References of "Delaplace, Pierre"
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See detailReview: Implementing biostimulants and biocontrol strategies in the agroecological management of cultivated ecosystems
Le Mire, Géraldine ULg; Nguyen, Minh ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)

This review describes the current methods for exploiting and applying plant growth-promoting rhizbacteria (PGPR), elicitors and semiochemical products in contemporary agricultural systems. The future of ... [more ▼]

This review describes the current methods for exploiting and applying plant growth-promoting rhizbacteria (PGPR), elicitors and semiochemical products in contemporary agricultural systems. The future of these biostimulant and biocontrol tools for the sustainable management of agricultural practices is also discussed. Special attention is given to the formulation of these products and the network of interactions taking place in cultivated ecosystems [less ▲]

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See detailDisentangling soil from plant methanol exchanges in a maize field: a first step
Bachy, Aurélie ULg; Mozaffar, Ahsan ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg et al

Poster (2016, June)

This poster presents the current research done in order to disentangle soil from plant methanol exchanges in a maize field. Methanol exchanges were calculated at ecosystem-scale (therefore including both ... [more ▼]

This poster presents the current research done in order to disentangle soil from plant methanol exchanges in a maize field. Methanol exchanges were calculated at ecosystem-scale (therefore including both components). It bases on the following observation: methanol exchanges on bare soil (measured when maize was at germination stage) were as important as when plants were fast growing (and thereby, when the highest methanol plant methanol emissions were expected), and this under similar weather conditions. The goal of this poster is thus to understand why emissions were similar at these two periods. First, it addresses the question of the actual contribution of maize plants in methanol exchanges, by comparing up-scaled methanol exchanges measured on maize at leaf-scale (Mozaffar A.) to those measured at ecosystem-scale. Then, it investigates methanol exchanges mechanisms in order to evaluate how did soil methanol emissions evolve along the maize growing season. At the end of this poster, the hypothesis of decreasing soil methanol emissions along the maize growing season is proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Valeriana officinalis to cancer therapy: the success of a bio-sourced compound
Hamaïdia, Malik ULg; Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; Carpentier, Alexandre ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016), 20

Over the centuries, bio-sourced compounds isolated from plants, insects and microorganisms have been a potent source of drugs for the treatment of human diseases. In this review, we recapitulate the story ... [more ▼]

Over the centuries, bio-sourced compounds isolated from plants, insects and microorganisms have been a potent source of drugs for the treatment of human diseases. In this review, we recapitulate the story of one of these compounds, 2-propylpentanoic acid, derived from the Valeriana officinalis flowering plant and its path to validation as a cancer treatment. [less ▲]

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See detail10.1. L'intérêt de la culture en association de froment et de pois protéagineux d'hiver dans un objectif d'autonomie protéique
Pierreux, Jérome ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Roisin, Christian et al

in Watillon, Bernard; Bodson, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2016, February 24)

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See detailForaging wireworms are attracted to root-produced volatile aldehydes
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Delory, Benjamin M.; Delaplace, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Pest Science (2016)

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host ... [more ▼]

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host plant remains, however, poorly understood. Here, we aimed at identifying chemical cues released by barley roots that attract Agriotes sordidus. In a first behavioral experiment, we assessed the ability of wireworms to orient towards live barley roots, using dual-choice olfactometers suitable for belowground insects. Then, we collected the volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by barley roots using a dynamic head-space sampling approach. VOC were quantified and identified using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The odorant blend is composed of four aldehydes, namely hexanal, (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-non-2-enal, and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal. In a second set of dual-choice bioassays, wireworms were attracted towards a synthetic blend of these four major compounds. However, the synthetic blend was not as attractive as live roots, which is partially explained by the absence of CO2, commonly known as a strong attractant for soil-dwelling insects. While CO2 indicates the presence of living material in the vicinity, we hypothesize that additional VOC inform about the plant suitability. A better understanding of these belowground signals would contribute to the development of new integrated control strategies against wireworms. [less ▲]

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See detailHow do Rhizobacterial Volatiles Influence Root System Architecture, Biomass Production and Allocation of the Model Grass Brachypodium distachyon?
Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Ormeño - Lafuente, Elena; Nguyen, Minh ULg et al

Conference (2016, January 12)

