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See detailDUSP3 genetic deletion confers M2-like−macrophage-dependent tolerance to septic shock
Singh, Pratibha; Dejager, Lien; Amand, Mathieu ULg et al

in Journal of Immunology (2015)

DUSP3 is a small dual-specificity protein phosphatase with an unknown physiological function. We report that DUSP3 is strongly expressed in human and mouse monocytes and macrophages and that its ... [more ▼]

DUSP3 is a small dual-specificity protein phosphatase with an unknown physiological function. We report that DUSP3 is strongly expressed in human and mouse monocytes and macrophages and that its deficiency in mice promotes tolerance to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin shock and to polymicrobial septic shock following cecal ligation and puncture. By using adoptive transfer experiments, we demonstrate that resistance to endotoxin is macrophage-dependent and transferable and that this protection is associated with a striking increase of M2-like macrophages in DUSP3-/- mice in both the LPS and cecal ligation and puncture models. We show that the altered response of DUSP3-/- mice to sepsis is reflected in decreased TNF production and impaired ERK1/2 activation. Our results demonstrate that DUSP3 plays a key and non-redundant role as a regulator of innate immune responses by mechanisms involving the control of ERK1/2 activation, TNF secretion and macrophage polarization. [less ▲]

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See detailA Role for APPL1 in TLR3/4-dependent TBK1 and IKKe activation in macrophages
Chau, Tieu-Lan ULg; Göktuna, Serkan ULg; Rammal, Ayman et al

in Journal of Immunology (2015)

Endosomes have important roles in intracellular signal transduction as a sorting platform. Signaling cascades from TLR engagement to IRF3-dependent gene transcription rely on endosomes, yet the proteins ... [more ▼]

Endosomes have important roles in intracellular signal transduction as a sorting platform. Signaling cascades from TLR engagement to IRF3-dependent gene transcription rely on endosomes, yet the proteins that specifically recruit IRF3-activating molécules to them are poorly defined. We show that adaptor protein containing a pleckstrin-homology domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain, and a leucine zipper motif (APPL)1, an early endosomal protein, is required for both TRIF- and retinoic acid–inducible gene 1–dependent signaling cascades to induce IRF3 activation. APPL1, but not early endosome Ag 1, deficiency impairs IRF3 target gene expression upon engagement of both TLR3 and TLR4 pathways, as well as in H1N1-infected macrophages. The IRF3-phosphorylating kinases TBK1 and IKK« are recruited to APPL1 endosomes in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Interestingly, APPL1 undergoes proteasome-mediated degradation through ERK1/2 to turn off signaling. APPL1 degradation is blocked when signaling through the endosome is inhibited by chloroquine or dynasore. Therefore, APPL1 endosomes are critical for IRF3-dependent gene expression in response to some viral and bacterial infections in macrophages. Those signaling pathways involve the signal-induced degradation of APPL1 to prevent aberrant IRF3-dependent gene expression linked to immune diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailMethods to Assess the Activation of the Alternative (Noncanonical) NF-kappaB Pathway by Non-death TNF Receptors.
Remouchamps, Caroline ULg; Dejardin, Emmanuel ULg

in NF-kappa B: Methods and Protocols (2015)

The alternative or noncanonical NF-kappaB pathway regulates the generation of p52-containing NF-kappaB dimers (e.g., p52/RelB) through a partial degradation (called processing) of the precursor p100 into ... [more ▼]

The alternative or noncanonical NF-kappaB pathway regulates the generation of p52-containing NF-kappaB dimers (e.g., p52/RelB) through a partial degradation (called processing) of the precursor p100 into p52. This pathway is activated by a subset of non-death TNF receptor members, which ultimately activate two kinases: NIK (NF-kappaB-Inducing Kinase) and IKKalpha (Inhibitor of kappaB Kinase alpha). These kinases create a phosphodegron for the E3 ligase SCF-beta-TrCP that covalently binds K48-linked polyubiquitin chain onto p100 prior to its proteasomal processing. The resulting p52-containing complexes translocate into the nucleus to activate target genes involved in secondary lymphoid organ development, B cell survival or in osteoclastogenesis.We describe in this chapter straightforward methods to monitor the activation of the alternative NF-kappaB pathway. These methods uncover cytosolic and nuclear biochemical modifications of key proteins of the alternative NF-kappaB pathway required prior to the transcription of NF-kappaB target genes. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecific and Nonhepatotoxic Degradation of Nuclear Hepatitis B Virus cccDNA.
Lucifora, Julie; Xia, Yuchen; Reisinger, Florian et al

