA/2J mice to this virus. [less ▲]

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See detailNatural intrauterine infection with Schmallenberg virus in malformed newborn calves: pathology and distribution of viral RNA
Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Sarlet, Michaël ULg et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2014), 20(8),

We comprehensively surveyed morphologic alterations in calves naturally infected in utero by Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and born deformed. SBV-specific RNA was distributed unevenly in different tissues ... [more ▼]

We comprehensively surveyed morphologic alterations in calves naturally infected in utero by Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and born deformed. SBV-specific RNA was distributed unevenly in different tissues. Implications for diagnosic procedures are highlighted. [less ▲]

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See detailEstudio de las citoquinas producidas por los macrófagos alveolares de los ratones DBA/2J y C57BL/6J en el curso de la infección por el Virus Influenza A, modelo ex vivo.
Casanova Bustos, Tomas Ronaldo ULg; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

Poster (2014, June 18)

DBA/2J and C57BL/6J represent two opposite ends in terms of sensitivity and resistance to influenza A virus between the Mx-negative mouse lines. Several research teams focused on the factors explaining ... [more ▼]

DBA/2J and C57BL/6J represent two opposite ends in terms of sensitivity and resistance to influenza A virus between the Mx-negative mouse lines. Several research teams focused on the factors explaining this difference, mainly by genetic approaches using Recombinant Inbred Lines between those two strains. Several candidate-genes have been proposed, but it was not possible to determine their importance. To help to define the factors involved in the susceptibility of DBA/2J mice to influenza infection, we adopted a phenotypic approach to identify the critical steps of the infection process accounting for this extreme susceptibility. Overall, the data presented here support the role of a dysfunction of alveolar macrophages, to influenza infection in the higher susceptibility of DBA/2J mice to this virus. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of a novel circo-like virus in Aedes vexans mosquitoes from Germany: evidence for a new genus within the Circoviridae family.
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Borstler, Jessica; Jost, Hanna et al

in The Journal of general virology (2014)

During the last decades, metagenomic studies expanded the numbers of newly described, often unclassified, viruses within the Circoviridae family. Using broad-spectrum circo-/cyclovirus PCRs, we ... [more ▼]

During the last decades, metagenomic studies expanded the numbers of newly described, often unclassified, viruses within the Circoviridae family. Using broad-spectrum circo-/cyclovirus PCRs, we characterized a novel circo-like virus in Aedes vexans mosquitoes from Germany whose main putative open reading frames (ORFs) shared very low amino acid identity with those of previously characterized circo-/cycloviruses. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analysis revealed that this new virus species defines, with previously described mosquito- and bat feces-derived circo-like viruses, a different genus, tentatively called "krikovirus", within Circoviridae. We further demonstrated that viruses of the putative krikovirus genus all share a genomic organization which is unique among Circoviridae. Further investigations are needed to determine the host range, tissue tropism and transmission route(s). This report increases the current knowledge of the genetic diversity and evolution of the members of the Circoviridae family. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Usutu virus in a bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) and a great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) in north-west Europe
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Marlier, Didier ULg; Tenner-Racz, Klara et al

in Veterinary Journal (2014), 199

In October 2012, a 3-year-old bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) held in captivity for its entire lifespan and a wild adult great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), both with neurological signs, were ... [more ▼]

In October 2012, a 3-year-old bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) held in captivity for its entire lifespan and a wild adult great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), both with neurological signs, were found 4 km from each other and 5 days apart in the Meuse Valley, Belgium. Non-suppurative encephalitis and mild degeneration and necrosis were identified in the brain and cerebellum, and Usutu virus antigen and RNA were detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, respectively. The two cases reported here represent the most western distribution of clinical disease in birds due to Usutu virus. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Usutu virus in a bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) and a great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) in north-west Europe
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Marlier, Didier ULg; Tenner-Racz, Klara et al

in Veterinary Journal (2014), 199

In October 2012, a 3-year-old bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) held in captivity for its entire lifespan and a wild adult great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), both with neurological signs, were ... [more ▼]

In October 2012, a 3-year-old bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) held in captivity for its entire lifespan and a wild adult great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), both with neurological signs, were found 4 km from each other and 5 days apart in the Meuse Valley, Belgium. Non-suppurative encephalitis and mild degeneration and necrosis were identified in the brain and cerebellum, and Usutu virus antigen and RNA were detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, respectively. The two cases reported here represent the most western distribution of clinical disease in birds due to Usutu virus. [less ▲]

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See detailBluetongue Virus RNA Detection by Real-Time RT-PCR in Post-Vaccination Samples from Cattle
De Leeuw, Ilse; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Bertels, Guido et al

Conference (2013, October 02)

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See detailNo serologic evidence for emerging Schmallenberg virus infection in dogs (Canis domesticus)
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg et al

in Vector Borne & Zoonotic Diseases (2013), 13(11), 1-4

Schmallenberg virus, a novel orthobunyavirus, is spreading among ruminants, especially sheep and cattle throughout Europe. To determine the risk for domestic dog infection, we conducted a survey among ... [more ▼]