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are increasingly considered as a complement of conventional inputs in agricultural systems. Their effects on their host plants are diverse and include volatile ... [more ▼]

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are increasingly considered as a complement of conventional inputs in agricultural systems. Their effects on their host plants are diverse and include volatile-mediated growth enhancement. The present study aims at assessing the effects of bacterial volatile production on the biomass production and the root system architecture of Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. (line Bd-21). An in vitro experimental set-up allowing plant-bacteria interaction through the gaseous phase without any physical contact was used to screen 19 bacterial strains for their growth promotion ability over a 10-day cocultivation period. Using principal component analysis followed by hierarchical clustering and two-way analysis of variance, five groups of bacteria were defined and characterized based on their combined influence on biomass production and root system architecture. The observed effects range from unchanged to highly increased biomass production coupled with increased root length and branching. Primary root length was only increased by the volatile compounds emitted by Enterobacter cloacae JM22 and Bacillus pumilus T4. Overall, the most significant results were obtained with Bacillus subtilis GB03 which induced a 81% increase in total biomass and enhanced total root length, total secondary root length and total adventitious root length by 88, 196 and 473% respectively. The analysis of the emission kinetics of bacterial volatile organic compounds is underway and should lead to the identification of volatile compounds candidates responsible for the observed growth promotion effects. Taking into account the inherent characteristics of our in vitro system, the next experimental steps are identified and discussed from a fundamental and applied viewpoint. [less ▲]

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See detailarchiDART: an R package for the automated computation of plant root architectural traits
Delory, Benjamin ULg; Baudson, Caroline ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Plant and Soil (2016), 398(1), 351-365

Background and Aims In order to analyse root system architectures (RSAs) from captured images, a variety of manual (e.g. Data Analysis of Root Tracings, DART), semi-automated and fully automated software ... [more ▼]

Background and Aims In order to analyse root system architectures (RSAs) from captured images, a variety of manual (e.g. Data Analysis of Root Tracings, DART), semi-automated and fully automated software packages have been developed. These tools offer complementary approaches to study RSAs and the use of the Root System Markup Language (RSML) to store RSA data makes the comparison of measurements obtained with different (semi-) automated root imaging platforms easier. The throughput of the data analysis process using exported RSA data, however, should benefit greatly from batch analysis in a generic data analysis environment (R software). Methods We developed an R package (archiDART) with five functions. It computes global RSA traits, root growth rates, root growth directions and trajectories, and lateral root distribution from DART-generated and/or RSML files. It also has specific plotting functions designed to visualise the dynamics of root system growth. Results The results demonstrated the ability of the package’s functions to compute relevant traits for three contrasted RSAs (Brachypodium distachyon [L.] P. Beauv., Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. and Solanum lycopersicum L.). Conclusions This work extends the DART software package and other image analysis tools supporting the RSML format, enabling users to easily calculate a number of RSA traits in a generic data analysis environment. [less ▲]

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See detailRoot-emitted volatile organic compounds: can they mediate belowground plant-plant interactions?
Delory, Benjamin ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Plant and Soil (2016), 402

Background Aboveground, plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that act as chemical signals between neighbouring plants. It is now well documented that VOCs emitted by the roots in the plant ... [more ▼]

Background Aboveground, plants release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that act as chemical signals between neighbouring plants. It is now well documented that VOCs emitted by the roots in the plant rhizosphere also play important ecological roles in the soil ecosystem, notably in plant defence because they are involved in interactions between plants, phytophagous pests and organisms of the third trophic level. The roles played by root-emitted VOCs in between- and within-plant signalling, however, are still poorly documented in the scientific literature. Scope Given that (1) plants release volatile cues mediating plant-plant interactions aboveground, (2) roots can detect the chemical signals originating from their neighbours, and (3) roots release VOCs involved in biotic interactions belowground, the aim of this paper is to discuss the roles of VOCs in between- and within-plant signalling belowground. We also highlight the technical challenges associated with the analysis of root-emitted VOCs and the design of experiments targeting volatile-mediated root-root interactions. Conclusions We conclude that root-root interactions mediated by volatile cues deserve more research attention and that both the analytical tools and methods developed to study the ecological roles played by VOCs in interplant signalling aboveground can be adapted to focus on the roles played by root-emitted VOCs in between- and within-plant signalling. [less ▲]