in Science (New York, N.Y.) (2014), 343

Current antivirals can control but not eliminate hepatitis-B-virus (HBV), because HBV establishes a stable nuclear cccDNA. Interferon-alpha treatment can clear HBV but is limited by systemic side effects ... [more ▼]

Current antivirals can control but not eliminate hepatitis-B-virus (HBV), because HBV establishes a stable nuclear cccDNA. Interferon-alpha treatment can clear HBV but is limited by systemic side effects. Here, we describe how interferon-alpha can induce specific degradation of the nuclear viral DNA without hepatotoxicity and propose lymphotoxin-beta-receptor activation as a therapeutic alternative. Interferon-alpha and lymphotoxin-beta-receptor activation up-regulated APOBEC3A and 3B cytidine-deaminases, respectively, in HBV-infected cells, primary hepatocytes and human liver-needle biopsies. HBV-core protein mediated the interaction with nuclear cccDNA resulting in cytidine-deamination, apurinic/apyrimidinic site formation and finally cccDNA degradation that prevented HBV-reactivation. Genomic DNA was not affected. Thus, inducing nuclear deaminases - e.g., by lymphotoxin-beta-receptor activation - allows development of new therapeutics that combined with existing antivirals may cure hepatitis B. [less ▲]

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See detailNoncanonical NF-kappaB Signaling Is Limited by Classical NF-kappaB Activity.
Gray, Carolyn M.; Remouchamps, Caroline ULg; McCorkell, Kelly A. et al

in Science signaling (2014), 7(311), 13

Precise regulation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling is crucial for normal immune responses, and defective NF-kappaB activity underlies a range of immunodeficiencies. NF-kappaB is activated ... [more ▼]

Precise regulation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling is crucial for normal immune responses, and defective NF-kappaB activity underlies a range of immunodeficiencies. NF-kappaB is activated through two signaling cascades: the classical and noncanonical pathways. The classical pathway requires inhibitor of kappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta) and NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO), and hypomorphic mutations in the gene encoding NEMO (ikbkg) lead to inherited immunodeficiencies, collectively termed NEMO-ID. Noncanonical NF-kappaB activation requires NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) and IKKalpha, but not NEMO. We found that noncanonical NF-kappaB was basally active in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from NEMO-ID patients and that noncanonical NF-kappaB signaling was similarly enhanced in cell lines lacking functional NEMO. NIK, which normally undergoes constitutive degradation, was aberrantly present in resting NEMO-deficient cells, and regulation of its abundance was rescued by reconstitution with full-length NEMO, but not a mutant NEMO protein unable to physically associate with IKKalpha or IKKbeta. Binding of NEMO to IKKalpha was not required for ligand-dependent stabilization of NIK or noncanonical NF-kappaB signaling. Rather, an intact and functional IKK complex was essential to suppress basal NIK activity in unstimulated cells. Despite interacting with IKKalpha and IKKbeta to form an IKK complex, NEMO mutants associated with immunodeficiency failed to rescue classical NF-kappaB signaling or reverse the accumulation of NIK. Together, these findings identify a crucial role for classical NF-kappaB activity in the suppression of basal noncanonical NF-kappaB signaling. [less ▲]

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See detailRIPK3 contributes to TNFR1-mediated RIPK1 kinase-dependent apoptosis in conditions of cIAP1/2 depletion or TAK1 kinase inhibition
Dondelinger, Yves; Aguileta, M; Goosens, V et al

in Cell Death & Differentiation (2013), 10

Receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 1 and RIPK3 have emerged as essential kinases mediating a regulated form of necrosis, known as necroptosis, that can be induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF ... [more ▼]

Receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 1 and RIPK3 have emerged as essential kinases mediating a regulated form of necrosis, known as necroptosis, that can be induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling. As a consequence, inhibiting RIPK1 kinase activity and repressing RIPK3 expression levels have become commonly used approaches to estimate the contribution of necroptosis to specific phenotypes. Here, we report that RIPK1 kinase activity and RIPK3 also contribute to TNF-induced apoptosis in conditions of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 and 2 (cIAP1/2) depletion or TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) kinase inhibition, implying that inhibition of RIPK1 kinase activity or depletion of RIPK3 under cell death conditions is not always a prerequisite to conclude on the involvement of necroptosis. Moreover, we found that, contrary to cIAP1/2 depletion, TAK1 kinase inhibition induces assembly of the cytosolic RIPK1/Fas-associated protein with death domain/caspase-8 apoptotic TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) complex IIb without affecting the RIPK1 ubiquitylation status at the level of TNFR1 complex I. These results indicate that the recruitment of TAK1 to the ubiquitin (Ub) chains, and not the Ub chains per se, regulates the contribution of RIPK1 to the apoptotic death trigger. In line with this, we found that cylindromatosis repression only provided protection to TNF-mediated RIPK1-dependent apoptosis in condition of reduced RIPK1 ubiquitylation obtained by cIAP1/2 depletion but not upon TAK1 kinase inhibition, again arguing for a role of TAK1 in preventing RIPK1-dependent apoptosis downstream of RIPK1 ubiquitylation. Importantly, we found that this function of TAK1 was independent of its known role in canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. Our study therefore reports a new function of TAK1 in regulating an early NF-κB-independent cell death checkpoint in the TNFR1 apoptotic pathway. In both TNF-induced RIPK1 kinase-dependent apoptotic models, we found that RIPK3 contributes to full caspase-8 activation independently of its kinase activity or intact RHIM domain. In contrast, RIPK3 participates in caspase-8 activation by acting downstream of the cytosolic death complex assembly, possibly via reactive oxygen species generation. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of the Alternative NF-{kappa}B Pathway by Lymphotoxin {alpha}{beta} (LT{alpha}{beta}) Relies on Internalization of LT{beta} Receptor
Ganeff, Corine; Remouchamps, Caroline ULg; Boutaffala, Layla et al

in Molecular & Cellular Biology (2011), 21

Several tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family members activate both the classical and the alternative NF-κB pathways. However, how a single receptor engages these two distinct pathways is still ... [more ▼]

Several tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family members activate both the classical and the alternative NF-κB pathways. However, how a single receptor engages these two distinct pathways is still poorly understood. Using lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) as a prototype, we showed that activation of the alternative, but not the classical, NF-κB pathway relied on internalization of the receptor. Further molecular analyses revealed a specific cytosolic region of LTβR essential for its internalization, TRAF3 recruitment, and p100 processing. Interestingly, we found that dynamin-dependent, but clathrin-independent, internalization of LTβR appeared to be required for the activation of the alternative, but not the classical, NF-κB pathway. In vivo, ligand-induced internalization of LTβR in mesenteric lymph node stromal cells correlated with induction of alternative NF-κB target genes. Thus, our data shed light on LTβR cellular trafficking as a process required for specific biological functions of NF-κB. [less ▲]

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See detailBiology and Signal Transduction pathways of the Lymphotoxin-αβ/LTβR system
Remouchamps, Caroline ULg; Boutaffala, Layla; Ganeff, Corinne et al

in Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews (2011), 22

This review focuses on the biological functions and signalling pathways activated by Lymphotoxin α (LTα)/Lymphotoxin β (LTβ) and their receptor LTβR. Genetic mouse models shed light on crucial roles for ... [more ▼]