Schmallenberg virus, a novel orthobunyavirus, is spreading among ruminants, especially sheep and cattle throughout Europe. To determine the risk for domestic dog infection, we conducted a survey among cases referred to the university Companion Animal Clinic to assess possible seroconversion. No evidence of transmission to dogs was detected. [less ▲]

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See detailSchmallenberg virus circulation among red and roe deer populations in Belgium
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Volpe, Rosario ULg; Paternostre, Julien ULg et al

in 31th Congress of the International Union of Game Biologists, Abstract Book (2013, August 27)

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently discovered vector-borne Orthobunyavirus targeting ruminants. It is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and caused a large outbreak in European sheep and cattle ... [more ▼]

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently discovered vector-borne Orthobunyavirus targeting ruminants. It is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and caused a large outbreak in European sheep and cattle populations in 2011 and 2012. The infection of adults was associated with a drop in milk production, fever and diarrhea. But the virus was further shown to cross the placental barrier and to be responsible for a hydrocephaly/arthrogryposis syndrome in calves and lambs. After its occurrence in 2011 in Germany, SBV quickly spread across Europe and in spring 2012 more than 90% of Belgian domestic cattle had seroconverted. To assess the susceptibility of wild ruminants to the infection, a total number of 547 and 494 sera, from red (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), respectively, were collected during the hunting seasons 2010 to 2012 and tested for the presence of anti-SBV antibodies. While no samples from 2010 revealed to be positive, about two-thirds of red deer and half of roe deer sampled in 2011 were seropositive. In 2012, the seroprevalence dropped to 33% in red deer and remained stable in roe deer. The high seroprevalence rates found in both species in Belgium shows that wild ruminants are susceptible to the infection by SBV. If the infection of deer was associated to a hydrocephaly/arthrogryposis syndrome similar to that observed in domestic ruminants is still unknown. There is currently no evidence of such a transplacental passage in red or roe deer. The decrease in the seroprevalence observed in red deer in 2012 might be the result of the turn-over in the red deer population and reflect an absence of virus circulation in 2012. Further investigations in the upcoming years will help to enlighten this point. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of antibodies against Schmallenberg virus in wild boars, Belgium, 2010-2012
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Beer, Martin et al

in Lecoq, Yves (Ed.) 31th Congress of the International Union of Game Biologists (2013, August 27)

In the summer/fall of 2011, a nonspecific febrile syndrome characterized by hyperthermia and drop in milk production with occasional reports of watery diarrhea and abortion was reported among dairy cows ... [more ▼]

In the summer/fall of 2011, a nonspecific febrile syndrome characterized by hyperthermia and drop in milk production with occasional reports of watery diarrhea and abortion was reported among dairy cows on farms in northwestern Europe. Further, in November 2011, an enzootic outbreak of malformed neonates emerged in several European countries, with stillbirth and birth at term of lambs, kids and calves with neurological signs or malformations of the head, spine, or limbs. Both syndromes were associated with the presence in the blood (adults) or in the central nervous system (newborns) of a new Shamonda/Sathuperi-like orthobunyavirus, provisionally named Schmallenberg virus (SBV) after the town in Germany where the first positive clinical samples were identified. Defining as precisely as possible the host range of the newcomer is a key point to predict the outcome of the emergence of SBV disease in Europe. In this respect, it must be pointed out that orthobunyaviruses infect more animal species than those in which the foetus is damaged. Recently, serological evidence for SBV infection in wild ruminant species (Cervus elaphus and Capreolus capreolus) was reported (Linden et al., 2012). In the present study, the objective was to seek after serological evidence of SBV infection among wild boars living in a geographical area where exposure to infected insect vectors was high in 2011, as judged from the very high seroprevalence reported among cattle in that region. About 700 animals were sampled during the 2010-2012 hunting seasons. All serum samples collected during the fall of 2010 were seronegative. On the contrary, apparent seroprevalence among wild boars in 2011 was ~27% and started to decline in 2012 (~11%). Acquired immunity against the new virus was thus already very high in the wild boar populations sampled in the fall 2011, suggesting that the new virus had quickly spread throughout the region since its emergence about 250 km northeast in the late summer 2011. The drop in seroprevalence recorded in 2012 suggests that the virus was no more circulating in the region. [less ▲]

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See detailHAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILES OF CALVES BELONGING TO HERDS WITH BOVINE NEONATAL PANCYTOPENIA HISTORY IN AND AROUND WALLONIA (BELGIUM).
Ronzoni, Anna ULg; Theron, Léonard ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg et al

in Buiatrissima, 8th ECBHM Symposium, 28-30 August 2013, Bern, Proceedings (2013, August)

The objective of the present study was to verify the hypothesis of subclinical BNP cases, by random sampling and haematological analysis in different herds with BNP history, in order to obtain a better ... [more ▼]

The objective of the present study was to verify the hypothesis of subclinical BNP cases, by random sampling and haematological analysis in different herds with BNP history, in order to obtain a better epidemiological picture of this disease. [less ▲]

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See detailBovine lymphotropic herpesvirus detected in Belgium
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Cassart, Dominique ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2013), 172

The bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus was detected for the first time outside the US, Canada and UK in a cow with nonresponsive chronic metritis.

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