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See detailBarley (Hordeum distichon L.) roots synthesise volatile aldehydes with a strong age-dependent pattern and release (E)- non-2-enal and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal after mechanical injury
Delory, Benjamin M.; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; du Jardin, Patrick ULg et al

in Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (2016), 104

In the context of chemical ecology, the analysis of the temporal production pattern of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in root tissues and the emission rate measurement of root-emitted VOCs are of major ... [more ▼]

In the context of chemical ecology, the analysis of the temporal production pattern of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in root tissues and the emission rate measurement of root-emitted VOCs are of major importance for setting up experiments to study the implication of these compounds in biotic interactions. Such analyses, however, remain challenging because of the belowground location of plant root systems. In this context, this study describes the evolution of the root VOC production pattern of barley (Hordeum distichon L.) at five developmental stages from germination to the end of tillering and evaluates the emission of the identified VOCs in an artificial soil. VOCs produced by crushed root tissues and released by unexcavated root systems were analysed using dynamic sampling devices coupled to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology (synchronous SCAN/SIM). The results showed that, at each analysed developmental stage, crushed barley roots produced mainly four volatile aldehydes: hexanal; (E)-hex-2-enal; (E)-non-2-enal; and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal. Higher total and individual VOC concentrations were measured in 3-day-old seminal roots compared with older phenological stages. For each developmental stage, the lipoxygenase (LOX) activity was greater for linoleic acid than α-linolenic acid and the greatest LOX activities using linoleic and α- linolenic acids as substrates were measured in 7- and 3-day-old roots, respectively. The analysis of VOCs released by barley roots into the soil showed that (E)-non-2- enal and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal were the only VOCs emitted in quantifiable amounts by mechanically injured roots. [less ▲]

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See detailarchiDART: Plant Root System Architecture Analysis Using DART and RSML Files
Delory, Benjamin ULg; Baudson, Caroline ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

Computer development (2015)

Analysis of complex plant root system architectures (RSA) using the output files created by Data Analysis of Root Tracings (DART), an open-access software dedicated to the study of plant root architecture ... [more ▼]

Analysis of complex plant root system architectures (RSA) using the output files created by Data Analysis of Root Tracings (DART), an open-access software dedicated to the study of plant root architecture and development across time series (Le Bot et al (2010) DART: a software to analyse root system architecture and development from captured images, Plant and Soil, DOI: 10.1007/s11104-009-0005-2), and RSA data encoded with the Root System Markup Language (RSML) (Lobet et al (2015) Root System Markup Language: toward a unified root architecture description language, Plant Physiology, DOI: 10.1104/pp.114.253625). More information can be found in Delory et al (2015) archiDART: an R package for the automated computation of plant root architectural traits, Plant and Soil, DOI: 10.1007/s11104-015-2673-4. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Wheat Growth under Greenhouse and Field Conditions in combination with different nitrogen fertilizer levels
Nguyen, Minh ULg; Ongena, Marc ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg et al

Poster (2015, November 23)

Many Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are able to enhance root growth, mineral availability, and nutrient use efficiency of crops. The aim of this project is to screen commercially available ... [more ▼]

Many Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are able to enhance root growth, mineral availability, and nutrient use efficiency of crops. The aim of this project is to screen commercially available PGPR formulations and lab strains to increase wheat growth and yield in combination with an optimized nitrogen (N) fertilizer application scheme. This could lead to a significant reduction of N fertilizer application without affecting the subsequent grain yields. The screened products collection includes (1) Mix1 (a mix of Azospirillum sp., Azorhizobium sp., and Azoarcus sp.), (2) Mix2 (a mix of Mix1 complemented with two strains of phosphorus-solubilizing Bacillus sp.), (3) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens a, (4) B. subtilis, and (5) B. amyloliquefaciens b. These products were screened under greenhouse and field conditions in 2014 by using spring and winter wheat varieties, respectively. Under greenhouse conditions, there was a significant increase in root dry weight and in root per shoot ratio of plants inoculated with Mix1. Under field conditions, the interaction between PGPR inoculation and different N fertilizer doses was assessed. The grain yield was negatively impacted by low N fertilizer applications. Under such conditions, the inoculation of the wheat rhizosphere with B. subtilis increased the grain yield by 15% relative to the water control. However, in the field trial, the variability between plot replicates was high and lead to non-significant results. Based on these results, modified screening strategies for PGPR selection were set up for the next trials. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria-based Biostimulants on Wheat Growth under Greenhouse and Field Conditions
Nguyen, Minh ULg; Ongena, Marc ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg et al