This review focuses on the biological functions and signalling pathways activated by Lymphotoxin α (LTα)/Lymphotoxin β (LTβ) and their receptor LTβR. Genetic mouse models shed light on crucial roles for LT/LTβR to build and to maintain the architecture of lymphoid organs and to ensure an adapted immune response against invading pathogens. However, chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, cell death or cancer development are disorders that occur when the LT/LTβR system is twisted. Biological inhibitors, such as antagonist antibodies or decoy receptors, have been developed and used in clinical trials for diseases associated to the LT/LTβR system. Recent progress in the understanding of cellular trafficking and NF-κB signaling pathways downstream of LTα/LTβ may bring new opportunities to develop therapeutics that target the pathological functions of these cytokines. [less ▲]

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See detailThe hidden function of NIK (NF-κB-Inducing Kinase) in cell death
Boutaffala, Layla; Bertrand, Mathieu; Remouchamps, Caroline ULg et al

Conference (2011)

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See detailTNFL–Induced p100 processing (TIPP) relies on the internalization of the cognate TNFR
Ganeff, Corinne; Galopin, Géraldine; Remouchamps, Caroline ULg et al

Conference (2010, January)

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See detailPyrazolo[4,3-c]isoquinolines as potential inhibitors of NF-kappaB activation.
Mortier, Jeremie; Frederick, Raphael; Ganeff, Corinne et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2010), 79(10), 1462-72

In this work, we aimed to build a 3D-model of NIK and to study the binding of pyrazolo[4,3-c]isoquinolines with a view to highlight the structural elements responsible for their inhibitory potency ... [more ▼]

In this work, we aimed to build a 3D-model of NIK and to study the binding of pyrazolo[4,3-c]isoquinolines with a view to highlight the structural elements responsible for their inhibitory potency. However, in the course of this work, we unexpectedly found that the pyrazolo[4,3-c]isoquinolines initially reported as NIK inhibitors were neither inhibitors of this enzyme nor of the alternative NF-kappaB pathway, but were in fact inhibitors of another kinase, the TGF-beta activated kinase 1 (TAK1) which is involved in the classical NF-kappaB pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailTNFR-induced activation of MAP3K14/NIK enhances TNFR1-induced cell death
Boutafalla, Layla; Bertrand, Mathieu; Remouchamps, Caroline ULg et al

Conference (2010)

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See detailInterplay between non-death and death TNFR in inflammation.
Dejardin, Emmanuel ULg

Conference (2010)

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See detailThe lymphotoxin-β receptor induces different patterns of gene expression via two NF-κB pathways
Dejardin, Emmanuel ULg; Droin, Nathalie; Delhase, Mireille et al

Conference (2009, October 30)

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See detailMatrix Metalloproteinase-9 gene induction by a truncated oncogenic NF-κB2 protein involves the recruitment of MLL1 and MLL2 H3K4 histone methyltransferase complexes.
Robert, Isabelle ULg; Aussems, Marie ULg; Keutgens, Aurore ULg et al

in Oncogene (2009), 28(13), 1626-1638

Constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation in haematological malignancies is caused in several cases by loss of function mutations within the coding sequence of NF-kappaB inhibitory molecules such ... [more ▼]

Constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation in haematological malignancies is caused in several cases by loss of function mutations within the coding sequence of NF-kappaB inhibitory molecules such as IkappaBalpha or p100. Hut-78, a truncated form of p100, constitutively generates p52 and contributes to the development of T-cell lymphomas but the molecular mechanism underlying this oncogenic potential remains unclear. We show here that MMP9 gene expression is induced through the alternative NF-kappaB-activating pathway in fibroblasts and also on Hut-78 or p52 overexpression in fibroblasts as well as in lymphoma cells. p52 is critical for Hut-78-mediated MMP9 gene induction as a Hut-78 mutant as well as other truncated NF-kappaB2 proteins that are not processed into p52 failed to induce the expression of this metalloproteinase. Conversely, MMP9 gene expression is impaired in p52-depleted HUT-78 cells. Interestingly, MLL1 and MLL2 H3K4 methyltransferase complexes are tethered by p52 on the MMP9 but not on the IkappaBalpha promoter, and the H3K4 trimethyltransferase activity recruited on the MMP9 promoter is impaired in p52-depleted HUT-78 cells. Moreover, MLL1 and MLL2 are associated with Hut-78 in a native chromatin-enriched extract. Thus, we identified a molecular mechanism by which the recruitment of a H3K4 histone methyltransferase complex on the promoter of a NF-kappaB-dependent gene induces its expression and potentially the invasive potential of lymphoma cells harbouring constitutive activity of the alternative NF-kappaB-activating pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailThe prevention of spontaneous apoptosis of follicular lymphoma B cells by a follicular dendritic cell line: involvement of caspase-3, caspase-8 and c-FLIP.
Goval, Jean-Jacques; Thielen, Caroline ULg; Bourguignon, Caroline et al

in Haematologica (2008), 93(8), 1169-77

BACKGROUND: Follicular lymphoma, the neoplastic counterpart of germinal center B cells, typically recapitulates a follicular architecture. Several observations point to the crucial role of the cellular ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Follicular lymphoma, the neoplastic counterpart of germinal center B cells, typically recapitulates a follicular architecture. Several observations point to the crucial role of the cellular microenvironment in the development and/or progression of follicular lymphoma cells in vivo. The aim of our study was to characterize the spontaneous apoptosis of follicular lymphoma cells in vitro, and the modulation of this apoptosis by follicular dendritic cells. DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a cell line derived from follicular dendritic cells to model the functional interactions of these cells and lymphoma cells in co-culture. Follicular lymphoma cells were isolated from tissue biopsies. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry and apoptotic pathways were investigated by western blotting. RESULTS: The spontaneous apoptosis of follicular lymphoma cells in vitro involves the activation of caspases-3 and -8 but not of caspase-9, occurs despite persistent high levels of BCL-2 and MCL-1, and is associated with down-regulation of c-FLIP(L). Spontaneous apoptosis of follicular lymphoma cells is partially prevented by co-culture with the follicular dendritic cells, which prevents activation of caspase-8, caspase-3 and induces an upregulation of c-FLIP(L). Using neutralizing antibodies, we demonstrated that interactions involving CD54 (ICAM-1), CD106 (VCAM-1) and CD40 are implicated in this biological process. CONCLUSIONS: Follicular dendritic cells constitute a useful tool to study the functional interactions between follicular lymphoma cells and follicular dendritic cells in vitro. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in these protective interactions may lead to the identification of therapeutic agents that might suppress the survival and growth of follicular lymphoma cells. [less ▲]

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See detailDeregulated expression of pro-survival and pro-apoptotic p53-dependent genes upon Elongator deficiency in colon cancer cells.
Cornez, Isabelle ULg; Creppe, Catherine ULg; Gillard, Magali ULg et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2008), 75

Elongator, a multi-subunit complex assembled by the IkappaB kinase-associated protein (IKAP)/hELP1 scaffold protein is involved in transcriptional elongation in the nucleus as well as in tRNA ... [more ▼]

Elongator, a multi-subunit complex assembled by the IkappaB kinase-associated protein (IKAP)/hELP1 scaffold protein is involved in transcriptional elongation in the nucleus as well as in tRNA modifications in the cytoplasm. However, the biological processes regulated by Elongator in human cells only start to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that IKAP/hELP1 depleted colon cancer-derived cells show enhanced basal expression of some but not all pro-apoptotic p53-dependent genes such as BAX. Moreover, Elongator deficiency causes increased basal and daunomycin-induced expression of the pro-survival serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase (SGK) gene through a p53-dependent pathway. Thus, our data collectively demonstrate that Elongator deficiency triggers the activation of p53-dependent genes harbouring opposite functions with respect to apoptosis. [less ▲]

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See detailLipopolysaccharide-mediated interferon regulatory factor activation involves TBK1-IKK epsilon-dependent lys(63)-linked polyubiquitination and phosphorylation of TANK/I-TRAF
GATOT, Jean-Stéphane ULg; Gioia, Romain ULg; Chau, Tieu-Lan ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2007), 282(43), 31131-31146