Poster (2015, November 16)

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are one of the main biostimulant classes due to their capacity of stimulating root growth and enhancing soil mineral availability, hence increasing nutrient use ... [more ▼]

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are one of the main biostimulant classes due to their capacity of stimulating root growth and enhancing soil mineral availability, hence increasing nutrient use efficiency in crops. The aim of this study is to screen commercially PGPR-containing products to enhance wheat growth and yield in combination with an optimized nitrogen (N) fertilizer application scheme. This could lead to a significant reduction of N fertilizer application without affecting the subsequent grain yields. The screened products collection includes (1) Mix1 (a mix of Azospirillum sp., Azorhizobium sp., and Azoarcus sp.), (2) Mix2 (a mix of Mix1 complemented with two strains of phosphorus-solubilizing Bacillus sp.), (3) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens a, (4) B. subtilis, and (5) B. amyloliquefaciens b. These biostimulants were screened under greenhouse and field conditions in 2014 by using spring and winter wheat varieties respectively. There was a significant increase in root dry weight and in root per shoot ratio of plants inoculated with Mix1. Under field conditions, the interaction between PGPR inoculation and N fertilizer application was assessed. The grain yield was negatively impacted by low N fertilizer applications. Under such conditions, the inoculation of the wheat rhizosphere with Bacillus subtilis increased the grain yield by 15% relative to the water control. However, in the field trial, the variability between plot replicates was high and lead to non-significant results. Based on those results, modified screening strategies for PGPR selection were set up for the 2015 trials to reduce field variability and possibly achieve higher yield increases. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of rhizobacterial volatiles on the root system architecture and the production and allocation of biomass in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P. Beauv.
Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Delory, Benjamin ULg; Baudson, Caroline ULg et al

in BMC Plant Biology (2015), 15(195),

Background Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are increasingly being seen as a way of complementing conventional inputs in agricultural systems. The effects on their host plants are diverse and include ... [more ▼]

Background Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are increasingly being seen as a way of complementing conventional inputs in agricultural systems. The effects on their host plants are diverse and include volatile-mediated growth enhancement. This study sought to assess the effects of bacterial volatiles on the biomass production and root system architecture of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. Results An in vitro experiment allowing plant-bacteria interaction throughout the gaseous phase without any physical contact was used to screen 19 bacterial strains for their growth-promotion ability over a 10-day co-cultivation period. Five groups of bacteria were defined and characterised based on their combined influence on biomass production and root system architecture. The observed effects ranged from unchanged to greatly increased biomass production coupled with increased root length and branching. Primary root length was increased only by the volatile compounds emitted by Enterobacter cloacae JM22 and Bacillus pumilus T4. Overall, the most significant results were obtained with Bacillus subtilis GB03, which induced an 81% increase in total biomass, as well as enhancing total root length, total secondary root length and total adventitious root length by 88.5, 201.5 and 474.5%, respectively. Conclusions This study is the first report on bacterial volatile-mediated growth promotion of a grass plant. Contrasting modulations of biomass production coupled with changes in root system architecture were observed. Most of the strains that increased total plant biomass also modulated adventitious root growth. Under our screening conditions, total biomass production was strongly correlated with the length and branching of the root system components, except for primary root length. An analysis of the emission kinetics of the bacterial volatile compounds is being undertaken and should lead to the identification of the compounds responsible for the observed growth-promotion effects. Within the context of the inherent characteristics of our in vitro system, this paper identifies the next critical experimental steps and discusses them from both a fundamental and an applied perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailCould alternative solanaceous hosts act as refuges for the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta?
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Dujeu, David ULg; De Backer, Lara ULg et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2015), 9(4), 425-435