Type I interferon gene induction relies on IKK-related kinase TBK1 and IKK epsilon-mediated phosphorylations of IRF3/7 through the Toll-like receptor-dependent signaling pathways. The scaffold proteins ... [more ▼]

Type I interferon gene induction relies on IKK-related kinase TBK1 and IKK epsilon-mediated phosphorylations of IRF3/7 through the Toll-like receptor-dependent signaling pathways. The scaffold proteins that assemble these kinase complexes are poorly characterized. We show here that TANK/ITRAF is required for the TBK1- and IKK epsilon-mediated IRF3/7 phosphorylations through some Toll-like receptor-dependent pathways and is part of a TRAF3-containing complex. Moreover, TANK is dispensable for the early phase of double-stranded RNA-mediated IRF3 phosphorylation. Interestingly, TANK is heavily phosphorylated by TBK1-IKK epsilon upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation and is also subject to lipopolysaccharide- and TBK1-IKK epsilon-mediated Lys(63)-linked polyubiquitination, a mechanism that does not require TBK1-IKK epsilon kinase activity. Thus, we have identified TANK as a scaffold protein that assembles some but not all IRF3/7-phosphorylating TBK1-IKK epsilon complexes and demonstrated that these kinases possess two functions, namely the phosphorylation of both IRF3/7 and TANK as well as the recruitment of an E3 ligase for Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of their scaffold protein, TANK. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther insights in the mechanisms of interleukin-1beta stimulation of osteoprotegerin in osteoblast-like cells
Lambert, Cécile ULg; Oury, Cécile ULg; Dejardin, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2007), 22(9), 1350-1361

The mechanisms of IL-1beta stimulation of OPG were studied in more detail. Whereas p38 and ERK activation was confirmed to be needed, NF-kappaB was not necessary for this regulation. We also found that ... [more ▼]

The mechanisms of IL-1beta stimulation of OPG were studied in more detail. Whereas p38 and ERK activation was confirmed to be needed, NF-kappaB was not necessary for this regulation. We also found that OPG production after IL-1beta stimulation was not sufficient to block TRAIL-induced apoptosis in MG-63 cells. INTRODUCTION: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) plays a key role in the regulation of bone resorption and is stimulated by interleukin (IL)-1beta. Herein, we defined the mechanisms of IL-1beta stimulation of OPG focusing on the potential involvement of MAPK and NF-kappaB. We also examined whether OPG production in response to IL-1beta influences TRAIL-induced apoptosis in MG-63 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OPG mRNA levels in MG-63 cells were quantified by real-time RT-PCR and protein levels of OPG and IL-6 by ELISA. Cell viability was assessed using the methyltetrazidium salt (MTS) reduction assay. The role of the MAPK pathway was studied by both Western blotting and the use of specific chemical inhibitors. NF-kappaB function was studied using BAY 11-7085 and by siRNA transfection to inhibit p65 synthesis. Transcription mechanisms were analyzed by transiently transfecting MG-63 cells with OPG promoter constructs. Post-transcriptional effects were examined by using cycloheximide and actinomycin D. RESULTS: MG-63 cells treatment with IL-1beta resulted in the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). The use of the specific inhibitors showed that p38 and ERK but not JNK were needed for IL-1beta-induced OPG production. In contrast, NF-kappaB was not essential for IL-1beta induction of OPG. We also showed a small transcriptional and a possible post-transcriptional or translational regulation of OPG by IL-1beta. Exogenous OPG blocked TRAIL-induced apoptosis, but IL-1beta induction of OPG did not influence TRAIL-induced cell death. CONCLUSIONS: IL-1beta stimulates OPG production by mechanisms dependent on p38 and ERK. In contrast, NF-kappaB was not essential for this regulation. Although the relevance of IL-1beta stimulation of OPG is still not fully understood, our data showed that IL-1beta stimulation of OPG does not modify TRAIL-induced cell death. [less ▲]

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