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest reported to develop on economically important solanaceous plants. The characterization of its effective ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest reported to develop on economically important solanaceous plants. The characterization of its effective host range could help to understand and prevent the dispersion behavior of the insect in the environment. In this study, the ability of T. absoluta to locate and develop on wild (Solanum nigrum, Atropa belladonna, Datura stramonium) and cultivated (Solanum tuberosum) solanaceous plant species under laboratory conditions was assessed. Dual-choice behavioral assays performed in flying tunnels (S. tuberosum versus another plant) revealed that adult distribution and female oviposition did not differ between Solanum species, which were preferred to the other tested plants. The volatile molecules released by each tested plant species provide some explanations in the observed behavioral discrimination: S. nigrum and S. tuberosum volatile profiles were similar, and were presenting quantitative and qualitative differences with the other tested Solanaceous plants. To determine whether the host plant choice was adaptive or not, we have finally conducted fitness assays, by rearing T. absoluta larvae on each plant species and have shown that Solanum species allowed higher larval survivability and lower development time (from egg to adult emergency) compared to the other plants. We conclude that Solanum species are suitable host plants for T. absoluta, but other Solanaceous plant species could be opportunistically colonized with fewer incidences. [less ▲]

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See detailRhizobacterial volatiles influence root system architecture, biomass production and allocation of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P. Beauv.
Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Ormeño-Lafuente, Elena; Delory, Benjamin ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 18)

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are increasingly considered as a complement of conventional inputs in agricultural systems. Their effects on their host plants are diverse and include volatile ... [more ▼]

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are increasingly considered as a complement of conventional inputs in agricultural systems. Their effects on their host plants are diverse and include volatile-mediated growth enhancement. The present study aims at assessing the effects of bacterial volatile production on the biomass production and the root system architecture of Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. (line Bd-21). An in vitro experimental set-up allowing plant-bacteria interaction through the gaseous phase without any physical contact was used to screen 19 bacterial strains for their growth promotion ability over a 10-day cocultivation period. Using principal component analysis followed by hierarchical clustering and two-way analysis of variance, five groups of bacteria were defined and characterized based on their combined influence on biomass production and root system architecture. The observed effects range from unchanged to highly increased biomass production coupled with increased root length and branching. Primary root length was only increased by the volatile compounds emitted by Enterobacter cloacae JM22 and Bacillus pumilus T4. Overall, the most significant results were obtained with Bacillus subtilis GB03 which induced a 81% increase in total biomass and enhanced total root length, total secondary root length and total adventitious root length by 88, 196 and 473% respectively. The analysis of the emission kinetics of bacterial volatile organic compounds is underway and should lead to the identification of volatile compounds candidates responsible for the observed growth promotion effects. Taking into account the inherent characteristics of our in vitro system, the next experimental steps are identified and discussed from a fundamental and applied viewpoint. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Wheat Growth under Greenhouse and Field Conditions
Nguyen, Minh ULg; du Jardin, Patrick ULg; Jijakli, Haissam ULg et al

Poster (2015, June 16)

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are well-known on stimulating root growth, enhancing mineral availability, and nutrient use efficiency in crops, and therefore become promising tool for ... [more ▼]

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are well-known on stimulating root growth, enhancing mineral availability, and nutrient use efficiency in crops, and therefore become promising tool for sustainable agriculture. The aim of this project is to screen PGPR strains to enhance wheat growth and yield in combination with an optimised nitrogen (N) fertilizer dose, and thus finally reduce the use of N fertilizer with equivalent yield as the recommended N dose. A list of PGPR has been collected, including (1) Mix1 (a mix of Azospirillum sp., Azorhizobium sp., and Azoarcus sp.), (2) Mix2 (a mix of Mix1 plus with two strains phosphorus-solubilizing Bacillus sp.), (3) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens a, (4) Bacillus subtilis, and (5) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens b. The PGPR were screened in both greenhouse and field condition 2014. There was significant increase in root dry weight and in root per shoot ratio of plants inoculated with Mix1 in the greenhouse. Under field condition, besides the first factor PGPR, an additional factor, i.e. four N fertilizer doses, was applied in the combination with PGPR. Without or at low N fertilizer doses, the results showed that the grain yield declined significantly. The highest grain yield increase was fifteen per cent above the control and achieved by inoculating Bacillus subtilis without application of N fertilizer. However, there was statistically insignificant in all treatments due to variability between plot replicates. Based on these results, a modified protocol plus new strategies for PGPR selection has been built up for 2015 trial to reduce the influence of variability on field and possibly achieve the higher yield increase. [less ▲]

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